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Encyclopedia > Labour (childbirth)
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Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence of a newborn infant from its mother's uterus. Birth is the process in animals by which an offspring is expelled from the body of its mother. ... Jump to: navigation, search Binomial name Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies Homo sapiens idaltu (extinct) Homo sapiens sapiens For other uses, see Human (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryos or feti by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies. ... A human infant The word infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... Jump to: navigation, search Look up mother on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Female internal reproductive anatomy The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ...


A woman is considered to be in labour when she begins experiencing regular, strong uterine contractions, accompanied by changes of her cervix — primarily effacement and dilation. While childbirth is widely experienced as painful, some women do report painless labours. When the baby is born its birth weight is determined. Birth weight is the weight of a baby at its birth. ...

Stages of labour
Stages of labour

Contents

Image File history File links This image is in the public domain because it contains materials that originally came from the US National Institutes for Health. ...


The normal birth

First stage: contractions

A typical human childbirth will begin with the onset of contractions of the uterus. The frequency and duration of these contractions varies with the individual. The onset of labour may be sudden or gradual. A gradual onset with slow cervical change towards 3 cm (just over 1 inch) dilation is referred to as the "latent phase". A woman is said to be in "active labour" when contractions have become regular in frequency (3-4 in 10 minutes) and about 60 seconds in duration. The now powerful contractions are accompanied by cervical effacement and dilation greater than 3 cm. The labour may begin with a rupture of the amniotic sac, the paired amnion and chorion ("breaking of the water"). The contractions will accelerate in frequency and strengthen. In the "transition phase" from 8 cm–10 cm (3 or 4 inches) of dilation, the contractions often come every two minutes are typically lasting 70–90 seconds. Transition is often regarded as the most challenging and intense for the mother. Some mothers say things like "I give up, I want to stop now. Forget this!" It is also the shortest phase. CM or cm may stand for: Cameroon (ISO country code) Roman numeral for 900 Chelmsford: CM is the British post code for the region in eastern England which is served by the Chelmsford postal sorting office. ... Mid-19th century tool for converting between different standards of the inch An inch is an Imperial and U.S. customary unit of length. ... The amniotic sac is a tough but thin transparent pair of membranes, which hold a developing embryo (and later fetus) until shortly before birth. ...


During a contraction the long muscles of the uterus contract, starting at the top of the uterus and working their way down to the bottom. At the end of the contraction, the muscles relax to a state shorter than at the beginning of the contraction. This draws the cervix up over the baby's head. Each contraction dilates the cervix until it becomes completely dilated, often referred to as 10+ cm (4") in diameter. Female internal reproductive anatomy The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... Female internal reproductive anatomy Close up view of the ectocervix and external os Schematic frontal view of female anatomy The cervix (from Latin neck) is actually the lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina. ... Cervical dilation is the dilation (widening) of the cervix during childbirth. ...


During this stage, the expectant mother typically goes through several emotional phases. At first, the mother may be excited and nervous. Then, as the contractions become stronger, demanding more energy from the mother, mothers generally become more serious and focused. However, as the cervix finishes its dilation, some mothers experience confusion or bouts of self-doubt or giving up.


The duration of labour varies widely, but averages some 13 hours for women giving birth to their first child ("primiparae") and 8 hours for women who have already given birth.


If there is a significant medical risk to continuing the pregnancy, induction may be necessary. As this carries some risk, it is only done if the child or the mother are in danger from prolonged pregnancy. 42 weeks gestation without spontaneous labour is often said to be an indication for induction although evidence does not show improved outcomes when labour is induced for post-term pregnancies. Inducing labour increases the risk of cesarean section and uterine rupture in mothers that have had a previous cesarean section. Induction is a way of artificially bringing on labour in a woman. ...


Second stage

In the second stage of labour, the baby is expelled from the womb through the vagina by both the uterine contractions and by the additional maternal efforts of "bearing down". The imminence of this stage can be evaluated by the Malinas score. From wiki pt. ... From wiki pt. ... Jump to: navigation, search A caesarean section (cesarean section AE), or C-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. ... Female internal reproductive anatomy The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... Jump to: navigation, search Human female internal reproductive anatomy. ... The Malinas score is an evaluation that allows to determine whether a pregnant woman is about to give birth. ...


