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Encyclopedia > Labour movement

The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. Labour unions and trade unions are common names for the specific collective organizations within societies, organized for the purpose of representing the interests of workers and the working class. Many elite-class individuals and political groups may also be active in and part of the labour movement. The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Labour law (American English: labor) or employment law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which addresses the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of individuals associated through employment, or labour. ...


In some countries including the United Kingdom and Australia the term is widely used to describe both a "political wing" and an "industrial wing". In Britain these are the Labour Party and Trades Union Congress (TUC) collectively. The Labour Party was created, as the Labour Representation Committee as a result of an 1899 resolution of the TUC, though in modern times, particularly since the election of Tony Blair as leader of the Labour Party in 1994, the alliance is seen to be much looser and a number of unions have broken their formal ties with the party. The Labour Party is an Anti-English political party in the United Kingdom. ... Image:TradeUnionsCongress20050108 CopyrightKaihsuTai. ... The Labour Representation Committee (LRC) was formed on February 27, 1900, at a conference at which representatives of the main socialist groupings in the United Kingdom were present. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ...

Part of a series on

Organized Labour

The Labour Movement
New Unionism · Proletariat
Social Movement Unionism
Syndicalism · Socialism
Labour timeline
Labour Rights
Child labour · Eight-hour day
Occupational safety and health
Collective bargaining
Trade Unions
Trade unions by country
Trade union federations
International comparisons
ITUC · WFTU · IWA
Strike Actions
Chronological list of strikes
General strike · Sympathy strike
Sitdown strike · Work-to-rule
Trade Unionists
César Chávez · Samuel Gompers
Jimmy Hoffa · A. Philip Randolph
Ken Saro-Wiwa · Lowell girls
James Larkin · Bob White

more names Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... New Unionism is a term which has been used twice in the history of the labour movement, both times involving moves to broaden the union agenda. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Social Movement Unionism is a trend of theory and practice in contemporary trade unionism. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... Timeline of organized labor history 1790s - 1800s - 1810s - 1820s - 1830s - 1840s - 1850s - 1860s - 1870s - 1880s - 1890s - 1900s - 1910s - 1920s - 1930s - 1940s - 1950s - 1960s - 1970s - 1980s 1797 (United States) Profit sharing originated at Albert Gallatins glass works in New Geneva, Pennsylvania. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... Child labour or labor is the phenomenon of children in employment. ... The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (a. ... Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. ... A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of individuals associated through employment, or labour. ... This is a list of trade unions and union federations by country. ... This is a list of federations of trade unions. ... The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) is the worlds largest trade union federation. ... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ... The International Workers Association (IWA) (Spanish: AIT - Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores, and in German: IAA-Internationale ArbeiterInnen Assoziation) is an international anarcho-syndicalist federation of various labour unions from different countries. ... See also general strike, or for other uses see: strike (disambiguation). ... The following is a list of deliberate absence from work related to specific working conditions (strikes) or due to general unhappiness with the political order (general strikes). ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... A sympathy strike is a labour strike that is initiated by workers in one industry and supported by workers in a separate but related industry. ... A sitdown strike is a form of civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers, usually employed at a factory or other centralized location, take possession of the workplace by sitting down at their stations, effectively preventing their employers from replacing them with scab labor or, in some cases... Work-to-rule is a job action in which employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of a workplace, and follow safety or other regulations to the letter in order to cause a slowdown. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of individuals associated through employment, or labour. ... César Estrada Chávez (March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993) was a Mexican American (Chicano) farm worker, labor leader, and civil rights activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. ... Samuel Gompers (January 26, 1850 - December 13, 1924) was an American labor and political leader. ... For other uses, see Hoffa (disambiguation). ... Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a prominent twentieth century African-American civil rights leader and founder of the first black labor union in the U.S. // Randolph was born in Crescent City, Florida. ... Kenule Beeson Saro-Wiwa (October 10, 1941 - November 10, 1995) was a Nigerian author, television producer and environmental activist. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Statue of James Larkin on OConnell Street, Dublin (Oisín Kelly 1977) James (Big Jim) Larkin (Irish: Séamas Ó Lorcáin)(1874-1947), an Irish trade union leader and socialist activist, was born in Liverpool, England on 28 January 1874, of Irish parents. ... Binomial name Colinus virginianus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Bobwhite Quail or Northern Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, is a ground_dwelling bird native to North America. ...

Academic Disciplines
Labour in economics
Labour history (discipline)
Industrial relations
Labour law
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Contents

In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Labor history (or labour history) is a broad field of study concerned with the development of the labor movement and the working class. ... A Boeing employee speaks at a trade union rally The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. ... This article is in need of attention. ...

History

In Europe, the labour movement began during the industrial revolution, when agricultural jobs declined and employment moved to more industrial areas. The idea met with great resistance. In the 18th century and early 19th century, groups such as the Tolpuddle Martyrs of Tolpuddle, Dorset were punished and deported for forming unions, which was against the laws of the time. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late 18th century and early 19th century in some Western countries. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of 19th century British labourers led by John Barnwell who were arrested for and convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. ... Tolpuddle is a small village. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dÉ”.sÉ™t], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ...


