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LSD
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(6aR,9R)-N,N-diethyl-7-methyl-4,6,6a,7,8,9-
hexahydroindolo-[4,3-fg]quinoline-9-carboxamide
Identifiers
CAS number 50-37-3
ATC code  ?
PubChem 5761
Chemical data
Formula C20H25N3O 
Mol. mass 323.43 g/mol
SMILES search in eMolecules, PubChem
Synonyms LSD, LSD-25, lysergide, d-lysergic acid diethylamide, N,N-diethyl-d-lysergamide
Physical data
Melt. point 80 °C (176 °F)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism hepatic
Half life 3 hours
Excretion renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

X(AU) X(US) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1534x1093, 206 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): LSD User:Acitrano Portal:Neuroscience/Featured article archive ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Atomic mass 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated MM) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... Look up Synonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... Anthem: Advance Australia Fair Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Canberra Largest city Sydney Official languages English (de facto 1) Government Constitutional monarchy (federal)  - Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor-General Michael Jeffery  - Prime Minister John Howard Independence from the UK   - Constitution 1 January 1901   - Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Legal status

Prohibited (S9)(AU) Schedule IV(CA) Class A(UK) Schedule I(US) The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons, abbreviated SUSDP, is a document used in the regulation of drugs and poisons in Australia. ... Anthem: Advance Australia Fair Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Canberra Largest city Sydney Official languages English (de facto 1) Government Constitutional monarchy (federal)  - Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor-General Michael Jeffery  - Prime Minister John Howard Independence from the UK   - Constitution 1 January 1901   - Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931... The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ... Motto: (Latin for From Sea to Sea) Anthem: O Canada Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Ottawa Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Government Parliamentary democracy and federal constitutional monarchy  - Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor General Michaëlle Jean  - Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment    - British North America Act... The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 is an Act of Parliament, by which the United Kingdom aims to control the possession and supply of numerous drugs and drug-like substances, as listed under the Act, and to enable international co-operation against illegal drug trafficking. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Routes Oral, Intravenous, Transdermal

Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. And is a semisynthetic psychedelic drug. It is synthesized from lysergic acid derived from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye. The short form LSD comes from the German "Lysergsäure-diethylamid". In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... A semisynthetic or partial chemical synthesis uses compounds isolated from natural sources (e. ... Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and some plants. ... Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses. ...


LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine, especially in solution (though its potency may last years if it is stored away from light and moisture at low temperature). In pure form it is colorless, odorless and mildly bitter. LSD is typically delivered orally, usually on a substrate such as absorbent blotter paper, a sugar cube, or gelatin. In its liquid form, it can be administered by intramuscular or intravenous injection, or even in the form of eye-drops. In its blotter paper form, it is popularly taken by placing the "tab" under the users tongue for up to 20 minutes. The threshold dosage level for an effect on humans is of the order of 20 to 30 micrograms. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... UV redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ... Dissolving table salt in water This article is about a chemical solution; for other uses of the term solution, see solution (disambiguation). ... Magnified view of refined sugar crystals. ...


Introduced by Sandoz Laboratories as a drug with various psychiatric uses, LSD quickly became a therapeutic agent that appeared to show great promise. However, the extra-medical use of the drug in Western society in the middle years of the twentieth century led to a political firestorm that resulted in the banning of the substance for medical as well as recreational and spiritual uses. Despite this, it is still considered a promising drug in some intellectual circles, and organizations such as MAPS, Heffter Research Institute and the Albert Hofmann Foundation exist to fund, encourage and coordinate research into its medical uses. Sandoz Laboratories was a Swiss pharmaceutical company, best known for inventing LSD in 1938 and later marketing it as a psychiatric drug under the trade name Delysid. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... Psychedelic psychotherapy refers to psychotherapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... Hallucinogenic drugs or hallucinogens are drugs that can alter sensory perceptions, elicit alternate states of consciousness, or cause hallucinations. ... The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a non-profit organization that aims to assist scientists to design, fund, obtain approval for and report on studies into the risks and benefits of MDMA, psychedelic drugs and marijuana. ... The Heffter Research Institute was founded in 1993 to support and promote investigation into the medical uses of psychedelic hallucinogens. ... Dr. Dr. Albert Hofmann (born January 11, 1906) is a prominent Swiss scientist best known as the father of LSD. He was born in Baden, Switzerland, and studied chemistry at the University of Zürich. ...

Contents

Origins and history

Perforated blotter paper, soaked with LSD solution then dried, as illustrated above, is one popular form of dispensing the drug.
Main article: History of LSD

LSD was first synthesized on April 7, 1938 by Swiss chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland, as part of a large research program searching for medically useful ergot alkaloid derivatives. Its psychedelic properties were unknown until 5 years later, when Hofmann, acting on what he has called a "peculiar presentiment," returned to work on the chemical. He attributed the discovery of the compound's psychoactive effects to the accidental absorption of a tiny amount through his skin on April 16, which led to him testing a larger amount (250 µg) on himself for psychoactivity.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2705x1845, 3158 KB) Timbres ou buvard imprégnés de LSD color saturation increased, cropped a bit (by en:User:Cacycle) Source: www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2705x1845, 3158 KB) Timbres ou buvard imprégnés de LSD color saturation increased, cropped a bit (by en:User:Cacycle) Source: www. ... LSD blotter paper The psychedelic drug LSD was first synthesised by the Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in the Sandoz (now Novartis) laboratories in Basel, Switzerland on April 16th, 1943. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Dr. Dr. Albert Hofmann (born January 11, 1906) is a prominent Swiss scientist best known as the father of LSD. He was born in Baden, Switzerland, and studied chemistry at the University of Zürich. ... Sandoz Laboratories was a Swiss pharmaceutical company, best known for inventing LSD in 1938 and later marketing it as a psychiatric drug under the trade name Delysid. ... Basel (British English traditionally: Basle and more recently Basel , German: Basel , French: Bâle , Italian: Basilea ) is Switzerlands third most populous city (166,563 inhabitants (2004); 690,000 inhabitants in the metropolitan area stretching across the immediate cantonal and national boundaries made Basel Switzerlands second-largest urban area... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... The word psychedelic is a neologism coined from the Greek words for mind, ψυχη (psyche), and manifest, δηλειν (delein). ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ...


Until 1966, LSD and psilocybin were provided by Sandoz Laboratories free of charge to interested scientists under the trade name "Delysid".[1] The use of these compounds by psychiatrists to gain a better subjective understanding of the schizophrenic experience was an accepted practice. Many clinical trials were conducted on the potential use of LSD in psychedelic psychotherapy, generally with very positive results. Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine), is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family. ... A trade name, also known as a trading name or a business name, is the legal name of a business, or the name which a business trades under for commercial purposes. ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... Schizophrenia (from the Greek word σχιζοφρένεια, or shjzofreneja, meaning split mind) is a psychiatric diagnosis that describes a mental disorder characterized by impairments in the perception or expression of reality and by significant social or occupational dysfunction. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Psychedelic psychotherapy refers to psychotherapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs. ...


