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Encyclopedia > LORAN

LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation) is a terrestrial navigation system using low frequency radio transmitters that use the time interval between radio signals received from three or more stations to determine the position of a ship or aircraft. The current version of LORAN in common use is LORAN-C, which operates in the low frequency portion of the EM spectrum from 90 to 110 kHz. Many nations are users of the system, including the United States, Japan, and several European countries. Russia uses a nearly identical system in the same frequency range, called CHAYKA. LORAN use is in steep decline, with GPS being the primary replacement. However, there are current attempts to enhance and re-popularize LORAN. Radio navigation or radionavigation is the application of radio frequencies to determining a position on the Earth. ... Low Frequency or LF refers to Radio Frequencies (RF) in the range of 30–300 kHz. ... In communications and information processing, a transmitter (sometimes abbreviated XMTR) is an object (source) which sends information to an observer (receiver). ... MHZ redirects here. ... CHAYKA is a Russian radio navigation system, similar like LORAN-C. It is also run on 100 kHz and is described like LORAN-C by its GRI. There are 5 CHAYKA-chains in use. ... The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ...

Contents

History

LORAN was an American development of the British GEE radio navigation system (used during World War II). While GEE had a range of about 400 miles (644 km), early LORAN systems had a range of 1,200 miles (1,930 km). LORAN systems were up and running during World War II and were used extensively by the US Navy and Royal Navy. It was originally known as "LRN" for Loomis radio navigation, after millionaire and physicist Alfred Lee Loomis, who invented LORAN and played a crucial role in military research and development during WWII. GEE (short for Grid and pronounced simply as G) or AMES Type 7000 was a British radio navigation system used during World War II; the ideas in GEE were developed by the Americans into the LORAN system. ... Radio navigation is the application of radio frequencies to determining a position on the earth. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Alfred Lee Loomis (November 4, 1887-August 11, 1975) was an American lawyer, investment banker, physicist, philanthropist, and patron of scientific research. ...


Principle

A crude diagram of the LORAN principle. The difference between the time of receipt of synchronized signals from radio stations A and B is constant along each hyperbolic curve.

The navigational method provided by LORAN is based on the principle of the time difference between the receipt of signals from a pair of radio transmitters. A given constant time difference between the signals from the two stations can be represented by a hyperbolic line of position (LOP). If the positions of the two synchronized stations are known, then the position of the receiver can be determined as being somewhere on a particular hyperbolic curve where the time difference between the received signals is constant. (In ideal conditions, this is proportionally equivalent to the difference of the distances from the receiver to each of the two stations.) Crude diagram of time-difference principle. ... Crude diagram of time-difference principle. ... In information theory, a signal is the sequence of states of a communications channel that encodes a message. ... In mathematics, a hyperbola (Greek literally overshooting or excess) is a type of conic section defined as the intersection between a right circular conical surface and a plane which cuts through both halves of the cone. ... A position line is a line that can be identified both on a nautical chart or aeronautical chart and by observation out on the surface of the earth. ... In radio terminology, a receiver is an electronic circuit that receives a radio signal from an antenna and decodes the signal for use as sound, pictures, navigational-position information, etc. ... Distance is a numerical description of how far apart objects are at any given moment in time. ...


By itself, with only two stations, the 2-dimensional position of the receiver cannot be fixed. A second application of the same principle must be used, based on the time difference of a different pair of stations. By determining the intersection of the two hyperbolic curves identified by the application of this method, a geographic fix can be determined. Dimension (from Latin measured out) is, in essence, the number of degrees of freedom available for movement in a space. ... A position fix or simply a fix is a term used in position fixing in navigation to describe a position derived from measuring external reference points. ... In mathematics, the concept of a curve tries to capture the intuitive idea of a geometrical one-dimensional and continuous object. ...


