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Encyclopedia > Labor camp

A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. labor camps have many common aspects with slavery and with prisons. Conditions at labor camps vary widely depending on the operators. Penal labour is a form of the unfree labour. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


During Stalinism, labor camps in the Soviet Union were officially called "Corrective labor camps." The term labor colony; more exactly, "Corrective labor colony", (исправительно-трудовая колония, ИТК), was also in use and referred to camps that housed prisoners with shorter average sentences.


The labor camp was a way for the Soviet Union to stop the population from rebelling, and it was a tool of fear. For example, insulting the KGB was considered an act of treason, and with that alone one could end up working in a labor camp for a few years. The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ...

Contents

Notable labor camps

  • Imperial Russia operated a system of remote Siberian forced labor camps as part of its regular judicial system, called katorga. Though conditions were difficult, they were mild compared to the later Stalinist camps [citation needed].
  • Soviet Russia took over the already extensive katorga system and expanded it immensely, eventually organizing the Gulag to run the camps. These camps were notorious for their extremely rough conditions; new prisoner death rate was as high as 80% at some camps. During and after the Great Purges, the Gulag camps housed millions of prisoners. Stalin used them both as a source of cheap labor, and as indirect extermination camps. In 1954, a year after Stalin's death, the new Soviet government of Nikita Khrushchev began to release political prisoners and close down the camps. By the end of the 1950s, virtually all "corrective labor camps" were dissolved. Officially, the Gulag was terminated by the MVD order 20 of January 25, 1960.
  • During the early 20th century, the Empire of Japan used the forced labor of millions of civilians from conquered countries and prisoners of war, especially during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War, on projects such as the Death Railway. Hundreds of thousands of people died as a direct result of the overwork, malnutrition, preventable disease and violence which were commonplace on these projects. (See also: Japanese war crimes.)
  • During World War II the Nazis operated several categories of Arbeitslager for different categories of inmates. The largest number of them held civilians forcably abducted in the occupied countries (see Łapanka) to provide labor in the German war industry, repair bombed railroads and bridges or work on farms. By 1944 19.9% of all workers were foreigners, either civilians or prisoners of war[1]
The Nazis also operated concentration camps , some of which provided free forced labor for industrial and other jobs while others existed purely for the extermination of their inmates. A notable example is Mittelbau-Dora labor camp complex that serviced the production of the V-2 rocket. See List of German concentration camps for more.
  • The Allies of World War II operated a number of work camps after the war. In the Yalta conference it was agreed that German forced labor was to be utilized as reparations. The majority of the camps were in the Soviet Union, but more than 1,000,000 Germans were forced to work in French coal-mines and British agriculture, as well as 500,000 in U.S. run Military Labor Service Units in occupied Germany itself. (John Dietrich, The Morgenthau Plan: Soviet Influence on American Postwar Policy (2002) ISBN 1-892941-90-2) (See also: Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union)
  • The Communist Party of China has operated many labor camps for some kinds of crimes. Many leaders of China were put into labor camps after purges, including Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi. As a matter of fact, hundreds - if not thousands - of labor camps still exist in modern day China, housing political prisoners and dissidents along side dangerous criminals.
  • The Khmer Rouge operated labor camps in Cambodia following their seizure of power, for the "rehabilitation" of the (loosely defined) bourgeois classes. The death toll was astonishing, numbering up to three million in that small, sparsely populated nation.
  • In Communist Romania, labor camps were operated for projects such as the building of the Danube-Black Sea Canal and the desiccation of the Great Brăila Island, on which "enemies of the people" were "re-educated" by forced labor. Between 1949 and 1953, forty to sixty thousand prisoners were held in labor camps along the Canal at any given time. Most of the people that worked on such projects never got out alive.
  • In North Korea, labor camps are widespread. The conditions in these camps are probably just as bad as the Gulags that existed during Stalin's reign in the Soviet Union. In North Korea there is no freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, or petition. Citizens do not have the right to bear arms, nor the right for protection from the military or from unreasonable searches and seizures. When trials take place, they are not run by a citizen jury, but by state officials. If any law is declared by the government to be violated, no matter how minimal, the convicted violator will most likely have two fates: execution or a lengthy sentence to penal labor. According to several defectors, the government will also send the families of the offenders to labor camps as well.
  • In former North Vietnam, labor camps were widespread. During North Vietnam's war with the United States labor camps were used extensively by the communist government for its war effort. After the war and reunification in 1975, the victorious North sent thousands of South Vietnamese citizens and military officers into labor camps. This act served three purposes: (1) To punish the Western collaborators. (2) To help rebuild the nation. (3) To reeducate them with communist ideals (See also: Reeducation camp.). These camps, however, appear to be vanquished in present day Vietnam. Due to the economic, political, and social reforms the country has been experiencing, political prisoners are far less common.

Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia. ... Katorga (ка́торга, from Greek: katergon (galley)) was a system of penal servitude in Imperial Russia. ... Joseph Stalin. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (and largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared... Katorga (ка́торга, from Greek: katergon (galley)) was a system of penal servitude in Imperial Russia. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) is an acronym for Главное Управление Исправительно—Трудовых Лагерей и колоний, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey i kolonii, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps and Colonies of the NKVD. Anne Applebaum, in her book Gulag: A History, explains: // Literally, the word GULAG is an acronym, meaning Glavnoe Upravlenie Lagerei, or Main Camp... The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... The extermination camps is a loaded term which is used for the facilities established by Nazi Germany in World War II. Under the T4 euthanasia program the gas was used for the killing of the handicapped. ... 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: ; English: Nikita Sergeevič Hruŝëv; IPA: ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17, 1894 [O.S. April 5]–September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Modern emblem of Russian MVD Russian Gendarme officers in the 1860s The Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del (MVD) (Министерство внутренних дел) was the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the imperial Russia, later USSR, and still bears the same name in the Russian Federation. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Anthem: Kimi Ga Yo Imperial Reign Slogan: Fukoku Kyohei Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military Imperial Japan at its fullest extent during World War II Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Korean (in the Korean Peninsula) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1912 Meiji Emperor HIM Mutsuhito  - 1912-1926 Taisho Emperor HIM... Combatants Republic of China Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Tse-Tung, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Zhu De, He Yingqin Hideki Tojo, Matsui Iwane, Jiro Minami, Kesago Nakajima, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura. ... Combatants Republic of China U.S.A. (from 1941) U.K. (from 1941) Australia (1941) Netherlands (1941) New Zealand (1941) Canada (1941) U.S.S.R. (from 1945) Empire of Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, Josef Stalin (from 1945) Hideki Tojo The Pacific War was... The Bridge over the river Kwai Map of the Death Railway The Death Railway (known also as Thai-Burma Railway or Burma Railway) was a railway built from Thailand to Burma (now Myanmar) by the Japanese during World War II to complete the route from Bangkok to Rangoon and support... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism, from the late 19th century until 1945. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Arbeitslager is a German language word which means Labor camp. ... Łapanka (literally Catching game) was a nick-name applied to the German policy in occupied Poland during World War II. In Å‚apankas the forces of SS, Wehrmacht and Gestapo rounded up civilians on the streets of Polish cities and took all of them as prisoners. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Prior to and during World War II Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager or KZ) throughout the territory it controlled. ... The extermination camps were the facilities established by Nazi Germany in World War II initially for the killing of the Jews of Europe as part of what was later deemed The Holocaust. ... Categories: Stub | Nazi concentration camps ... The A4 (Aggregat 4) alias V-2 rocket or Vergeltungswaffe 2 (Reprisal weapon 2) was an early ballistic missile used by the German Army against mostly Belgian and British targets during the later stages of World War II. The V2 rocket became the first man-made object launched into space... The following is a list of German concentration camps during World War II. are marked with pink, while major concentration camps of are marked with blue. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Categories: Stub | 1948 Arab-Israeli War | Israeli-Palestinian conflict ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the wartime meeting from February 4, 1945 to February 11, 1945 between the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union — Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin, respectively. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (official name, though almost universally known in English as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zhōngguó GòngchÇŽndÇŽng) is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys... In history and political science, to purge is to remove undesirable people from a government, political party, profession, or from community/society as a whole, usually by violent means. ... Deng Xiaoping with US President Jimmy Carter Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Dèng XiÇŽopíng; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 劉 (Liu) Liu Shaoqi (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liú Shàoqí; Wade-Giles: Liu Shao-chi) (November 24, 1898 – November 12, 1969) was a Chinese Communist leader. ... Some of the Khmer Rouge leadership during their period in power. ... The Soviets pressed for inclusion of Romanias heretofore negligible Communist Party in the post-war government, while non-communist political leaders were steadily eliminated from political life. ... The Danube-Black Sea Canal is a canal in Romania which runs from Cernavodă on the Danube to Agigea (southern arm) and Năvodari (northern arm) on the Black Sea. ... The Great Brăila Island (Insula Mare a Brăilei, formerly Balta Mare a Brăilei, the Great Brăila Pond) is an island on the Danube river in the Brăila County, Romania. ... Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Л&#1072... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN), or less commonly, Vietnamese Democratic Republic (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cá»™ng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi, September 2nd1945 and was recognized by the Peoples Republic of China and the... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... pwtha This iconic image shows South Vietnamese civilians scrambling to board a United States military helicopter during the U.S. evacuation of Saigon. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Official language Vietnamese Capital Saigon Last President Duong Van Minh Last Prime Minister Vu Van Mau Area  - Total  - % water 173,809 km² N/A Population  - Total  - Density 19,370,000 (1973 est. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Reeducation camp is the official name given to the prison camps operated by the government of Vietnam following the end of the Vietnam War. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara or el Che, was an Argentine-born Marxist revolutionary, political figure, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba. ... General Fulgencio Batista y Zaldívar (pronounced ) (January 16, 1901 – August 6, 1973) was the de facto military leader of Cuba from 1933 to 1940 and the de jure President of Cuba from 1940 to 1944. ...

References

  1. ^ Forced Laborers in the "Third Reich" - By Ulrich Herbert

See also

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Civilian Inmate Labor Program is a program of the U.S. Army provided by Army Regulation 210-35[1]. The regulation, first drafted in 1997 and went under a rapid act revision in January 2005, provides policy for the creation of labor programs and prison camps on Army installations. ...

External links

  • Forced Laborers in the "Third Reich" - By Ulrich Herbert

  Results from FactBites:
 
Labor camp - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (812 words)
A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor.
The labor camp was a way for the Soviet Union to stop the population from rebelling, and it was a tool of fear.
In Communist Romania, labour camps were operated for projects such as the building of the Danube-Black Sea Canal and the desiccation of the Great Brăila Island, on which enemies of the regime were "re-educated" by forced labour.
Gulag - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3773 words)
The term "corrective labor camp" was suggested for official use by the politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union session of July 27, 1929, as a replacement of the term concentration camp, commonly used until that time.
It was not uncommon for the survivors of Nazi camps to be transported directly to the Soviet labour camps.
Camp guards were also given stern incentive to keep their inmates in line at all costs; if a prisoner escaped under a guard's watch, the guard would often be stripped of his uniform and become a Gulag inmate himself.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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