Regulation and research

Cold War intelligence services were keenly interested in the possibilities of using LSD for interrogation and mind control, and also for large-scale social engineering. The CIA conducted extensive research on LSD, which was mostly destroyed.[2] LSD was a central research area for Project MKULTRA, the code name for a CIA mind-control research program begun in the 1950s and continued until the late 1960s. Tests were also conducted by the U.S. Army Biomedical Laboratory (now known as the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense) located in the Edgewood Arsenal at Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Volunteers would take LSD and then perform a battery of tests to investigate the effects of the drug on soldiers. Based on remaining publicly available records, the projects seem to have concluded that LSD was of little practical use as a mind control drug and moved on to other drugs. Both the CIA and the Army experiments became highly controversial when they became public knowledge in the 1970s, as the test subjects were not normally informed of the nature of the experiments, or even that they were subjects in experiments at all. Several subjects developed severe mental illnesses and even committed suicide after the experiments. The controversy contributed to President Ford's creation of the Rockefeller Commission and new regulations on informed consent. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... Social engineering is a concept in political science that refers to efforts to systematically manage popular attitudes and social behavior on a large scale, whether by governments or private groups. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Declassified MKULTRA documents Project MKULTRA (also known as MK-ULTRA) was the code name for a CIA mind-control research program that began in the 1950s. ... Aberdeen Proving Ground is a United States Army proving ground located in Harford County, Maryland. ... Aberdeen Proving Ground is a United States Army proving ground located in Harford County, Maryland. ... Modern soldiers. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... The Scream, the famous painting commonly thought of as depicting the experience of mental illness. ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the willful act of killing oneself. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... The U.S. Presidents Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the CIA and other intelligence agencies within the United States. ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ...


The British government also engaged in LSD testing; in 1953 and 1954, scientists working for MI6 dosed servicemen in an effort to find a "truth drug". The test subjects were not informed that they were being given LSD, and had in fact been told that they were participating in a medical project to find a cure for the common cold. One subject, aged 19 at the time, reported seeing "walls melting, cracks appearing in people's faces … eyes would run down cheeks, Salvador Dalí-type faces … a flower would turn into a slug". After keeping the trials secret for many years, MI6 agreed in 2006 to pay the former test subjects financial compensation. Like the CIA, MI6 decided that LSD was not a practical drug for mind control purposes.[3] The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí Domènech, Marquis of Pubol or Salvador Felip Jacint Dalí Domènech (May 11, 1904 – January 23, 1989), known popularly as Salvador Dalí, was a Spanish artist and one of the most important painters of the 20th century. ...


LSD first became popular recreationally among a small group of mental health professionals such as psychiatrists and psychologists during the 1950s, as well as by socially prominent and politically powerful individuals such as Henry and Clare Boothe Luce to whom the early LSD researchers were connected socially. Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational purposes rather than for work, medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Henry Robinson Luce (April 3, 1898 - February 28, 1967) was an influential American publisher. ... Clare Boothe Luce photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1933. ...


Several mental health professionals involved in LSD research, most notably Harvard psychology professors Dr. Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert, became convinced of LSD's potential as a tool for spiritual growth. In 1961, Dr. Timothy Leary received grant money from Harvard University to study the effects of LSD on test subjects. 3,500 doses were given to over 400 people. Of those tested, 90% said they would like to repeat the experience, 83% said they had "learned something or had insight," and 62% said it had changed their life for the better. Harvard University is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA, and a member of the Ivy League. ... For the American baseball player use Tim Leary (baseball player) Timothy Francis Leary, Ph. ... Ram Dass teaching, Hawaii Dr. Richard Alpert (born April 5, 1931), also known as Baba Ram Dass, is a contemporary spiritual teacher and noted bisexual. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ...


Their research became more esoteric and controversial, as Leary and Alpert alleged links between the LSD experience and the state of enlightenment sought after in many mystical traditions. They were dismissed from the traditional academic psychology community, and as such cut off from legal scientific acquisition of the drug. Drs. Leary and Alpert somehow acquired a quantity of LSD and relocated to a private mansion, where they continued their research. The experiments lost their scientific character as the pair evolved into countercultural spiritual gurus associated with the hippie movement, encouraging people to question authority and challenge the status quo, a concept summarized in Leary's catchphrase, "Turn on, tune in, drop out". Etymology Esoteric is an adjective originating during Hellenic Greece under the domain of the Roman Empire; it comes from the Greek esôterikos, from esôtero, the comparative form of esô: within. It is a word meaning anything that is inner and occult, a latinate word meaning hidden (from which... . It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Spiritual enlightenment. ... Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mystikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (mysteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an... In sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe a cultural group whose values and norms are at odds with those of the social mainstream. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Guru - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Singer at contemporary Russian Rainbow gathering Hippie, usually spelled hippy in the United Kingdom, refers to a subgroup of the 1960s and early 1970s counterculture that began in the United States, becoming an established social group by 1965 before declining during the mid-1970s. ... Turn On, Tune In, Drop Out (Original Movie Soundtrack) Turn on, tune in, drop out is a counterculture phrase coined by Timothy Leary in the 1960s. ...


The drug was banned in the United States in 1967, with scientific therapeutic research as well as individual research also becoming prohibitively difficult. Many other countries, under pressure from the U.S., quickly followed suit. Since 1967, underground recreational and therapeutic LSD use has continued in many countries, supported by a black market and popular demand for the drug. Legal, academic research experiments on the effects and mechanisms of LSD are also conducted on occasion, but rarely involve human subjects. Despite its proscription, the hippie counterculture continued to promote the regular use of LSD, led by figures such as Leary and psychedelic rock bands such as The Grateful Dead and Pink Floyd. Singer at contemporary Russian Rainbow gathering Hippie, usually spelled hippy in the United Kingdom, refers to a subgroup of the 1960s and early 1970s counterculture that began in the United States, becoming an established social group by 1965 before declining during the mid-1970s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jerry Garcia later in life The Grateful Dead was an American rock band, which was formed in 1965 in San Francisco from the remnants of another band, Mother McCrees Uptown Jug Champions. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their avant-garde progressive rock music. ...


Acidhead has been used as a term (often derogatory) for one who frequently uses LSD.


According to Leigh Henderson and William Glass, two researchers associated with the NIDA who performed a 1994 review of the literature, LSD use is relatively uncommon when compared to the abuse of alcohol, cocaine, and prescription drugs. Over the previous fifteen years, long-term usage trends stayed fairly stable, with roughly 5% of the population using the drug and most users being in the 16 to 23 age range.[4] Henderson and Glass found that LSD users typically partook of the substance on an infrequent, episodic basis, then "maturing out" after two to four years. Overall, LSD appeared to have comparatively few adverse health consequences, of which "bad trips" were the most commonly reported (and, the researchers found, one of the chief reasons youths stop using the drug).[5] Cover of a NIDA educational booklet. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Cocaine (or crack in its impure freebase form) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... A prescription drug is a medication that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ... A bad trip is a profoundly unpleasant experience using a hallucinogenic drug such as LSD or psilocybin, caused by one or more of the common undesired effects of the drug: Panic reaction Amplification of unconscious fears Self-aggression Suicidal ideation Fear of going insane or of the inability to return...


Dosage

LSD is, by mass, one of the most potent drugs yet discovered. Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms (µg), or millionths of a gram. By comparison, dosages of almost all other drugs, both recreational and medical, are measured in milligrams (mg), or thousandths of a gram. Hofmann determined that an active dose of mescaline, roughly 0.2 to 0.5 g, has effects comparable to 100 µg or less of LSD; put another way, LSD is between five and ten thousand times more active than mescaline.[1] The microgram (symbol µg, sometimes mcg) is an SI unit of mass. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... Dr. Dr. Albert Hofmann (born January 11, 1906) is a prominent Swiss scientist best known as the father of LSD. He was born in Baden, Switzerland, and studied chemistry at the University of Zürich. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a hallucinogenic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ...


While a typical single dose of LSD may be between 100 and 500 micrograms — an amount roughly equal to one-tenth the mass of a grain of sand — threshold effects can be felt with as little as 20 micrograms.[6]


According to Stoll, the dosage level that will produce a threshold hallucinogenic effect in humans is generally considered to be 20 to 30 μg, with the drug's effects becoming markedly more evident at higher dosages.[7][6] According to Glass and Henderson's review, black-market LSD is largely unadulterated though sometimes contaminated by manufacturing by-products. Typical doses in the 1960s ranged from 200 to 1000 µg, while street samples of the 1970s contained 30 to 300 µg. By the mid-1980s, the average had reduced to about 100 to 125 µg, lowering still further in the 1990s to the 20–80 µg range. (Lower doses, Glass and Henderson found, generally produce fewer bad trips.)[5] Dosages by frequent users can be as high as 1,200 µg (1.2 mg), although such a high dosage may precipitate unpleasant physical and psychological reactions. A bad trip is a profoundly unpleasant experience using a hallucinogenic drug such as LSD or psilocybin, caused by one or more of the common undesired effects of the drug: Panic reaction Amplification of unconscious fears Self-aggression Suicidal ideation Fear of going insane or of the inability to return...