LORAN method

In the case of LORAN, one station remains constant in each application of the principle, the master, being paired up separately with two other slave, or secondary, stations. Given two secondary stations, the time difference (TD) between the master and first secondary identifies one curve, and the time difference between the master and second secondary identifies another curve, the intersections of which will determine a geographic point in relation to the position of the three stations. These curves are often referred to as "TD lines." Physical map of the Earth (Medium) (Large 2 MB) Geography is the scientific study of the locational and spatial variation in both physical and human phenomena on Earth. ...


In practice, LORAN is implemented in integrated regional arrays, or chains, consisting of one master station and at least two (but often more) secondary stations, with a uniform "group repetition interval" (GRI) defined in microseconds. The master station transmits a series of pulses, then pauses for that amount of time before transmitting the next set of pulses. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 10−6 seconds and 10−5 seconds (1. ...


The secondary stations receive this pulse signal from the master, then wait a preset amount of milliseconds, known as the secondary coding delay, to transmit a response signal. In a given chain, each secondary's coding delay is different, allowing for separate identification of each secondary's signal (though in practice, modern LORAN receivers do not rely on this for secondary identification). One millisecond is one-thousandth of a second. ... In its general sense, delay refers to a lapse of time. ...


LORAN chains (GRIs)

Each LORAN chain in the world uses a unique GRI (Group Repetition Interval), which is designated by the number of microseconds divided by 10 (in practice the GRI delays are multiples of 100 microseconds). LORAN chains are often referred to by this designation, e.g. GRI 9960, the designation for the LORAN chain serving the Northeast U.S. Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


Due to the nature of hyperbolic curves, it is possible for a particular combination of a master and 2 slave stations to result in a "grid" where the axes intersect at acute angles. For ideal positional accuracy, it is desirable to operate on a navigational grid where the axes are as Cartesian as possible -- i.e., the axes are at right angles to each other. As the receiver travels through a chain, a certain selection of secondaries whose TD lines initially formed a near-Cartesian grid can become a grid that is sharply angular. As a result, the selection of one or both secondaries should be changed so that the TD lines of the new combination are closer to right angles. To allow this, nearly all chains provide at least three, and as many as five, secondaries. A coordinate axis is one of a set of vectors that defines a coordinate system. ... ∠, the angle symbol. ... Fig. ... This article is about angles in geometry. ...


LORAN charts

This nautical chart of New York Harbor includes LORAN-A TD lines. Note that the printed lines do not extend into inland waterway areas.

Where available, common marine navigational charts include visible representations of TD lines at regular intervals over water areas. The TD lines representing a given master-slave pairing are printed with distinct colors, and include an indication of the specific time difference indicated by each line. Download high resolution version (906x595, 171 KB)Nautical chart including LORAN TD lines for ocean approaches to New York Harbor. ... Download high resolution version (906x595, 171 KB)Nautical chart including LORAN TD lines for ocean approaches to New York Harbor. ... “NY” redirects here. ...


Due to interference and propagation issues suffered by low-frequency signals from land features, and man-made structures, the accuracy of the LORAN signal is degraded considerably in inland areas. (See Limitations.) As a result, nautical charts will not print any TD lines in those areas, to prevent reliance on LORAN for navigation in such areas.


Traditional LORAN receivers generally display the time difference between each pairing of the master and one of the two selected secondary stations. These numbers can then be found in relation to those of the TD lines printed on the chart.


Modern LORAN receivers display latitude and longitude instead of time differences, and with improved accuracy.


Transmitters and antennas

LORAN-C transmitters operate at peak powers of 100 kilowatts to four megawatts, comparable to longwave broadcasting stations. Most LORAN-C transmitters use mast radiators insulated from ground with heights between 190 and 220 metres. The masts are inductively lengthened and fed by a loading coil (see: electrical lengthening). A well known-example of a station using such an antenna is LORAN-C transmitter Rantum. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In electronics, a loading coil is a coil (inductor) that does not provide coupling to any other circuit, but is inserted in a circuit to increase its inductance. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... The LORAN-C transmitter Rantum is a transmission facility for LORAN-C on the German island Sylt near the village Rantum. ...


