FACTOID # 4: Just 1% of the houses in Nevada were built before 1939.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Labours of Hercules
"Hercules and the hydra" by Antonio Pollaiuolo
"Hercules and the hydra" by Antonio Pollaiuolo

The Twelve Labours of Hercules (Greek: dodekathlos) are a series of archaic episodes connected by a later continuous narrative, concerning a penance carried out by the greatest of the Greek heroes Herakles, romanised as Hercules. The establishment of a fixed cycle of twelve labours was attributed by the Greeks to an epic poem, now lost, written by Peisandros of Rhodes, dated about 600 BC (Burkert). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 427 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2212 pixel, file size: 449 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lernaean Hydra ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 427 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2212 pixel, file size: 449 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Lernaean Hydra ... The 16th-century German illustrator has been influenced by the Beast of Revelation in his depiction of the Hydra. ... Apollo and Daphne by Antonio Pollaiuolo Antonio di Jacopo Pollaiuolo (c. ... For other uses, see Penance (disambiguation). ... For the son of Alexander the Great, see Heracles (Macedon). ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC - 600s BC - 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC 550s BC Events and Trends Fall of the Assyrian Empire and Rise of Babylon 609 BC _ King Josiah...


As they survive, the Labours of Hercules are not told in any single place, but must be reassembled from many sources. Ruck and Staples[1] assert that there is no one way to interpret the labours or the French say CHEESE, but that six were located in the Peloponnese, culminating with the rededication of Olympia. Six others took the hero farther afield. In each case, the pattern was the same: Hercules was sent to kill or subdue, or to fetch back for Hera's representative Eurystheus a magical animal or plant. "The sites selected were all previously strongholds of Hera or the 'Goddess' and were Entrances to the Netherworld".[1] Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... Eurystheus hiding in a jar as Herakles brings him the Erymanthian boar. ...


A famous depiction of the labours in Greek sculpture is found on the metopes of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, which date to the 450s BC. In classical architecture, a metope is the rectangular blank spaces on the surface between two triglyphs on a Doric frieze which were often decorated with carvings. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ...

Contents

The framing narrative

Zeus, having made Alcmene pregnant with Hercules, proclaimed that the next son born of the house of Perseus would become king. Hera, Zeus' wife, hearing this, caused Eurystheus to be born two months early as he was of the house of Perseus, while Hercules, also of the house, was three months overdue. When he found out what had been done, Zeus was furious; however, his rash proclamation still stood. For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology Alcmene, or Alkmênê (might of the moon) was the mother of Heracles. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Eurystheus hiding in a jar as Herakles brings him the Erymanthian boar. ...


In a fit of madness, induced by Hera, Hercules slew his wife, Megara, and their three children; the fit then passed. Realizing what he had done, he isolated himself, going into the wilderness and living alone. He was found (by his cousin Theseus) and convinced to visit the Oracle at Delphi to regain his honor. The Oracle told him that as a penance he would have to perform a series of ten tasks, or labours, set by King Eurystheus, the man who had taken Hercules' birthright and the man he hated the most. For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... This article is about prophetic oracles in various cultures. ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... Eurystheus hiding in a jar as Herakles brings him the Erymanthian boar. ...

Heracles, holding aloft his club, drags Cerberus out of Hades. Right: Persephone, left: Hermes and Athena. For full explanation, see image summary.
Heracles, holding aloft his club, drags Cerberus out of Hades. Right: Persephone, left: Hermes and Athena. For full explanation, see image summary.

Image File history File links 12th_labour_of_Heracles_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_19119. ... Image File history File links 12th_labour_of_Heracles_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_19119. ... Alcides redirects here. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... This is the Greek name of the capital of the Hellenic Republic (Greece). ... Image File history File links 12th_labour_of_Heracles_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_19119. ...

The labours

In his labours, Hercules was often accompanied by a male companion (an eromenos), according to Licymnius and others, such as Iolaus, his nephew. Although he was only supposed to perform ten labours, this assistance led to him suffering two more. Eurystheus didn't count the Hydra, because Iolaus helped him, or the Augean stables, as he received payment for his work, or because the rivers did the work. In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... In Greek mythology, Licymnius was a good friend of Heracles and a son of Electryon. ... In Greek mythology, Iolaus (Greek: ΄Ιόλαος) was a son of Iphicles and thus a nephew of Heracles. ... Eurystheus hiding in a jar as Herakles brings him the Erymanthian boar. ...


A traditional order of the labours found in Apollodorus[2] is: Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ...