Estimates for the lethal dosage (LD50) of LSD range from 200 μg/kg to more than 1 mg/kg of human body mass, though most sources report that there are no known human cases of such an overdose. Other sources note one report of a suspected fatal overdose of LSD occuring in 1974 in Kentucky in which there were indications that ~1/3 of a gram (320 mg or 320,000 µg) had been injected intravenously, i.e., over 3,000 more typical oral doses of ~100 µg had been injected.[8] An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


LSD is not considered addictive, in that its users do not exhibit the medical community's commonly accepted definitions of addiction and physical dependence. Rapid tolerance build-up prevents regular use, and there is cross-tolerance shown between LSD, mescaline and psilocybin. This tolerance diminishes after a few days' abstention from use. Addiction is a chronic disorder proposed to be precipitated by a combination of genetic, biological/pharmacological and social factors. ... Mescaline (3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine) is a hallucinogenic alkaloid of the phenethylamine class. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine), is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family. ...


Effects

Pharmacokinetics

3D representation of LSD molecule.
3D representation of LSD molecule.

LSD's secondary effects normally last from fifty-two to seventy-five hours[9] -- Sandoz's prospectus for "Delysid" warned: "intermittent disturbances of affect may occasionally persist for several days."[1] Contrary to early reports and common belief, LSD effects do not last longer than significant levels of the drug in the blood. Aghajanian and Bing[10] found LSD had an elimination half-life of 175 minutes, while, more recently, Papac and Foltz[11] reported that 1 µg/kg oral LSD given to a single male volunteer had an apparent plasma half-life of 5.1 hours, with a peak plasma concentration of 1.9 ng/mL at 3 hours post-dose. Notably, Aghajanian and Bing found that blood concentrations of LSD matched the time course of volunteers' difficulties with simple arithmetic problems. Image File history File links Lsd. ... Image File history File links Lsd. ...


Some reports indicate that although administration of chlorpromazine (Thorazine) or similar typical antipsychotic tranquilizers will not end an LSD trip, it will either lessen the intensity or immobilize and numb the patient, a side effect of the medication.[12] While it also may not end an LSD trip, the best chemical treatment for a "bad trip" is an anxiolytic agent such as diazepam (Valium) or another benzodiazepine. Some have suggested that administration of niacin (nicotinic acid, vitamin B3) could be useful to end the LSD user's experience of a "bad trip".[13] The nicotinic acid in niacin as opposed to niacinamide, will produce a full body heat rash, due to widening of peripheral blood vessels. The effect is somewhat akin to a poison ivy rash. Although it is not clear to what extent the effects of LSD are reduced by this intervention, the physical effect of an itchy skin rash may itself tend to distract the user from feelings of anxiety. The rash itself is temporary and disappears within a few hours. It is not clear how effective this method would be for people having serious adverse psychological reactions. Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as conventional antipsychotics or conventional neuroleptics) are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and are generally being replaced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), marketed under brand names Valium®, Stesolid, Diazemuls, Seduxen, Bosaurin, Diapam, Antenex and Apozepam)[1] is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Alprazolam 2mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , or benzos for short) are a class of drugs with sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... For the band, see Niacin. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell. ... For the band, see Niacin. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell. ... Binomial name Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Poison-ivy (Toxicodendron radicans or Rhus toxicodendron), in the family Anacardiaceae, is a woody vine that is well-known for its ability to produce urushiol, a skin irritant which for most people will cause an agonizing, itching rash. ...

Affinity of LSD for various receptors, averaged from data from the PDSP
Affinity of LSD for various receptors, averaged from data from the PDSP

LSD affects a large number of the G protein coupled receptors, including all dopamine receptor subtypes, all adrenoreceptor subtypes as well as many others. LSD binds to most serotonin receptor subtypes except for 5-HT3 and 5-HT4. However, most of these receptors are affected at too low affinity to be activated by the brain concentration of approximate 10–20 nM.[14] Recreational doses of LSD can affect 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, 5-HT5A, 5-HT5 B and 5-HT6. The hallucinogenic effects of LSD are attributed to its strong partial agonist effects at 5-HT2A receptors as specific 5-HT2A agonist drugs are hallucinogenic and largely 5-HT2A specific antagonists block the hallucinogenic activity of LSD.[14] Exactly how this produces the drug's effects is unknown, but it is thought that it works by increasing glutamate release and hence excitation in the cortex, specifically in layers IV and V.[15] In the later stages, LSD acts through DARPP-32 - related pathways that are likely the same for multiple drugs including cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine, caffeine, PCP, ethanol and morphine.[16] A particularly compelling look at the actions of LSD was performed by Barry Jacobs recording from electrodes implanted into cat raphe nuclei.[17] Behaviorally relevant doses of LSD result in a complete blockade of action potential activity in the dorsal raphe, effectively shutting off the principal endogenous source of serotonin to the telencephalon. Image File history File links LSDaffinities. ... Image File history File links LSDaffinities. ... In cell biology, G-protein-coupled receptors, also known as GPCR, seven transmembrane receptors, heptahelical receptors, or 7TM receptors, are a class of transmembrane receptors. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... The dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptors with the neurotransmitter dopamine as their endogenous ligand. ... The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G-protein coupled receptors that is the target of catecholamines. ... In the field of neurochemistry, 5-HT receptors are receptors for the neurotransmitter and peripheral signal mediator serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT. 5-HT receptors are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals and mediate the effects of serotonin... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Location of the cerebral cortex Slice of the cerebral cortex, ca. ... DARPP-32 stands for dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein with molecular weight 32 kDa. ...


Physical

Physical reactions to LSD are highly variable and may include the following: uterine contractions, hyperthermia, elevated levels of blood sugar, goose bumps, increase of heart rate, jaw clenching, perspiration, pupil-dilation, saliva production, mucus production, sleeplessness, paresthesia, euphoria, hyperreflexia, tremors and synesthesia. LSD users report numbness, weakness, trembling, and nausea. Cramps and muscle tension or soreness are also commonly reported, and this may be a result of the drug's effect on soft tissues such as the uterus. The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In medicine, blood sugar is a term used to refer to levels of glucose in the blood. ... Goose bumps are created when tiny muscles at the base of each hair, known as arrectores pilorum, contract and pull the hair erect. ... // Mydriasis is an excessive dilation of the pupil due to disease or drugs. ... Saliva is the watery and usually somewhat frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and some animals. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of various membranes in the body (mucous membranes). ... Sleep is the state of natural rest observed in most mammals, birds, fish, as well as invertebrates such as the fruitfly Drosophila. ... Paresthesia or paraesthesia (in British English) is a sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of a persons skin with no apparent long-term physical effect, more generally known as the feeling of pins and needles or of a limb being asleep. // Transient paresthesia is the temporary sensation of tingling... Look up euphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hyperreflexia is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes. ... For the film see Tremors (film). ... Synesthesia (also spelled synæsthesia or synaesthesia, plural synesthesiae)—from the Greek syn- meaning union and aesthesis meaning sensation—is a neurological condition in which two or more bodily senses are coupled. ... A cramp is an unpleasant sensation caused by contraction, usually of a muscle. ... The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ...