Free-standing tower radiators in this height range are also used. LORAN-C transmitter Carolina Beach uses a free-standing antenna tower. A typical mast radiator Base feed: mast is fed from Aerial Tuning Unit on right via conductor to top of brown ceramic insulator. ... LORAN-C transmitter Carolina Beach is the Zulu secondary station of the U.S. Southeast chain ( GRI 7270) with a transmission power of 800 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Carolina Beach, situated near Carolina Beach, North Carolina, USA at 34°346. ...


LORAN-C transmitters with output powers of 1000 kW and higher sometimes use supertall mast radiators (see below). This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Other high power LORAN-C stations, like LORAN-C transmitter George, use four T-antennas mounted on four guyed masts arranged in a square. LORAN-C transmitter George is a LORAN-C transmitter serving the LORAN-C grids GRI 5990 and GRI 9940 with a transmission power of 1600 kW. LORAN-C transmitter George is situated at George at 47°348. ...


All LORAN-C antennas radiate an omnidirectional pattern. Unlike longwave broadcasting stations, LORAN-C stations cannot use backup antennas. The slightly different physical location of a backup antenna would produce Lines of Position different from those of the primary antenna.


Limitations

LORAN suffers from electronic effects of weather and the ionospheric effects of sunrise and sunset. The most accurate signal is the groundwave that follows the Earth's surface, ideally over seawater. At night the indirect skywave, bent back to the surface by the ionosphere, is a problem as multiple signals may arrive via different paths. The ionosphere's reaction to sunrise and sunset accounts for the particular disturbance during those periods. Magnetic storms have serious effects as with any radio based system. Groundwave is the propagation of radio waves close to the surface of the Earth. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ionosphere. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ... Multipath interference is a phenomenon in the physics of waves whereby a wave from a source travels to a detector via two or more paths and, under the right condition, the two (or more) components of the wave interfere. ... A Magnetic storm is also known as a geomagnetic storm. ...


Loran uses ground based transmitters that only cover certain regions. Coverage is quite good in North America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim.


LORAN-A and other systems

LORAN-A was a less accurate system operating in the upper mediumwave frequency band prior to deployment of the more accurate LORAN-C system. For LORAN-A the transmission frequencies 1750 kHz, 1850 kHz, 1900 kHz and 1950 kHz were used. LORAN-A continued in operation partly due to the economy of the receivers and widespread use in civilian recreational and commercial navigation. LORAN-B was a phase comparison variation of LORAN-A while LORAN-D was a short-range tactical system designed for Air Force bombers. The unofficial "LORAN-F" was a drone control system. None of these went much beyond the experimental stage. An external link to them is listed below.


Loran A was used in the Viet Nam war for navigation by large US aircraft (C 124, C 130, C 97, C 123, HU 16 etc). A common airborne receiver of that era was the R 65 APN 9 which combined the receiver and CRT indicator into a single relatively lightweight unit replacing the two larger, separate receiver and indicator units which comprised the predecessor APN 4 system. The APN 9 and APN 4 systems found wide post-WW 2 use on fishing vessels in the US. They were cheap, accurate and plentiful. The main drawback for use on boats was their need for aircraft power, 115 VAC at 400 Hz. This was solved initially by the use of rotary inverters, typically 28 VDC input and 115 VAC output at 400 Hz. The inverters were big and loud and were power hogs. In the 1960s several firms (e.g. Topaz and Linear Systems) marketed solid state inverters specifically designed for these surplus Loran A sets. The availability of solid state inverters that used 12 VDC input opened up the surplus Loran A sets for use on much smaller vessels which typically did not have the 24-28 VDC systems found on larger vessels. The solid state inverters were very power efficient and widely replaced the more trouble prone rotary inverters.


Loran A saved many lives by allowing offshore boats in distress to give accurate position reports. It also guided many boats whose owners could not afford radar safely into fog bound harbors or around treacherous offshore reefs. The low price of surplus Loran A receivers (often under $150) meant that many small fishing vessels' owners could afford this gear, thus greatly enhancing safety. Surplus Loran A gear, which was common on commercial fishing boats, was rarely seen on yachts. The unrefined cosmetic appearance of the surplus gear was probably a deciding factor.