The baby is most commonly born head-first. In some cases the baby is "breech" meaning either the feet or buttocks are descending first. Babies in the breech position can be delivered vaginally by a midwife, though in some areas finding an experienced willing attendant can be difficult. A Breech birth (also known as breech presentation) refers to the position of the baby in the uterus such that it will be delivered buttocks first as opposed to the normal head first position. ... Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than physicians, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ...


There are several types of breech presentations, but the most common is where the baby's buttocks are delivered first and the legs are folded onto the baby's body with the knees bent and feet near the buttocks (full or breech). Others include frank breech, much like full breech but the babies legs are extended toward his ears, and footling or incomplete breech, in which one or both legs are extended and the foot or feet are the presenting part. Another rare presentation is a transverse lie. This is where the baby is sideways in the womb and a hand or elbow has entered the birth canal first. While babies who present transverse will often move to a different position, this is not always the case.


The length of the second stage varies and is affected by whether a woman has given birth before, the position she is in and mobility. The length of the second stage should be guided by the condition of the fetus and health of the mother. Problems may be encountered at this stage due to reasons such as maternal exhaustion, the front of the baby's head is facing forwards instead of backwards (posterior baby), or extremely rarely, because the baby's head does not fit properly into the mother's pelvis (Cephalo-Pelvic Disproportion (CPD)). True CPD is typically seen in women with rickets and bone deforming illnesses or injuries, as well as arbitrary time limits placed on second stage by caregivers or medical facilities. Jump to: navigation, search Fetus at eight weeks Foetus redirects here. ... Jump to: navigation, search X-ray of the legs in a two-year-old child with rickets Rickets is a disorder of infancy and early childhood of multiple etiologies. ...


Immediately after birth, the child undergoes extensive physiological modifications as it acclimatizes to independent breathing. Several cardiovascular structures start regressing soon after birth, such as the ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale. In some cultures, the father cuts the umbilical cord and the infant is given a lukewarm bath to remove blood and some of the vernix on its skin before being handed back to its parents. Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Jump to: navigation, search The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus (DA) is a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch that allows much of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus fluid-filled lungs. ... In the fetal heart, the foramen ovale allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium. ... Newborn at 45 seconds. ... Vernix, also known as Vernix caseosa, is the waxy or cheesy white substance found coating the skin of newborn humans. ...


The medical condition of the child is assessed with the Apgar score, based on five parameters: heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, skin color, and response to stimuli. Apgar scores are typically assessed at both 1 and 5 minutes after birth. The Apgar score was devised in 1952 by Virginia Apgar as a simple and repeatable method to quickly and summarily assess the health of newborn children immediately after childbirth. ...


Third stage: placenta

Newborn with suctioning and umbilical cord
Newborn with suctioning and umbilical cord

In this stage, the uterus expels the placenta (afterbirth). Nursing the baby will help to cause this. The mother normally loses less than 500 mL of blood. Blood loss will be greater if the umbilical cord be used to tug on the placenta. It is essential that the whole placenta be examined to insure that it was expelled whole. Remaining parts can cause postpartum bleeding or infection. Download high resolution version (1200x1025, 934 KB)Newborn with suctioning and umbilical cord Taken 1:08 a. ... Download high resolution version (1200x1025, 934 KB)Newborn with suctioning and umbilical cord Taken 1:08 a. ... Newborn at 45 seconds. ... Human placenta shown a few minutes after birth. ... The millilitre (spelled milliliter in American English and German) is a metric unit of volume that is equal to one thousandth of a litre. ...


After the birth

Breastfeeding a baby moments after a completely unassisted birth
Enlarge
Breastfeeding a baby moments after a completely unassisted birth

Medical professionals typically recommend breastfeeding of the first milk, colostrum, to reduce postpartum bleeding/hemorrhage in the mother, and to pass immunities and other benefits to the baby. Jump to: navigation, search A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is when a woman feeds an infant or young child with milk produced from her breasts, usually directly from the nipples. ... Colostrum (also known as beestings) is a form of milk produced by the mammary glands in late pregnancy and the first hours after giving birth. ...