LSD was studied in the 1960s by Eric Kast as an analgetic for serious and chronic pain caused by cancer or other major trauma.[18] Even at low (sub-psychedelic) dosages, it was found to be at least as effective as traditional opiates while being much longer lasting (pain reduction lasting as long as a week after peak effects had subsided). Kast attributed this effect to a decrease in anxiety. This reported effect is being tested (though not using LSD) in an ongoing (as of 2006) study of the effects of the psychedelic tryptamine psilocybin on anxiety in terminal cancer patients. Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine), is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family. ... Anxiety is an unpleasant complex combination of emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ...


Furthermore, LSD has been illicitly used as a treatment for cluster headaches, an uncommon but extremely painful disorder. Researcher Peter Goadsby describes the headaches as "worse than natural childbirth or even amputation without anesthetic."[19] Although the phenomenon has not been formally investigated, case reports indicate that LSD and psilocybin can reduce cluster pain and also interrupt the cluster-headache cycle, preventing future headaches from occurring. Currently existing treatments include various ergolines, among other chemicals, so LSD's efficacy may not be surprising. A dose-response study, testing the effectiveness of both LSD and psilocybin is, as of 2007, being planned at McLean Hospital. A 2006 study by McLean researchers interviewed 53 cluster-headache sufferers who treated themselves with either LSD or psilocybin, finding that a majority of the users of either drug reported beneficial effects.[20] Unlike attempts to use LSD or MDMA in psychotherapy, this research involves non-psychological effects and often sub-psychedelic dosages; therefore, it is plausible that a respected medical use of LSD will arise.[21] Cluster headaches are rare, extremely painful and debilitating headaches that occur in groups or clusters. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine), is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family. ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... McLean Hospital (pronounced Mc-Lane) is a psychiatric hospital in Belmont, Massachusetts, USA. It is noted for its clinical staff expertise and ground-breaking neuroscience research. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... // Psychotherapy is a 20th century interpersonal, relational intervention designed to provide an increased sense of well-being and /or reduction of subjective discomforting experience. ...


Psychological

LSD's psychological effects (colloquially called a "trip") vary greatly from person to person, depending on factors such as previous experiences, state of mind and environment, as well as dose strength. They also vary from one trip to another, and even as time passes during a single trip. An LSD trip can have long term psychoemotional effects; some users cite the LSD experience as causing significant changes in their personality and life perspective. Widely different effects emerge based on what Leary called set and setting; the "set" being the general mindset of the user, and the "setting" being the physical and social environment in which the drug's effects are experienced. A colloquialism is an expression not used in formal speech or writing. ... For the American baseball player use Tim Leary (baseball player) Timothy Francis Leary, Ph. ... Set and setting describes the context for drug experiences: ones mindset and the setting in which the user has his experience. ...


LSD experiences can range from indescribably ecstatic to extraordinarily difficult; many difficult experiences (or "bad trips") result from a panicked user feeling that he or she has been permanently severed from reality and his or her ego. If the user is in a hostile or otherwise unsettling environment, or is not mentally prepared for the powerful distortions in perception and thought that the drug causes, effects are more likely to be unpleasant. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Conversely, a comfortable environment and a relaxed, balanced and open mindset will often result in a unique and pleasurable experience.


Many users experience a dissolution between themselves and the "outside world".[22] This unitive quality may play a role in the spiritual and religious aspects of LSD. The drug often leads to disintegration of the historical personality and potentially new imprints.


Some experts hypothesize that drugs such as LSD may be useful in psychotherapy, especially when the patient is unable to "unblock" repressed subconscious material through other psychetherapeutic methods,[23] and also for treating alcoholism. One study concluded, "The root of the therapeutic value of the LSD experience is its potential for producing self-acceptance and self-surrender,"[24] presumably by forcing the user to face issues and problems in that individual's psyche. Many believe that, in contrast, other drugs (such as alcohol, heroin, and cocaine) are used to escape from reality. Studies in the 1950s that used LSD to treat alcoholism professed a 50% success rate,[25] higher than estimates near 10% for Alcoholics Anonymous.[26] Some LSD studies were criticized for methodological flaws, and different groups had inconsistent results. Mangini's 1998 paper reviews this history and concludes that the efficacy of LSD in treating alcoholism remains an open question.[27] Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Heroin, also known as diamorphine (BAN) or diacetylmorphine (INN), is a semi-synthetic opioid. ... Cocaine (or crack in its impure freebase form) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Escapism is mental diversion by means of entertainment or recreation, as an escape from the perceived unpleasant aspects of daily reality. ... Logo for A.A. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an informal society of more than 2,000,000 recovered and recovering alcoholics in the United States, Canada, and other countries. ...


Many notable individuals have commented publicly on their experiences with LSD. Some of these comments date from the era when it was legally available in the US and Europe for non-medical uses, and others pertain to psychiatric treatment in the 1950s and 60s. Still others describe experiences with illegal LSD, obtained for philosophic, artistic, therapeutic, spiritual, or recreational purposes. Notable psychedelic self-experimenters are individuals who have publicly reported on their personal experiences with psychedelic drugs like LSD and magic mushrooms. Some of these comments date from the era when LSD was legally available in the US and Europe for non-medical uses, and others pertain to psychiatric treatment... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ...


Sensory/perception

Generally beginning within thirty to ninety minutes after ingestion, the user may experience anything from subtle changes in perception to overwhelming cognitive shifts. Generally, LSD causes expansion and altered experience of senses, emotions, memories, time, and awareness for 6 to 14 hours, depending on dosage and tolerance. In addition, LSD may produce visual effects such as moving patterns, brilliant colors and "trails" behind moving objects. LSD does not produce hallucinations in the strict sense, but instead illusions and vivid daydream-like fantasies, in which ordinary objects and experiences take on entirely different appearances or meanings. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Emotional redirects here. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... A pocket watch, a device used to keep time There are two distinct views on the meaning of time. ... In biological psychology, awareness describes a human or animals perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. ... The boundary of the Mandelbrot set is a famous example of a fractal. ... A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... This article is about the phenomenon known as an illusion. ... See fantasy for an account of the literary genre involving the development of common or popular fantasies. ...


Changes in aural and visual perception are common, ranging from mild to profound.[22][28] These sensory changes include basic "high-level" distortions such as the appearance of moving geometric patterns, new textures on objects, blurred vision, image trailing, shape suggestibility and color variations. Users commonly report that the inanimate world appears to animate in an unexplained way; for instance, objects that are static in three dimensions can seem to be moving relative to one or more additional spatial dimensions.[29]


Higher doses often bring about shifts at a lower cognitive level, causing intense and fundamental distortions of sensory perception such as synaesthesia, the experience of additional spatial or temporal dimensions, and temporary dissociation. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Spiritual

LSD is considered an entheogen because it can catalyze intense spiritual experiences where users feel they have come into contact with a greater spiritual or cosmic order. Some users report insights into the way the mind works, and some experience long-lasting changes in their life perspective. Some users consider LSD a religious sacrament, or a powerful tool for access to the divine. Several books have been written comparing the LSD trip to the state of enlightenment of eastern philosophy. An entheogen, in the strictest sense, is a psychoactive substance (most often some plant matter with hallucinogenic effects) that occasions an enlightening spiritual or mystical experience. ... Bodhi (Pali and Sanskrit. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Such experiences under the influence of LSD have been observed and documented by researchers such as Timothy Leary and Stanislav Grof. For example, Walter Pahnke conducted the Good Friday Marsh Chapel Experiment under Leary's supervision, performing a double blind experiment on the administration of psilocybin to volunteers who were students in religious graduate programs, e.g., divinity or theology.[30] That study provided evidence that hallucinogens may induce mystical religious states (at least in people with a spiritual predisposition). For the American baseball player use Tim Leary (baseball player) Timothy Francis Leary, Ph. ... Stanislav Grof (born 1931 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology and a pioneering researcher into the use of altered states of consciousness for purposes of healing, growth, and insight. ... Good Friday is the Friday before Easter or Pascha. ... The Marsh Chapel Experiment was run by a graduate student at Harvard Divinity School, under the supervision of Timothy Leary. ... The Double blind method is an important part of the scientific method, used to prevent research outcomes from being influenced by the placebo effect or observer bias. ...