  1. Slay the Nemean Lion and bring back its hide.
  2. Slay the 9-headed Lernaean Hydra.
  3. Capture the Golden Stag of Artemis.
  4. Capture the Erymanthian Boar.
  5. Clean the Augean stables in a single day.
  6. Slay the Stymphalian Birds.
  7. Capture the Cretan Bull.
  8. Steal the Mares of Diomedes.
  9. Obtain the Girdle of the Amazon warrior queen Hippolyte.
  10. Obtain the Cattle of the Monster Geryon.
  11. Steal the Apples of the Hesperides, which were strictly guarded by a 100-headed serpent-dragon called Ladon.
  12. Capture Cerberus, the guardian dog of Hades, using no weapons and bring him back.

The Nemean Lion (Latin: Leo Nemaeus) was a vicious monster in Greek mythology that lived in Nemea. ... The 16th-century German illustrator has been influenced by the Beast of Revelation in his depiction of the Hydra. ... The Ceryneian Hind, also called Cerynitis, was an enormous hind sacred to Artemis, the chaste goddess of the hunt and moon. ... Hercules Carrying the Boar by Giambologna In Greek mythology, the Erymanthian Boar is remembered in connection with The Twelve Labours, in which Heracles, the (reconciled) enemy of Hera, visited in turn all the other sites of the Goddess throughout the world, to conquer every conceivable monster of nature and rededicate... In Greek mythology, Augeas (or Augeias, Greek: Αυγείας), whose name means bright, was King of Elis and husband of Epicaste. ... In Greek mythology, the Stymphalian Birds were birds with claws of brass and sharp metallic feathers they could launch at their victims, and also they were Ares pets. ... Heracles capturing the Cretan Bull. ... Heracles capturing the Mares of Diomedes. ... In Greek mythology, Hippolyta is the Amazonian queen who possessed a magical girdle she was given by her father Ares, the god of war. ... Heracles fighting Geryon, amphora by the E Group, ca. ... For the ancient Greek city Hesperides see Benghazi. ... This article is about the mythical three-headed dog. ...

Inner meaning

Walter Burkert has called the labors and other myths of Hercules "a conglomerate of popular tales which was exploited only secondarily by the high art of poetry", and it was not until the fifth century that poets of the Classic age could draw the myth into "a tragic, heroic, and human atmosphere and away from its natural thrust outwards to a carefree realm beyond the human" (Burkert 1985:208). As philosophical, moral, and eventually allegorical overlays came to be applied to his death-cheating superhuman exploits, behind their outer, literal meaning, the Hercules figure came to represent an inner mystical tradition, and thus the labors could be interpreted in terms of the spiritual path. The last three labors (10-12) of Heracles are generally considered metaphors about death. Hercules was unique among Greek heroes in that no tomb of Hercules was ever localized, and the Olympian sacrifices and chthonic libations were offered simultaneously to him everywhere. Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ...


Geographic locations

Pointing to a possible location for their origin, or at least their formalisation, is the fact that most of the geographic locations are located in, or on the borders of what was classical Arcadia (today's prefecture of Arcadia is smaller). This article is about a region of Greece. ...

  • Town and prominent archeological site of Nemea, southwest of Corinthos, prefecture of Corinthia.
  • Lake Lerna at the Argolic Gulf gradually silted up, its last remnants were drained. It is now a fertile alluvial bay. The strong Karst springs between the villages Mili (archeological:Lerna) and Kefalari now irrigate fruit plantations.
  • The Mountain Erymanthos, currently called Olonos, prefecture of Achaea, Peloponnese.
  • Town Ceryneia, prefecture of Achaea.
  • Lake Stymphalia, ca. 20km northwest of Nemea. In ancient times a birds' domain. An extraordinary Karst formation. The lake is a law-protected preserve for endangered habitats and species (Natura 2000), prefecture of Corinthia.
  • The River Alphaeus feeds the bay of Elis, and drains the north western mountains.
  • The City of Sparta, southern Peloponnese, prefecture of Laconia.
  • The Island of Crete, a sea trading nation.