Parents usually assign the infant its given names soon after birth. A name is a label for a thing, person, place, product (as in a brand name) and even an idea or concept, normally used to distinguish one from another. ...


Often people visit and bring a gift for the baby. This page is about the computer software giFT. For other uses, see gift (disambiguation) giFT stands for giFT: Internet File Transfer. ...


Many cultures feature initiation rites for newborns, such as naming ceremonies, baptism, and others. Initiation rites are formalized, ceremonial rites of passage as an individual moves from stage to stage within a social career or formally acquires such status. ... Jump to: navigation, search Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and has its origins with the Jewish ritual of tahara. ...


Mothers are often allowed a babymoon period where they are relieved of their normal duties to recover from childbirth and establish breastfeeding with their babies. Length of this period varies. In China this is 30 days and is referred to as "doing the month".


A birth story may be written, detailing the events of the birth. The story may be posted to a blog or web forum. Jump to: navigation, search A weblog or blog (derived from web + log) is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles (normally, but not always, in reverse chronological order). ... Gaia Online, the largest English language forum-based community as of April 2005 — powered by a modified version of phpBB. An Internet forum is a web application which provides for discussion, often in conjunction with online communities. ...


Variations

When the amniotic sac has not ruptured during labour or pushing, the infant can be born with the membranes intact. This is referred to as "being born in the caul." The caul is harmless and its membranes are easily broken and wiped away by the doctor or midwife assisting with the childbirth. In medieval times, and in some cultures still today, a caul was seen as a sign of good fortune for the baby, in some cultures was seen as protection against drowning. The caul was often impressed onto paper and stored away as an heirloom for the child. With the advent of modern interventive obstetrics, premature artificial rupture of the membranes has become common, so babies are rarely born in the caul. A caul is a thin, filmy membrane, the remnants of the amniotic sac, that covers or partly covers the newborn mammal immediately after birth. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... An heirloom in general is any old item or antique passed down from one generation to another. ... A caul is a thin, filmy membrane, the remnants of the amniotic sac, that covers or partly covers the newborn mammal immediately after birth. ...


Pain

The amounts of pain experienced by women during childbirth vary. For some women, the perceived pain is intense and agonizing; for other women there is little to no perceived pain. Many factors affect pain perception, including cultural ideas of childbirth, fear, number of previous births, fetal presentation, birthing position, and a woman's natural pain threshold. Uterine contractions are always intense during childbirth, but a woman may or may not experience them as pain.


Some women sleep through much of the labor. Rarely, mothers experience very pleasurable sensations and muscular contractions which they believe to be orgasms.


Pain does serve a purpose. Pain directs a person to change behavior, often to reduce injury. For example, pain may direct a woman to squat or to get on all fours. It may direct her to push or to wait. It may direct her to reach down to adjust the position of an emerging baby. When pain is suppressed, the woman can not respond to this natural signal.


Non-medical pain control

Many women believe that reliance on analgesic medication is unnatural, or worry that it may harm the child, but are still very concerned about labour pain. To alleviate pain, they may undergo psychological preparation, education, massage, hypnosis, water therapy in a tub or shower. Most women also find helpful the emotional support and comfort measures by a friend, husband, partner, or a trained professional doula. Birthing in a squatting or crawling position will usually help, though the position is awkward for observers. These methods present no risk to the mother or baby, and many find them effective. A doula is a non-medical assistant in prenatal care, childbirth and during the postpartum period. ...