Physical dangers

Although LSD is generally considered nontoxic, it may temporarily impair the ability to make sensible judgments and understand common dangers, thus making the user susceptible to accidents and personal injury.


There is also some indication that LSD may trigger a dissociative fugue state in individuals who are taking certain classes of antidepressants such as lithium salts and tricyclics. In such a state, the user has an impulse to wander, and may not be aware of his or her actions, which can lead to physical injury.[31] SSRIs are believed to interact more benignly, with a tendency to noticeably reduce LSD's subjective effects.[32] Similar and perhaps greater reductions have also been reported with MAOIs.[31] In the field of psychology, a fugue state is usually defined by the term dissociative fugue. ... An antidepressant is a medication used primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. ... Lithium salts are chemical salts of lithium used primarily in the treatment of bipolar disorder as mood stabilizing drugs. ... Chemical structure of the tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline. ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of antidepressants used in the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders and some personality disorders. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ...


As Albert Hofmann reports in LSD – My Problem Child, the early pharmacological testing Sandoz performed on the compound (before he ever discovered its psychoactive properties) indicated that LSD has a pronounced effect upon the mammalian uterus. Sandoz's testing showed that LSD can stimulate uterine contractions with efficacy comparable to ergobasine, the active uterotonic component of the ergot fungus (Hofmann's work on ergot derivatives also produced a modified form of ergobasine which became a widely accepted medication used in obstetrics, under the trade name Methergine). Therefore, LSD use by pregnant women can be dangerous and is contraindicated.[1] The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that increases the risk involved in using a particular drug, carrying out a medical procedure or engaging in a particular activity. ...


Initial studies in the 1960s and 70s raised concerns that LSD might produce genetic damage or developmental abnormalities in fetuses. However, these initial reports were based on in vitro studies or were poorly controlled and have not been substantiated. In studies of chromosomal changes in human users and in monkeys, the balance of evidence suggests no significant increase in chromosomal damage. For example, studies were conducted with people who had been given LSD in a clinical setting.[33] White blood cells from these people were examined for visible chromosomal abnormalities. Overall, there appeared to be no lasting changes. Several studies have been conducted using illicit LSD users and provide a less clear picture. Interpretation of these data is generally complicated by factors such as the unknown chemical composition of street LSD, concurrent use of other psychoactive drugs, and diseases such as hepatitis in the sampled populations. It seems possible that the small number of congenital abnormalities reported in users of street LSD is either coincidental or related to factors other than a toxic effect of pure LSD.[33] Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... White blood cells or leucocytes are cells which form a component of the blood. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior. ... Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. ...


Flashbacks and HPPD

There is a reported possibility of "flashbacks", a psychological phenomenon in which an individual experiences an episode of some of LSD's subjective effects long after the drug has worn off — sometimes weeks, months, or even years afterward. Flashbacks can incorporate both positive and negative aspects of LSD trips. Colloquial usage of the term flashback refers to any experience reminiscent of LSD effects, with the typical connotation that the episodes are of short duration. However, psychiatry recognizes a disorder in which LSD-like effects are persistent and cause clinically significant impairment or distress. This syndrome is called Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD), a DSM-IV diagnosis. Several scientific journal articles have described the disorder.[34] A flashback is a psychological phenomenon in which someone remembers a past experience. ... Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) is a long-term condition caused by taking hallucinogens. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The poopDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States. ...


The issues of HPPD and flashbacks are complicated and subtle, with no definitive explanations currently available. Any attempt at explanation must reflect several observations: first, over 70 percent of LSD users claim never to have "flashed back"; second, the phenomenon does appear linked with LSD use, though a causal connection has not been established; and third, a higher proportion of psychiatric patients report flashbacks than "normal" users.[35] Several studies have tried to determine how likely a "normal" user (that is, a user not suffering from known psychiatric conditions) of LSD is to experience flashbacks. The larger studies include Blumenfeld's in 1971[36] and Naditch and Fenwick's in 1977,[37] which arrived at figures of 20% and 28%, respectively. A recent review suggests that HPPD (according to the DSM-IV definition) caused by LSD appears to be rare and affects a distinctly vulnerable subpopulation of users.[38] Differences in the estimated prevalence of flashbacks may partly depend on the multiple meanings of the term and the fact that Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder can only be diagnosed in a person who admits to their health care practitioner that they have used hallucinogens.


Debate continues over the nature and causes of chronic flashbacks. Explanations in terms of LSD physically remaining in the body for months or years after consumption have been discounted by experimental evidence.[35] Some say HPPD is a manifestation of post-traumatic stress disorder, not related to the direct action of LSD on brain chemistry, and varies according to the susceptibility of the individual to the disorder. Many emotionally intense experiences can lead to flashbacks when a person is reminded acutely of the original experience. However, not all published case reports of chronic flashbacks appear to describe an anxious hyper-vigilant state reminiscent of post-traumatic stress disorder.[35] Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ...


An alternative theory regarding flashbacks postulates that it is a form of perceptual learning. Although unusual perceptual experiences may be just as common among people with no history of having taken the drug, people who have taken LSD may be more likely to associate these otherwise normal psychological events with the experiences they remember having had while on LSD. Under this theory, HPPD would be a separate, more serious, and far less common psychological condition. "Mere" flashbacks, in comparison, may be experienced by a broad segment of the population, and only attributed to LSD by those who have tried the drug.


Psychosis

There are some cases of LSD inducing a psychosis in people who appeared to be healthy prior to taking LSD. This issue was reviewed extensively in a 1984 publication by Rick Strassman.[39] In most cases, the psychosis-like reaction is of short duration, but in other cases it may be chronic. It is difficult to determine if LSD itself induces these reactions or if it merely triggers latent conditions that would have manifested themselves otherwise. The similarities of time course and outcomes between putatively LSD-precipitated and other psychoses suggests that the two types of syndromes are not different and that LSD may have been a nonspecific trigger. Several studies have tried to estimate the prevalence of LSD-induced prolonged psychosis arriving at numbers of around 4 in 1,000 individuals (0.8 in 1,000 volunteers and 1.8 in 1,000 psychotherapy patients in Cohen 1960;[40] 9 per 1,000 psychotherapy patients in Melleson 1971[41]). Psychosis (not to be confused with psychopathy) is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state in which thought and perception are severely impaired. ... In 1990, Rick Strassman began the first new human research with psychedelic, or hallucinogenic, drugs in the United States in over 20 years. ...


Chemistry

The four possible isomers of LSD. Only LSD is psychoactive.
The four possible isomers of LSD. Only LSD is psychoactive.