Pan Am used APN 9s in early Boeing 707 operations. The WW 2 surplus APN 9 looked out of place in the modern 707 cockpit, but was needed. There is an R65A APN 9 set displayed in the museum at SFO Airport, painted gold. It was a retirement present to an ex Pan Am captain.


An elusive final variant of the APN 9 set was the APN 9A. A USAF technical manual (with photographs and schematics) shows that it had the same case as the APN 9 but a radically different front panel and internal circuitry on the non-RF portions. The APN 9A had vacuum tube flip-flop digital divider circuits so that TDs (time delays) between the master and slave signal could be dialed up on front panel rotary decade switches. The older APN 9 set required the user to do an eyeball count of crystal oscillator timing marker pips on the CRT and add them up to get a TD. The APN 9A did not make it into widespread military use, if it was used at all, but it did exist and represented a big advance in military Loran A receiver technology.


In the 1970s one US company, SRD Labs in Campbell California, made modern Loran A sets including one that was completely automatic with a digital TD readout on the CRT, and autotracking so that TDs were continuously updated. Other SRD models required the user to manually align the master and slave signals on the CRT and then a phase locked loop would keep them lined up and provide updated TD readouts thereafter. These SRD Loran A sets would track only one pair of stations, giving you just one LOP (line of position). If you wanted a continuously updated position (two TDs giving intersecting LOPs) rather than just a single LOP, you needed two sets.


Long after Loran A shut down, commercial fishermen still referred to old Loran A TDs, e.g. "I am on the 4100 (microsecond) line in 35 fathoms", referring to a position outside of Bodega Bay California. Many Loran C sets incorporated Loran A TD converters so that a Loran C set could navigate to a Loran A TD defined line or position.


LORAN Data Channel (LDC)

LORAN Data Channel (LDC) is a project underway between the FAA and USCG to send low bit rate data using the LORAN system. Messages to be sent include station identification, absolute time, and position correction messages. In 2001, data similar to Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) GPS correction messages were sent as part of a test of the Alaskan LORAN chain. As of November 2005, test messages using LDC were being broadcast from several U.S. LORAN stations. “FAA” redirects here. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States armed forces and is involved in maritime law enforcement, mariner assistance, search and rescue, and national defense. ... WAAS System Overview The Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) is an extremely accurate navigation system developed for civil aviation by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), a division of the United States Department of Transportation (DOT). ... The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ...


In recent years, LORAN-C has been used in Europe to send differential GPS and other messages, employing a similar method of transmission known as EUROFIX.


The future of LORAN

Worldwide Loran coverage

As LORAN systems are government maintained and operated, their continued existence is subject to public policy. With the evolution of other electronic navigation systems, such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), funding for existing systems is not always assured. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (872x510, 327 KB)A map of worldwide loran coverage. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (872x510, 327 KB)A map of worldwide loran coverage. ... Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. ...


Critics, who have called for the elimination of the system, state that the Loran system has too few users, lacks cost-effectiveness, and that GNSS signals are superior to Loran.[citation needed] Supporters of continued and improved Loran operation note that Loran uses a strong signal, which is difficult to jam, and that Loran is an independent, dissimilar, and complementary system to other forms of electronic navigation, which helps ensure availability of navigation signals.[1]


Recently both the US and European governments have announced political decisions to maintain and upgrade their Loran systems.


eLORAN

With the perceived vulnerability of GNSS systems, and their own propagation and reception limitations, renewed interest in LORAN applications and development has appeared. Enhanced LORAN, also known as eLORAN or E-LORAN, comprises an advancement in receiver design and transmission characteristics which increase the accuracy and usefulness of traditional LORAN. With reported accuracy as high as 8m, the system becomes competitive with unenhanced GPS. eLoran also includes additional pulses which can transmit auxiliary data such as DGPS corrections. eLoran receivers now use "all in view" reception, incorporating signals from all stations in range, not solely those from a single GRI, incorporating time signals and other data from up to 40 stations. These enhancements in LORAN make it adequate as a substitute for scenarios where GPS is unavailable or degraded. Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ...