Nemea (Gr. ... Delaware River Watershed The Delaware River is a river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. ... Corinthia (Greek: Κορινθία, Korinthía) is the area around the city of Corinth. ... The Argolic Gulf (Greek: Αργολικός Κόλπος Argolikós Kólpos) is a small gulf off the east coast of the Peloponnese, Greece, opening into the Aegean Sea. ... Karst topography is a three-dimensional landscape shaped by the dissolution of a soluble layer or layers of bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone or dolomite. ... Myloi or Myli, Mili (Greek: Μύλοι), is a village and the seat of the municipality of Lerna in the southwestern part of the prefecture of Argolis. ... For the municipality, see Myloi (Argolida), Greece, the seat of the municipality of Lerna In classical Greece, Lerna was a region of springs and a former lake near the east coast of the Peloponnesus, south of Argos. ... Achaea (Greek: , Achaïa; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient province and a present prefecture of Greece, on the northern coast of the Peloponnese, stretching from the mountain ranges of Erymanthus and Cyllene on the south to a narrow strip of fertile land on the... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Achaea (Greek: , Achaïa; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an ancient province and a present prefecture of Greece, on the northern coast of the Peloponnese, stretching from the mountain ranges of Erymanthus and Cyllene on the south to a narrow strip of fertile land on the... Silver obolus from Stymfalia depicting Heracles on obverse, Stymphalian bird and inscription ΣΤΥΜΦΑΛΙΑ on reverse. ... Karst topography is a three-dimensional landscape shaped by the dissolution of a soluble layer or layers of bedrock, usually carbonate rock such as limestone or dolomite. ... NATURA 2000 is a project by the European Union and each of its member states to protect the environment. ... Corinthia (Greek: Κορινθία, Korinthía) is the area around the city of Corinth. ... An engraving by Bernard Picart depicting a scene from Ovids Metamorphoses in which Alpheus attempts to capture the nymph Arethusa. ... Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Laconia (; see also List of traditional Greek place names), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a prefecture in Greece. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...

Modern popular culture

The Twelve Labours have been spoofed a number of times in comic books: A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...

  • Asterix starred in his own Twelve Tasks, since the original were "outdated"
  • Monica, a popular Brazilian character, fought the "original" 12 labours, with a few changes[1]
  • In a French comic strip of the 1960s, a time-travelling Mickey Mouse assisted Hercules, often employing modern techniques such as a music-playing pocket radio to subdue Cerberus.
  • In a 1970s story arc, Wonder Woman underwent her own twelve labours to demonstrate her fitness to rejoin the Justice League of America. Each of these tasks was monitored by an incumbent member of the League.
  • In a 1995 Marvel Comics mini-series, Heracles undertook modernized versions of his twelve labours, often with comedic results.

Howard Waldrop also reset the Twelve Labours to the Depression-era American South in his novella A Dozen Tough Jobs. This article is about the comic book series. ... The Twelve Tasks of Asterix (Les Douze travaux dAstérix) is an animated featured film released in 1976 starring Asterix, the Gaul. ... Monicas Gang (originally titled Turma da Mônica in Portuguese) is a popular Brazilian comic book series. ... Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. ... This article is about the mythical three-headed dog. ... For other uses, see Wonder Woman (disambiguation). ... The Justice League is a DC Comics superhero team. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article is about the comic book company. ... Howard Waldrop (born September 15, 1946) in Houston, Mississippi, and got his degree from the University of Texas. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Novella by Howard Waldrop (published by Mark V. Ziesing in 1989) which retells the 12 Labors of Hercules in the Depression-era American South. ...


Agatha Christie used the twelve labours as allegories for the last twelve cases that her detective Hercule Poirot would solve before his retirement in the 1947 short story collection The Labours of Hercules. (He didn't retire until Curtain in 1975.) Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, DBE (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), commonly known as Agatha Christie, was an English crime fiction writer. ... Poirot redirects here. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Labours of Hercules is a short story collection written by Agatha Christie. ... Curtain: Poirots Last Case is a work of detective fiction by Agatha Christie and first published in the UK by the Collins Crime Club in September 1975 and in the US by Dodd, Mead and Company later in the same year. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The alternate reality game Perplex City involves a puzzle card entitled The Thirteenth Labour, which is likely a reference to the Twelve Labours of Heracles (as this puzzle is one of the few still unsolved by any participant, the allusion to a "herculean effort" may well be appropriate). Alternate Reality, see Alternate Reality (computer game). ... Perplex City is a long-term alternate reality game (ARG) presented by Mind Candy, a London-based development team. ... The Thirteenth Labour is the name of a puzzle card associated with Perplex City, an alternate reality game created by the British company Mind Candy. ...


In the Japanese anime Fate/stay night, the antagonist Illyasviel von Einzbern's servant Berserker, whose true name is Hercules, can not die until he is killed twelve times. When explaining this, Illyasviel makes a direct reference to The Twelve Labours of Hercules. Animé redirects here. ... Original run January 6, 2006 – June 16, 2006 Episodes 24 Fate/stay night ) is a Japanese eroge visual novel game created by Type-Moon, which was originally released on January 30, 2004. ... Illyasviel von Einzbern Illyasviel von Einzbern, often referred to as Ilya, is a character from the Japanese visual novel and anime series Fate/stay night by TYPE-MOON. Due to her white-blonde hair and red eyes, she is often considered as an albino. ... For other uses, see Hercules (disambiguation). ...