LSD is an example of an ergoline derivative. It is commonly produced from lysergic acid, which is made from ergotamine, a substance derived from the ergot fungus on rye, or from ergine (lysergic acid amide). LSA, lysergic acid amide, is the sister chemical of LSD found in morning glory and hawaiian baby woodrose seeds. It is theoretically possible to manufacture LSA from morning glory or hawaiian baby woodrose seed. LSD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at the carbon atoms C-5 and C-8, so that theoretically four different optical isomers of LSD could exist. LSD, also called (+)-D-LSD, has the absolute configuration (5R,8R). The C-5 isomers of lysergamides do not exist in nature and are not formed during the synthesis from D-lysergic acid. However, LSD and iso-LSD, the two C-8 isomers, rapidly interconvert in the presence of base. Non-psychoactive iso-LSD which has formed during the synthesis can be removed by chromatography and can be isomerized to LSD. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1487x2004, 16 KB) Description: chemical isomers of LSD Author: Cacycle Date of creation: 19 March 2006 (UTC) Source: selfmade Copyright: GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) Creative Commons License (attribution, sharealike, 2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1487x2004, 16 KB) Description: chemical isomers of LSD Author: Cacycle Date of creation: 19 March 2006 (UTC) Source: selfmade Copyright: GNU Free Documentation License (GFDL) Creative Commons License (attribution, sharealike, 2. ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... Lysergic acid, also known as D-lysergic acid and (+)-lysergic acid, is a precursor for a wide range of ergoline alkaloids that are produced by the ergot fungus and some plants. ... Ergotamine is a vasoconstrictor used for migraine prevention and is sometimes mixed with caffeine. ... Species About 50, including: Claviceps africanum Claviceps fusiformis Claviceps paspali Claviceps purpurea Ergot is the common name of a fungus in the genus Claviceps that is parasitic on certain grains and grasses. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota The fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Chemical structure of ergine Ergine, also known as d-lysergic acid amide, LSA, and LA-111, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. ... Look up morning glory in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Argyreia nervosa (Burm. ... The term chiral (pronounced ) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ... A stereocenter in organic chemistry generally refers to a carbon atom in a chemical compound that has four different types of atoms or groups of atoms attached to it. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Optical isomerism is a form of isomerism (specifically stereoisomerism) where the two different isomers are the same in every way except being non-superposable mirror images of each other. ... An absolute configuration in stereochemistry is the spatial arrangement of the atoms of a chiral molecular entity (or group)and its stereochemical description e. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... A base in chemistry is a chemical substance which has a free pair of electrons to bind a hydrogen ion commonly referred to as a proton (IUPAC definition). ... Pictured is a sophisticated gas chromatography system. ...


Stability

"LSD," writes the chemist Alexander Shulgin, "is an unusually fragile molecule."[9] It is stable for indefinite amounts of time if stored, as a salt or in water, at low temperature and protected from air and light exposure. Two portions of its molecular structure are particularly sensitive, the carboxamide attachment at the 8-position and the double bond between the 8-position and the aromatic ring. The former is affected by high pH, and if perturbed will produce isolysergic acid diethylamide (iso-LSD), which is biologically inactive. If water or alcohol adds to the double bond (especially in the presence of light), LSD converts to "lumi-LSD", which is totally inactive in human beings, to the best of current knowledge. Furthermore, chlorine destroys LSD molecules on contact; even though chlorinated tap water typically contains only a slight amount of chlorine, because a typical LSD solution only contains a small amount of LSD, dissolving LSD in tap water is likely to completely eliminate the substance.[9] Alexander and Ann Shulgin, in a photo from their book TiHKAL, c. ... Covalent bonding is a description of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... The correct title of this article is . ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Atomic mass 35. ...


A controlled study was undertaken to determine the stability of LSD in pooled urine samples.[42] The concentrations of LSD in urine samples were followed over time at various temperatures, in different types of storage containers, at various exposures to different wavelengths of light, and at varying pH values. These studies demonstrated no significant loss in LSD concentration at 25 degrees C for up to 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of incubation, a 30% loss in LSD concentration at 37 degrees C and up to a 40% at 45 degrees C were observed. Urine fortified with LSD and stored in amber glass or nontransparent polyethylene containers showed no change in concentration under any light conditions. Stability of LSD in transparent containers under light was dependent on the distance between the light source and the samples, the wavelength of light, exposure time, and the intensity of light. After prolonged exposure to heat in alkaline pH conditions, 10 to 15% of the parent LSD epimerized to iso-LSD. Under acidic conditions, less than 5% of the LSD was converted to iso-LSD. It was also demonstrated that trace amounts of metal ions in buffer or urine could catalyze the decomposition of LSD and that this process can be avoided by the addition of EDTA. EDTA is a popular acronym for the chemical compound ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. ...


Production

Glassware seized by the DEA
Glassware seized by the DEA

Because an active dose of LSD is astonishingly minute, a large number of doses can be synthesized from a comparatively small amount of raw material. Beginning with ergotamine tartrate, for example, one can manufacture roughly one kilogram of pure, crystalline LSD from five kilograms of tartrate. Five kilograms of LSD — 25 kilograms of ergotamine tartrate — could provide 100 million "hits", sufficient for supplying the entire illicit demand of the United States. Since the masses involved are so small, concealing and transporting illicit LSD is much easier than smuggling other illegal drugs (say, cocaine or cannabis) in equal dosage quantities.[43] public domain from http://www. ... public domain from http://www. ... Ergotamine is a vasoconstrictor used for migraine prevention and is sometimes mixed with caffeine. ... A tartrate is a salt or ester of the organic compound tartaric acid, a dicarboxylic acid. ... Cocaine (or crack in its impure freebase form) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Cannabis sativa Look up marijuana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Manufacturing LSD requires laboratory equipment and experience in the field of organic chemistry. It takes two or three days to produce 30 to 100 grams of pure compound. It is believed that LSD usually is not produced in large quantities, but rather in a series of small batches. This technique minimizes the loss of precursor chemicals in case a synthesis step does not work as expected.[43] Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting of primarily carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well...


Forms of LSD

A typical full size page of LSD blotter paper is 900 ¼" squares.
A typical full size page of LSD blotter paper is 900 ¼" squares.

LSD is produced in crystalline form and then mixed with excipients or redissolved for production in ingestible forms. Liquid solution is either distributed as-is in small vials or, more commonly, sprayed onto or soaked into a distribution medium. Historically, LSD solutions were first sold on sugar cubes, but practical considerations forced a change to tablet form. Early pills or tabs were flattened on both ends and identified by color: "grey flat", "blue flat", and so forth. Next came "domes", which were rounded on one end, then "double domes" rounded on both ends, and finally small tablets known as "microdots". Later still, LSD began to be distributed in thin squares of gelatin ("window panes", "gel tabs") and, most commonly, as blotter paper: sheets of paper impregnated with LSD and perforated into small squares of individual dosage units. The paper is then cut into small square pieces called "tabs" or "hits" for distribution. Individual producers often print designs onto the paper serving to identify different makers, batches or strengths, and such "blotter art" often emphasizes psychedelic themes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x800, 557 KB)A typical full sheet is most often made up of 900 1/4 squares. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x800, 557 KB)A typical full sheet is most often made up of 900 1/4 squares. ... An excipient is an inactive substance used as a vehicle for medication, or an active ingredient. ... Common disk-shaped tablets A pharmacological tablet is a medicinal or other active substance mixed with binder powders and pressed into a tablet form. ... The word psychedelic is a neologism coined from the Greek words for mind, ψυχη (psyche), and manifest, δηλειν (delein). ...


LSD has been sold under a wide variety of street names including Acid, Trips, Alice Dee, 'Cid/Sid, Barrels, Blotter, Doses, Fry, "L", Liquid, Liquid A, Lucy, Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds, Microdots, Mind detergent, Orange cubes, Orange micro, Owsley, Hits, Paper acid, Sacrament, Sandoz, Sugar, Sugar lumps, Sunshine, Tabs, Ticket, Twenty-five, Wedding bells, Windowpane, etc., as well as names that reflect the designs on the sheets of blotter paper.[44][45] On occasion, authorities have encountered the drug in other forms — including powder or crystal, and capsule. More than 200 types of LSD tablets have been encountered since 1969 and more than 350 paper designs have been observed since 1975. Designs range from simple five-point stars in black and white to exotic artwork in full four-color print. Sandoz is the generics subsidiary of Novartis, one of the Big Pharma pharmaceutical companies. ...