Medical pain control

In Europe, doctors commonly prescribe inhaled nitrous oxide gas for pain control; in the UK, midwives may use this gas without a doctor's prescription. Pethidine (with or without promethazine) may be used early in labour, as well as other opioids; if given too late, they may cause respiratory depression in the infant. World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nitrous oxide, also known as dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide, is a chemical compound with chemical formula N2O. Under room conditions it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant, slightly sweet odor. ... Pethidine (INN) or meperidine (USAN) (also referred to as: isonipecaine; lidol; operidine; pethanol; piridosal; Algil®; Alodan®; Centralgin®; Demerol®; Dispadol®; Dolantin®; Dolestine®; Dolosal®; Dolsin®; Mefedina®) is a fast-acting opioid analgesic drug. ... Promethazine (sold as Phenergan and Promethegan) is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist (antihistamine) and anti-nausea medication available by prescription in the United States, and over-the-counter in the United Kingdom. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ...


Popular medical pain control in hospitals include regional anesthetics (epidural blocks, or spinal anaesthesia); these anesthetics are often used for pain control, and are a necessity for Cesarean surgery, unless the patient undergoes general anesthetic. Doctors favor the epidural block because medication does not enter the mother's circulatory system, thus it does not cross the placenta and enter the bloodstream of the fetus. The epidural space is a part of the human spine which is very close to the spinal cord, lying just outside the dura mater. ... Spinal anaesthesia is a form of local, or more specifically regional, anaesthesia involving injection of a local anaesthetic into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), generally through a long fine needle. ... A general anaesthetic drug is an anaesthetic (or anesthetic AE) drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness. ...


Different measures for pain control have varying degrees of success and side effects to mother and baby. Administration must be carefully timed. For example, an epidural block given too early in labour can stop or slow labour, and given too late in labour can hinder maternal efforts to push out the baby. These risks should be balanced against the fact that childbirth can be extremely painful, and anesthetics are an effective and generally safe pain treatment.


Complications and Risks of Birth

Problems that occur during childbirth are called complications. They can affect the mother or the baby. Sometimes they cause injury or even death. Doctors and midwives are trained to deal with these problems should they occur.


Infant deaths (neonatal deaths from birth to 28 days, or perinatal deaths if including fetal deaths at 28 weeks gestation and later) are around 1% in modernized countries. The risk of maternal death during childbirth in developed nations is comparatively low; only about 1 in 1800 mothers die in childbirth (only 1 in 3700 in North America). In the third-world, it is a much riskier proposition: on average 1 in 48 women die during childbirth.[1] The "natural" mortality rate of childbirth — where nothing is done to avert maternal death — has been estimated as being between 1,000 and 1,500 deaths per 100,000 births.[2]


The most important factors affecting mortality in childbirth are adequate nutrition and access to quality medical care ("access" is affected both by the cost of available care, and distance from health services). "Medical care" in this context does not refer specifically to treatment in hospitals, but simply the presence of an attendant with midwifery skills. A 1983-1989 study by the Texas Department of Health revealed that the infant death rate was 0.57% for doctor-attended births, and 0.19% for births attended by non-nurse midwives. Conversely, some studies demonstrate a higher perinatal mortality rate with assisted home births [3]. It is generally accepted that in developed countries, properly assisted home births carry no greater risks than hospital birth for low-risk pregnancies. Around 80% of pregnancies are low-risk. Factors that may make a birth high risk include prematurity, high blood pressure, diabetes and previous cesarean section.


One of the most dangerous risks to the fetus is that of premature birth, and its associated low neonatal weight. The more premature (or underweight) a baby is, the greater the risks for neonatal death and for pulmonary, respiratory, neurological or other sequelae. About 12% of all infants born in the United States are born prematurely. In the past 25 years, medical technology has greatly improved the chances of survival of premature infants in industrialized nations. In the 1950s and 1960s, approximately half of all low birth weight babies in the US died. Today, more than 90% survive. The first hours of life for "premies" are critical, especially the very first hour of life. Rapid access to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit is of paramount importance. Premature birth (also known as preterm birth) is defined medically as birth occurring earlier than 37 completed weeks of gestation. ... A newborn infant sleeping in his incubator. ...