United Kingdom eLORAN implementation

On 31st May 2007, the UK Department for Transport (DfT), via the General Lighthouse Authorities (GLA), awarded a 15 year contract to provide a state-of-the-art enhanced LORAN (eLORAN) service to improve the safety of mariners in the UK and Western Europe. The service contract will operate in two phases, with development work and further focus for European agreement on eLORAN service provision from 2007 through 2010, and full operation of the eLORAN service from 2010 through 2022. The eLORAN transmitter will be situated in Cumbria, UK, and operated by VT Communications, which is part of the VT Group PLC. Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ...


List of LORAN-C transmitters

LORAN Station Malone, Malone, Florida
LORAN transmitter bank
LORAN transmitter bank
Timing devices used for LORAN transmission control
Cesium atomic clocks used for LORAN signal synchronization

A list of LORAN-C transmitters. Stations with an antenna tower taller than 300 metres (984 feet) are shown in bold. LORAN Station Malone, Florida: Outside of station File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... LORAN Station Malone, Florida: Outside of station File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Malone is a town located in Jackson County, Florida. ... LORAN Station Malone, Florida: View of middle section of transmitter banks. ... LORAN Station Malone, Florida: View of middle section of transmitter banks. ... LORAN Station Malone, Florida: Timing devices File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... LORAN Station Malone, Florida: Timing devices File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 90 KB)LORAN Station Malone, Florida: Cesium clocks File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 90 KB)LORAN Station Malone, Florida: Cesium clocks File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The metre (or meter, see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...