Legal status

The United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances (adopted in 1971) requires its parties to prohibit LSD. Hence, it is illegal in all parties to the convention, which includes the United States, Australia, and most of Europe. However, enforcement of extant laws varies from country to country. The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


LSD is easy to conceal and smuggle. A tiny vial can contain thousands of doses. Not much money is made from retail-level sales of LSD, so the drug is typically not associated with the violent organized criminal organizations involved in cocaine and opiate smuggling. It has been suggested that Criminal organization be merged into this article or section. ... Cocaine (or crack in its impure freebase form) is a crystalline tropane alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... In medicine, the term opiate describes any of the narcotic alkaloids found in opium. ...


Canada

In Canada, LSD is a controlled substance under Schedule III of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA). Every person who seeks to obtain the substance without disclosing authorization to obtain such substances 30 days prior to obtaining another prescription from a practitioner is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years. Possession for purpose of trafficking is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for 10 years. The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act is Canadas federal drug control statute. ...


Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, Lysergide and derivatives are regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance, and can only be used legally by health professionals and for university research purposes. The substance can be given by pharmacists under a prescription. Anyone who supplies the substance without presciption can be fined $10000(HKD). The penalty for trafficking or illegally manufacturing the substance is a $5,000,000 (HKD) fine and life imprisonment. Possession of the substance for consumption without license from the Department of Health is illegal with a $1,000,000 (HKD) fine and/or 7 years' imprisonment. The Hong Kong dollar (currency code HKD) is the currency of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China, and has been the currency of Hong Kong since 1937. ...


United States: Prior to 1967

Further information: Project MKULTRA

Beginning in the 1950's the Central Intelligence Agency began a research program code named Project MKULTRA. Experiments included administering LSD to CIA employees, military personnel, doctors, other government agents, prostitutes, mentally ill patients, and members of the general public in order to study their reactions, usually without the subject's knowledge. The project was revealed in the US congressional Rockefeller Commission report. Declassified MKULTRA documents Project MKULTRA (also known as MK-ULTRA) was the code name for a CIA mind-control research program that began in the 1950s. ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA, colloquially known as The Company or simply, The Agency) is an intelligence agency of the United States Government. ... Declassified MKULTRA documents Project MKULTRA (also known as MK-ULTRA) was the code name for a CIA mind-control research program that began in the 1950s. ... The U.S. Presidents Commission on CIA activities within the United States was set up under President Gerald Ford in 1975 to investigate the activities of the CIA and other intelligence agencies within the United States. ...


Prior to October 6th, 1966, LSD was available legally in the United States as an experimental psychiatric drug. (LSD "apostle" Al Hubbard actively promoted the drug between the 1950s and the 1970s and introduced thousands of people to it.) The US Federal Government classified it as a Schedule I drug according to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. As such, the Drug Enforcement Administration holds that LSD meets the following three criteria: it is deemed to have a high potential for abuse; it has no legitimate medical use in treatment; and there is a lack of accepted safety for its use under medical supervision. (LSD prohibition does not make an exception for religious use.) Lysergic acid and lysergic acid amide, LSD precursors, are both classified in Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act. Ergotamine tartrate, a precursor to lysergic acid, is regulated under the Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act. Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... Alfred Matthew Hubbard (1901–August 31, 1982) became a freelance apostle for the drug LSD in the early 1950s after supposedly receiving an angelic vision telling him that something important to the future of mankind would soon be coming. ... ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) was enacted into law by the Congress of the United States as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970. ... The Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act of 1988 was an amendment to the Controlled Substances Act to regulate precursor chemicals, essential chemicals, tableting machines, and encapsulating machines by imposing record keeping and import/export reporting requirements on transactions involving these materials. ...


LSD has been manufactured illegally since the 1960s. Historically, LSD was distributed not for profit, but because those who made and distributed it truly believed that the psychedelic experience could do good for humanity, that it expanded the mind and could bring understanding and love. A limited number of chemists, probably fewer than a dozen, are believed to have manufactured nearly all of the illicit LSD available in the United States. The best known of these is undoubtedly Augustus Owsley Stanley III, usually known simply as Owsley. The former chemistry student set up a private LSD lab in the mid-Sixties in San Francisco and supplied the LSD consumed at the famous Merry Pranksters parties held by Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters, and other major events such as the Gathering of the tribes in San Francisco in January 1967. He also had close social connections to leading San Francisco bands the Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane and Big Brother and The Holding Company, regularly supplied them with his LSD and also worked as their live sound engineer and made many tapes of these groups in concert. Owsley's LSD activities — immortalized by Steely Dan in their song "Kid Charlemagne" — ended with his arrest at the end of 1967, but some other manufacturers probably operated continuously for 30 years or more. Announcing Owsley's first bust in 1966, The San Francisco Chronicle's headline "LSD Millionaire Arrested" inspired the rare Grateful Dead song "Alice D. Millionaire." Owsley Stanley (b. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Acid Test can mean: The Acid Test festivals of the Merry Pranksters Acid Test (band), a rock quintet that featured vocalist and hHead collaborator Lucy Di Santo The Acid2 Cascading Style Sheets test Acid test is a phrase that can also refer to a foolproof test that will accurately determine... Kenneth Elton Kesey (September 17, 1935 – November 10, 2001) was an American author, best known for his novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, and as a (counter) cultural figure who, some consider, was a link between the beat generation of the 1950s and the hippies of the 1960s. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Welcome home and We love you are common greetings at the Rainbow Gathering. ... The Grateful Dead were an American psychedelia-influenced rock band formed in 1965 in San Francisco. ... Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band from San Francisco, a pioneer of the LSD-influenced psychedelic rock movement. ... Big Brother and the Holding Company was a rock band formed in San Francisco in 1965 as part of the psychedelic music scene that also produced the Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane. ... Steely Dan is an American rock band centered around the core members Walter Becker and Donald Fagen. ... The cover of the Kid Charlemagne single features Fagen (top) and Becker (bottom) Kid Charlemagne is a song by the rock group Steely Dan, which was released as a single from their 1976 album The Royal Scam. ... The San Francisco Chronicle, the self-described Voice of the West, is Northern Californias largest newspaper. ...


United States: 1970 to the present

Pickard and Apperson ran an LSD lab in this former missile silo in Kansas.
Pickard and Apperson ran an LSD lab in this former missile silo in Kansas.

American LSD usage declined in the 1970s and 1980s, then experienced a mild resurgence in popularity in the 1990s. Although there were many distribution channels during this decade, the U.S. DEA identified continued tours by the psychedelic rock band The Grateful Dead and the then-burgeoning rave scene as primary venues for LSD trafficking and consumption. American LSD usage fell sharply circa 2000. The decline is attributed to the arrest of two chemists, William Leonard Pickard, a Harvard-educated organic chemist, and Clyde Apperson. According to DEA reports, black market LSD availability dropped by 95% after the two were arrested in 2000. These arrests were a result of the largest LSD manufacturing raid in DEA history.[46] public domain from http://www. ... public domain from http://www. ... Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Grateful Dead were an American psychedelia-influenced rock band formed in 1965 in San Francisco. ... A rave (sometimes referred to as a rave party) is an all-night dance event where DJs and other performers play electronic dance music and rave music. ... William Leonard Pickard (b. ... Clyde Apperson (born 1955) was arrested in 2000 for allegedly running the largest illicit LSD manufacturing operation in United States history with partner William Leonard Pickard. ...


Pickard was an alleged member of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love group that produced and sold LSD in California during the late 1960s and early 1970s. It is believed he had links to other "cooks" associated with this group — an original source of the drug back in the 1960s — and his arrest may have forced other operations to cease production, leading to the large decline in street availability. The Brotherhood of Eternal Love operated a psychedelics distribution network throughout the United States, most notably in California where the organisation received large shipments of hashish from Pakistan and Afghanistan, helped by Welshman Howard Marks (now a prominent figure in the cannabis culture). ...