Some of the possible complications are:

  • Heavy bleeding during or after childbirth, which is the most common cause of mortality in new mothers, in both developed and undeveloped nations.[4] Heavy blood loss leads to hypovolemic shock, insufficient perfusion of vital organs and death if not rapidly treated by stemming the blood loss (medically with ergometrine and pitocin or surgically) and blood transfusion. Hypopituitarism after obstetric hypovolemic shock is termed Sheehan's syndrome.
  • Non-progression of labour (longterm contractions without adequate cervical dilation) is generally treated with intravenous synthetic oxytocin preparations. If this is ineffective, Caesarean section may be necessary. Changes in maternal position is effective in many cases.
  • Fetal distress is the development of signs of distress by the child. These may include rising or decreasing heartbeat (monitored on cardiotocography/CTG), shedding of meconium in the amniotic fluid, and other signs.
  • Non-progression of expulsion (the head or presenting parts are not delivered despite adequate contractions): this can require interventions such as vacuum extraction, forceps extraction or Caesarean section.
  • In the past, a large proportion of women died from infection puerperal fever, but since the introduction of basic hygiene during parturition by Ignaz Semmelweis, this number has fallen precipitously.
  • Lacerations can be painful. An episiotomy is occasionally necessary to avoid tears involving the anal sphincter, but its routine use - once normal - has now been shown to be harmful.

In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume. ... Pitocin is the synthetic version of the hormone oxytocin, which is produced by pregnant women to cause the uterine contractions that precipitate childbirth. ... Blood transfusion is the taking of blood or blood-based products from one individual and inserting them into the circulatory system of another. ... Hypopituitarism is a medical term describing deficiency (hypo) of one or more hormones of the pituitary gland. ... Sheehan syndrome, also known as Simmonds disease, postpartum hypopituitarism or postpartum pituitary necrosis is hypopituitarism (decreased functioning of the pituitary gland), caused by necrosis due to blood loss and hypovolemic shock during and after childbirth. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Oxytocin is a hormone, found in humans and other mammals, which is involved in the facilitation of birth and breastfeeding as well as in bonding and the formation of trust between people. ... Jump to: navigation, search A caesarean section (cesarean section AE), or C-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. ... In medicine (obstetrics), fetal distress is the presence of signs in a pregnant woman - before or during childbirth - that the fetus is not well or is becoming excessively fatigued. ... Jump to: navigation, search In medicine, a persons pulse is the throbbing of their arteries as an effect of the heart beat. ... In medicine (obstetrics) cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of recording (-graphy) the fetal heartbeat (cardio-) and the uterine contractions (-toco-) during childbirth. ... Meconium from 12-hour-old newborn — the babys third bowel movement. ... Puerperal fever, also called childbed fever, is caused by infection of the genital tract shortly after giving birth. ... Ignaz Semmelweis on an old Austrian postage stamp Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (originally Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis) (July 1, 1818 - August 13, 1865) was the Hungarian physician who demonstrated that puerperal fever (also known as childbed fever) was contagious and that its incidence could be drastically reduced by enforcing... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Medio-lateral episiotomy as baby crowns. ...

Professions associated with childbirth

Midwives are experts in normal birth. Midwives believe that childbirth is a normal process that is best accomplished with as little interference as possible. Midwives are trained to assist at births, either through direct-entry or nurse-midwifery programs. Lay midwives typically train in apprenticeship programs with experienced midwives. Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than physicians, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ...


Obstetricians are experts in dealing with normal births as well as abnormal births and pathological labour conditions. Obstetricians in most countries are also trained as surgeons, so they can undertake surgical procedures relating to childbirth. Such procedures include caesarean sections, episiotomies, or emergency hysterectomies. Obstetricians' tendency to intervene surgically to overcome complications has led to criticism that they perform surgery too readily. In the United States, obstetric malpractice settlements are typically very large, so obstetricians argue that they are forced to intervene aggressively to limit their liability. Jump to: navigation, search Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, to stand by) is the surgical specialty dealing with the care of a woman and her offspring during pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium (the period shortly after birth). ... Jump to: navigation, search A caesarean section (cesarean section AE), or C-section, is a form of childbirth in which a surgical incision is made through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies. ... Medio-lateral episiotomy as baby crowns. ... A hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus, usually done by a gynecologist. ...