In the Japanese anime Heroic Age, the savior of humanity is a boy named Age who is a Nodos, or a being merged with one of the Heroic Tribe. The Heroic Bellcross must complete Twelve Labors for humanity (aka the Iron Tribe) by decree of the Golden Tribe, the galaxy's previous elder race. Age's superhuman strength, as well as Bellcross' inhuman strength (on a solar flare scale), is a direct parallel to Hercules. Animé redirects here. ... Heroic Age ) is a mecha based anime directed by Toshimasa Suzuki. ...


Grant Morrison and Frank Quitely 's "All Star Superman" series revolves around the 12 Labours Of Superman -- a progression that may or may not (as of this writing) lead to the hero's death. Grant Morrison (born January 31, 1960) is a Scottish comic book writer and artist. ... Frank Quitely Frank Quitely (born January 18, 1968) is the professional pseudonym of Scottish comic book artist Vincent Deighan. ... All Star Superman, launched in November 2005, is an ongoing comic book series featuring Superman, written by Grant Morrison, drawn by Frank Quitely, digitally inked by Jamie Grant and published by DC Comics. ...


Michael E. Arth, in The Labors of Hercules: Modern Solutions to 12 Herculean Problems, compares the Twelve Labors to twelve modern problems that humans must solve. Michael E. Arth, born on April 27, 1953, is an American artist, home/landscape/urban designer, futurist, and author. ...


The storyline for the video game God of War is largely similar to the story of Hercules and the 12 Labours. This article is for the PlayStation 2 game. ...


The metal band Myth & Symbol wrote a song called The Labors of Hercules[citation needed] .


See also

From the dawn of time, poop observed the sky and grouped stars into patterns or constellations. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Ruck, Carl; Danny Staples (1994). The World of Classical Myth. Durham, NC, USA: Carolina Academic Press, 169. 
  2. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke 2.5.1-2.5.12.

The Bibliotheke was renowned as the chief work of Greek historian and scholar. ...

References

Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Michael E. Arth, born on April 27, 1953, is an American artist, home/landscape/urban designer, futurist, and author. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Twelve Labours
Alcides redirects here. ... The Nemean Lion (Latin: Leo Nemaeus) was a vicious monster in Greek mythology that lived in Nemea. ... The 16th-century German illustrator has been influenced by the Beast of Revelation in his depiction of the Hydra. ... The Ceryneian Hind, also called Cerynitis, was an enormous hind sacred to Artemis, the chaste goddess of the hunt and moon. ... Hercules Carrying the Boar by Giambologna In Greek mythology, the Erymanthian Boar is remembered in connection with The Twelve Labours, in which Heracles, the (reconciled) enemy of Hera, visited in turn all the other sites of the Goddess throughout the world, to conquer every conceivable monster of nature and rededicate... In Greek mythology, Augeas (or Augeias, Greek: Αυγείας), whose name means bright, was King of Elis and husband of Epicaste. ... In Greek mythology, the Stymphalian Birds were birds with claws of brass and sharp metallic feathers they could launch at their victims, and also they were Ares pets. ... Heracles capturing the Cretan Bull. ... Heracles capturing the Mares of Diomedes. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Heracles fighting Geryon, amphora by the E Group, ca. ... For the ancient Greek city Hesperides see Benghazi. ... This article is about the mythical three-headed dog. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
HERCULES, HIS LABOURS, HIS DEATH, HIS APOTHESIS - Gods, Goddesses and Supernatural Beings - Greek gods and heroes, and ... (3497 words)
Hercules was taught to drive a chariot by Amphitryon, to wrestle by Autolycus, to shoot with the bow by Eurytus, to fence by Castor, and to play the lyre by Linus.
The king entertained him for fifty days, and each night, as Hercules went forth to the hunt, Thespius bedded one of his daughters with him (fifty daughters having been borne to him by Megamede, daughter of Arneus); for he was anxious that all of them should have children by Hercules.
Hercules found him at the gates of Acheron, and, cased in his cuirass and covered by the lion's skin, he flung his arms round the head of the brute, and though the dragon in its tail bit him, he never relaxed his grip and pressure till it yielded.
The Labours of Hercules quiz -- free game (510 words)
The eighth Labour of Hercules was "The Horses of Diomedes".
The ninth Labour of Hercules was "The Girdle of Hyppolita".
The tenth Labour of Hercules was "The Flock of Geryon".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m