The DEA claims these two individuals were responsible for the vast majority of LSD sold illegally in the United States and a significant amount of the LSD sold in Europe, and that they worked closely with organized traffickers. While this claim may have some bearing, the extent of Pickard's direct influence on the overall availability in the United States is not fully known. Some attest that "Pickard's Acid" was sold exclusively in Europe, and was not distributed through American music venues. World map showing the location of Europe. ...


In November of 2003, Pickard was sentenced to life imprisonment without parole, and Apperson was sentenced to 30 years imprisonment without parole, after being convicted in Federal Court of running a large scale LSD manufacturing operation out of several clandestine laboratories, including a former missile silo near Wamego, Kansas. The United States federal courts are the system of courts organized under the Constitution and laws of the federal government of the United States. ... A missile silo is a underground vertical cylindrical container for the storage and launching of ICBMs. ... Wamego is a city in Pottawatomie County, Kansas, United States. ...


LSD manufacturers and traffickers can be categorized into two groups: A few large scale producers, such as the aforementioned Pickard and Apperson, and an equally limited number of small, clandestine chemists, consisting of independent producers who, operating on a comparatively limited scale, can be found throughout the country. As a group, independent producers are of less concern to the Drug Enforcement Administration than the larger groups, as their product reaches only local markets. Since 1973, the DEA has enforced the drug laws in the United States. ...


See also

ALD-52 or N-acetyl-LSD, is a chemical analogue of LSD-25 (D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide), discovered by Albert Hofmann, but later just filed away. ... The Bogle-Chandler case refers to the mysterious deaths of Dr Gilbert Bogle and Mrs Margaret Chandler on the banks of the Lane Cove River in Sydney on January 1, 1963. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An entheogen, in the strictest sense, is a psychoactive substance (most often some plant matter with hallucinogenic effects) that occasions an enlightening spiritual or mystical experience. ... Notable psychedelic self-experimenters are individuals who have publicly reported on their personal experiences with psychedelic drugs like LSD and magic mushrooms. Some of these comments date from the era when LSD was legally available in the US and Europe for non-medical uses, and others pertain to psychiatric treatment... Declassified MKULTRA documents Project MKULTRA (also known as MK-ULTRA) was the code name for a CIA mind-control research program that began in the 1950s. ... The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA, colloquially known as The Company or simply, The Agency) is an intelligence agency of the United States Government. ... There exist many examples of Psychedelics in popular culture. ... Psychedelic psychotherapy refers to psychotherapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs. ... Holding Serviceman could not maintain a tort action against the federal government, because his injuries were service-related. ... Chemistry (from Persian language کیمیا Kimia and Greek χημεία khēmeía[1] meaning alchemy) is the science of matter at the atomic to molecular scale, dealing primarily with collections of atoms, such as gases, molecules, crystals, and metals. ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... Chemical structure of ergine Ergine, also known as d-lysergic acid amide, LSA, and LA-111, is an alkaloid of the ergoline family that occurs in various species of vines of the Convolvulaceae and some species of fungi. ... Psilocybin (also known as psilocybine), is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family. ... Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, not to be confused with 5-MeO-DMT, is a psychedelic tryptamine, similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ...

References

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  2. ^ ACHRE Report, chapter 3: "Supreme Court Dissents Invoke the Nuremberg Code: CIA and DOD Human Subjects Research Scandals".
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  30. ^ Video of the experiment can be viewed here.
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  39. ^ Strassman RJ (1984). "Adverse reactions to psychedelic drugs. A review of the literature". J Nerv Ment Dis 172 (10): 577-95. PMID 6384428. 
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  43. ^ a b "LSD in the US – Manufacture", DEA Publications.
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2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Erowid. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander and Ann Shulgin, in a photo from their book TiHKAL, c. ... Ann Shulgin (March 22, 1931) is an author and wife of famous chemist Alexander Shulgin. ... TiHKAL is a 1997 book written by Dr Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin about tryptamines. ... Erowid. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ABC Radio National is an Australia-wide radio network with many various programs, involving news and current affairs, arts, music, society, science, drama and comedy. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Erowid. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Erowid. ... The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), a component of the Executive Office of the President of the United States, was established in 1988 by the Anti-Drug Abuse Act. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Aldous FAB, Barrass BC, Brewster K, et al. "Structure-Activity Relationships in Psychotomimetic Phenylalkylamines," Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 17, 1100–1111 (1974)
  • Grof, Stanislave. LSD Psychotherapy. (April 10, 2001)
  • Lee, Martin A. and Bruce Shlain. Acid Dreams: The Complete Social History of LSD: The CIA, the Sixties, and Beyond

External links


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[edit]Psychedelic lysergamides

AL-LAD, ALD-52, BU-LAD, CYP-LAD, DAL, DAM-57, Ergonovine, ETH-LAD, LAE-32, LSD, LPD-824, LSM-775, Methylergonovine, MLD-41, PARGY-LAD, PRO-LAD Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain. ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-ALLYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (AL-LAD) is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TIHKAL. AL-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, and is around the same potency as LSD itself with an active dose... ALD-52 or N-acetyl-LSD, is a chemical analogue of LSD-25 (D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide), discovered by Albert Hofmann, but later just filed away. ... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-BUTYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (BU-LAD) is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TIHKAL. BU-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, but is significantly less potent than LSD with a dose of 500 micrograms... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-CYCLOPROPYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (CYP-LAD) is an analogue of LSD and presumably has similar effects. ... N,N-Diallyllysergamide (DAL) As the tartrate salt, there is at best a touch of sparkle seen at 600 micrograms orally, but there is a sedation also reported. ... N,N-Dimethyllysergamide (DAM-57) is a derivative of ergine. ... Ergonovine, also known as ergometrine, d-lysergic acid beta-propanolamide, is one of primary ergot alkaloids and an alkaloid of many species of morning glory, too. ... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-ETHYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (ETH-LAD) is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TIHKAL. ETH-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, and is slightly more potent than LSD itself with an active dose reported... D-Lysergic Acid Ethylamide, (LAE-32) is a derivative of ergine. ... N-Pyrrolidyllysergamide (LPD-824) is a derivative of ergine. ... N-Morpholinyllysergamide (LSM-775) is a derivative of ergine. ... Methylergonovine, also known as methylergometrine, methylergobasin, and d-lysergic acid 1-butanolamide, is a synthetic analogue of ergonovine, a psychedelic alkaloid found in ergot, and many species of morning glory. ... N1-Methyl-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (MLD-41, 9,10-didehydro-N,N-diethyl-1,6-dimethyl-ergoline-8-beta-carboxamide) is a derivative of LSD. The 1-methyl homologue of LSD is has more of somatic than sensory effect, has fewer visuals and is less well accepted than LSD, with... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-PROPYNYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (PARGY-LAD) is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TIHKAL. PARGY-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, but is slightly less potent than LSD with a dose of 160 micrograms... 9,10-DIDEHYDRO-6-PROPYL-N,N-DIETHYLERGOLINE-8b-CARBOXAMIDE (PRO-LAD) is an analogue of LSD first made by Alexander Shulgin and reported in the book TIHKAL. PRO-LAD is a hallucinogenic drug similar to LSD, and is around as potent as LSD itself with an active dose reported...


  Results from FactBites:
 
LSD - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6744 words)
LSD is synthesized from lysergic acid derived from ergot, a grain fungus that typically grows on rye.
LSD first became popular recreationally among a small group of mental health professionals such as psychiatrists and psychologists during the 1950s, as well as by socially prominent and politically powerful individuals such as Henry and Clare Boothe Luce to whom the early LSD researchers were connected socially.
Dosages of LSD are measured in micrograms (µg), or millionths of a gram.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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