In the United States, a doctor who specializes in caring for women with pregnancy complications is often referred to as a maternal-fetal medicine sub-specialist.


Obstetric nurses assist doctors, mothers, and babies prior to, during, and after the birth process. Some midwives are also obstetric nurses. Obstetric nurses hold various certifications, and typically undergo additional obstetric training in addition to standard nursing training. Nursing is a discipline focused on assisting individuals, families and communities in attaining, re-attaining and maintaining optimal health and functioning. ...


Social aspects

In some cultures, childbirth is considered to be the beginning of a person's life, and a person's age is defined relative to it. Jump to: navigation, search Life is a multi-faceted concept. ...


Many families view the placenta as a special part of birth, since it has been the child's life support for so many months. Many parents like to see and touch this mysterious organ. In some cultures, parents plant a tree along with the placenta on the child's first birthday. The placenta may be eaten by the newborn's family, ceremonially or otherwise. Jump to: navigation, search A birthday is the date on which a person was born. ... Rat eating its offsprings placenta after birth Placentophagy is the term used to describe the act of mammals eating the placenta of their young after childbirth. ...


The oldest American woman known to give birth was Arceli Keh, aged 63. In November 2004 Aleta St. James, a 56 year old single mother gave birth to twins conceived through in vitro fertilization. In 2005, a 67 year old Romanian woman gave birth by cesarean to one surviving twin. Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Legal aspects

In some legal jurisdictions, the place of childbirth decides the nationality of a child (under the doctrine of Jus soli) Nationality is, in English usage, a legal relationship existing between a person and a state. ... Jus soli (Latin for right of the territory) is a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state. ...


Psychological aspects

Childbirth is a stressful event. As with any stressful event, strong emotions can be brought to the surface. Some women report symptoms compatible with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after birth. Between 70 and 80% of mothers in the United States report some feelings of sadness or "baby blues" after childbirth. Postpartum depression may develop in some women; about 10% of mothers in the United States are diagnosed with PPD. Jump to: navigation, search Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for the psychological consequences of exposure to or confrontation with stressful experiences, which involve actual or threatened death, serious physical injury or a threat to physical and/or psychological integrity and which the person found highly traumatic. ... After giving birth, about 70-80% of women experience an episode of baby blues, feelings of depression, anger, anxiety and guilt lasting for several days. ...


Preventative group therapy has proven effective as a prophylactic treatment for postpartum depression.[5]


References

  1. ^  "Perinatal death associated with planned home birth in Australia: population based study". BMJ. 317(7155):384-8. URL accessed on May 28, 2005.
  2. ^  Van Lerberghe W, De Brouwere V. Of blind alleys and things that have worked: history’s lessons on reducing maternal mortality. In: De Brouwere V, Van Lerberghe W, eds. Safe motherhood strategies: a review of the evidence. Antwerp, ITG Press, 2001 (Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy, 17:7–33).
  3. ^  Safer Motherhood Fact Sheet: Maternal Mortality
  4. ^  World Health Organization 2005 World Health Report, Chapter 4: Risking Death To Give Life.
  5. ^  Zlotnick C, Johnson SL, Miller IW, Pearlstein T, Howard M. Postpartum depression in women receiving public assistance: pilot study of an interpersonal-therapy-oriented group intervention, Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Apr;158(4):638-40. [PMID 11282702]

May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2005 (MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Childbirth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3272 words)
Childbirth (also called labo(u)r, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence of a newborn infant from its mother's uterus.
The labour may begin with a rupture of the amniotic sac, the paired amnion and chorion ("breaking of the water").
In the second stage of labour, the baby is expelled from the womb through the vagina by both the uterine contractions and by the additional maternal efforts of "bearing down," which many women describe as similar in sensation to straining to expel a large bowel movement.
Labour - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (117 words)
Labour (economics), one of the three main factors of production.
Childbirth, especially the period from the start of uterine contractions to delivery.
Organized labour, in the form of trade unions
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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