Throughout the world, action by the labour movement has led to reforms and workers' rights, such as the 2-day weekend, minimum wage, paid holidays, and the achievement of the eight-hour day for many workers. There have been many important labour activists in modern history who have caused changes that were revolutionary at the time and are now regarded as basic. For example, Mary Harris Jones, better known as Mother Jones, was central in the campaign to end child labour in the United States during the early 20th century. An active and free labour movement is considered by many to be an important element in maintaining democracy and for economic development. Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... Week End The weekend is a part of the week lasting one or two days in which most paid workers do not work. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... For other uses, see Holiday (disambiguation). ... The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (a. ... Mary Harris Jones (August 1, 1837 – November 30, 1930), better known as Mother Jones, was a prominent American labor and community organizer, and Wobbly. ... Child laborers coming out of a dye factory, Dhaka, Bangladesh Child labor (or child labour) is the employment of children under an age determined by law or custom. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Development of labour movements within nation states

Historically labour markets have often been constrained by national borders that have restricted movement of workers. Labour laws are also primarily determined by individual nations or states within those nations. While there has been some efforts to adopt a set of international labour standards throughout the International Labour Organization (ILO), international sanctions for failing to meet such standards are very limited. In many countries labour movements have developed independently and reflect those national boundaries. The Australian labour movement is an example of a labour movement that has grown and existed in a particular national context. Construction workers generally work long hours for their pay Labor economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market and dynamics for labor. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856 University of Melbourne site where Stonemasons won the 8 hour day in 1856 The history of the Australian labour movement reaches back to the 19th century and the movement has a long tradition of organised unions of workers and links to political activity. ...


Development of an international labour movement

With ever increasing levels of international trade and rising influence of multinational corporations, there has been debate and action within the labour movement broadly to attempt international co-operation. This has led to renewed efforts to organize and collectively bargain internationally. A number of international union organizations have been established in an attempt to facilitate international collective bargaining, to share information and resources and to advance the interests of workers generally.


List of national labour movements

Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856 University of Melbourne site where Stonemasons won the 8 hour day in 1856 The history of the Australian labour movement reaches back to the 19th century and the movement has a long tradition of organised unions of workers and links to political activity. ... Labor unions in the United States today function as legally recognized representatives of workers in numerous industries, but are strongest among public sector employees such as teachers and police. ...

See also

Organized Labour Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The activism industry is composed of organizations and individuals who make a living from activism, involvement in action to bring about change. ... American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL-CIO, is a national trade union center, the largest federation of unions in the United States, made up of 54 national and international unions (including Canadian), together representing more than 10 million workers. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of philosophies and attitudes which reject any form of compulsory government[1] and support its elimination,[2] often because of a wider rejection of involuntary authority. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the left-right political spectrum. ... Filippo Turati (1857- ) was an Italian Socialist leader, born at Canzo (Como). ... til the development of wage labour. ... Labour law (American English: labor) or employment law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which addresses the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856 The Eight-hour day movement, also known as the Short-time movement, had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life and imposed long hours and poor working conditions. ... Living wage refers to the minimum hourly wage necessary for a person to achieve a basic standard of living. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... New Unionism is a term which has been used twice in the history of the labour movement, both times involving moves to broaden the union agenda. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... A cultural critic is a critic of a given culture, usually as a whole and typically on a radical basis; a social critic of a given society, but the overlap is large. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... Freelancers Union Logo Freelancers Union is a non-profit organization in the United States that represents the needs and concerns of the independent workforce through advocacy, information, and service. ... Fair Labor Association (FLA) (a non-profit designed to complement existing international and national labor laws) International Centre for Trade Union Rights(an organizing and campaigning body for trade unions and trade unionists. ...

Further reading

  • Robert N. Stern, Daniel B. Cornfield, The U.S. labor movement:References and Resources, G.K. Hall & Co 1996
  • John Hinshaw and Paul LeBlanc (ed.), U.S. labor in the twentieth century : studies in working-class struggles and insurgency, Amherst, NY : Humanity Books, 2000
  • Philip Yale Nicholson, Labor's story in the United States, Philadelphia, Pa. : Temple Univ. Press 2004 (Series ‘Labor in Crisis’), ISBN 1-59213-239-1
  • Beverly Silver: Forces of Labor. Worker's Movements and Globalization since 1870, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-52077-0
  • St. James Press Encyclopedia of Labor History Worldwide, St. James Press 2003 ISBN 1-55862-542-9
  • Lenny Flank (ed), IWW: A Documentary History, Red and Black Publishers, St Petersburg, Florida, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9791813-5-1

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Labour Movement in India (2052 words)
The official labour statistics despite their many limitations can be useful in assessing the status of the labour movement in the country.
The year 1973-74 saw the heyday of the Indian labour movement; as many as 47% of all workers in the country were involved in strike action in 1974.
But this movement seems to have affected a limited sector of the class as the percentage of all workers participating in the strikes is less than 10%.
Labour movement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (601 words)
The labour movement (or labor movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations.
Labour unions and trade unions are common names for the specific collective organizations within societies, organized for the purpose of representing the interests of workers and the working class.
The Australian labour movement is an example of a labour movement that has grown and existed in a particular national context.
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