Station Country Chain Remarks
Afif Saudi-Arabia Saudi Arabia South (GRI 7030)/Saudi Arabia North (GRI 8830)
Al Khamasin Saudi-Arabia Saudi Arabia South (GRI 7030)/Saudi Arabia North (GRI 8830)
Al Muwassam Saudi-Arabia Saudi Arabia South (GRI 7030)/Saudi Arabia North (GRI 8830)
Angissq Greenland shutdown on December 31, 1994 used until July 27, 1964 a 411.48 metre tower
Ash Shayk Saudi-Arabia Saudi Arabia South (GRI 7030)/Saudi Arabia North (GRI 8830)
Attu, Alaska U.S. North Pacific (GRI 9990)/Russian-American (GRI 5980)
Balasore India Calcutta (GRI 5543)
Barrigada Guam shut-down
Baudette, Minnesota U.S. North Central U.S. (GRI 8290)/Great Lakes (GRI 8970)
Berlevåg Norway Bø (GRI 7001)
Billamora India Bombay (GRI 6042)
Boise City, Oklahoma U.S. Great Lakes (GRI 8970)/ South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)
Cambridge Bay Canada shut-down free-standing lattice tower, used as NDB
Cape Race Canada Canadian East Coast (GRI 5930)/Newfoundland East Coast (GRI 7270) used until February 2, 1993 a 411.48 metre tall tower, uses now a 260.3 metre tall tower
Caribou, Maine U.S. Canadian East Coast (GRI 5930) / Northeast U.S. (GRI 9960)
Carolina Beach, North Carolina U.S. Northeast US (GRI 9960)/ Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)
Chongzuo China China South Sea (GRI 6780)/ Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)
Comfort Cove Canada Newfoundland East Coast (GRI 7270)
Dana, Indiana U.S. Great Lakes (GRI 8970)/ Northeast US (GRI 9960)
Dhrangadhra India Bombay (GRI 6042)
Diamond Harbor India Calcutta (GRI 5543)
Eiði Faroe Islands Ejde (GRI 9007)
Estartit Spain Mediterranean Sea (GRI 7990); shut down
Fallon, Nevada U.S. U.S. West Coast (GRI 9940)
Fox Harbour Canada Newfoundland East Coast (GRI 7270)/ Canadian East Coast (GRI 5930)
George United States Canadian West Coast (GRI 5990)/ U.S. West Coast (GRI 9940)
Gesashi Japan East Asia (GRI 9930)/ North West Pacific (GRI 8930)
Gillette, Wyoming U.S. South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)/ North Central U.S. (GRI 8290)
Grangeville, Idaho U.S. South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)/ Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)
Havre U.S. North Central U.S. (GRI 8290)
Hellissandur Iceland shut down on December 31, 1994 411.48 metre tall tower, now used for longwave broadcasting of RÚV on 189 kHz
Helong China China North Sea (GRI 7430)
Hexian China China South Sea (GRI 6780)
Jan Mayen Norway Bø (GRI 7001)/ Ejde (GRI 9007)
Johnston Island U.S. shut-down
Iwo Jima Japan shut down in September 1993, dismantled used a 411.48 metre tall tower
Jupiter, Florida U.S. Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)
Kargaburan Turkey Mediterranean Sea (GRI 7990); shut down
Kwang Ju South Korea East Asia (GRI 9930)
Lampedusa Italy Mediterranean Sea (GRI 7990); shut down
Las Cruces, New Mexico U.S. South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)
Lessay France Lessay (GRI 6731) / Sylt (GRI 7499)
Loop Head Ireland was planned (GRI 6731 and 9007), but never operational
Malone, Florida U.S. Great Lakes (GRI 8970) / Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)
Minamitorishima Japan North West Pacific (GRI 8930) used until 1985 a 411.48 metre tall tower
Nantucket, Massachusetts U.S. Canadian East Coast (GRI 5930) / Northeast U.S. (GRI 9960)
Narrow Cape Alaska North Pacific (GRI 9990) / Gulf of Alaska (GRI 7960)
Niijima Japan North West Pacific (GRI 8930) / East Asia (GRI 9930)
Patpur India Calcutta (GRI 5543)
Pohang South Korea North West Pacific (GRI 8930) / East Asia (GRI 9930)
Port Clarence Alaska Gulf of Alaska (GRI 7960)/North Pacific (GRI 9990) uses a 411.48 metre tall tower
Port Hardy Canada Canadian West Coast (GRI 5990)
Rantum Germany Sylt (GRI 7499)/ Lessay (GRI 6731)
Raymondville, Texas U.S. South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)/ Southeast U.S. (GRI 7980)
Raoping China China South Sea (GRI 6780)/ China East Sea (GRI 8930)
Rongcheng China China North Sea (GRI 7430)/ China East Sea (GRI 8930)
Rugby UK experimental (GRI 6731); shut down at the end of July 2007
Saint Paul Alaska North Pacific (GRI 9990)
Salwa Saudi-Arabia Saudi Arabia North (GRI 8830)/Saudi Arabia South (GRI 7030)
Searchlight, Nevada U.S. U.S. West Coast (GRI 9940)/South Central U.S. (GRI 9610)
Sellia Marina Italy Mediterranean Sea (GRI 7990); shut down
Seneca, New York U.S. Great Lakes (GRI 8970)/Northeast U.S. (GRI 9960)
Shoal Cove Alaska Canadian West Coast (GRI 5990)/Gulf of Alaska (GRI 7960)
Soustons France Lessay (GRI 6731)
Tok Alaska Gulf of Alaska (GRI 7960)
Tokachibuto Japan Eastern Russia Chayka (GRI 7950)/ North West Pacific (GRI 8930)
Upolo Point, Hawaii U.S. shut-down
Værlandet Norway Sylt (GRI 7499)/ Ejde (GRI 9007)
Veraval India Bombay (GRI 6042)
Williams Lake Canada Canadian West Coast (GRI 5990)
Xuancheng China China North Sea (GRI 7430)/ China East Sea (GRI 8930)
Yap Micronesia shut down in 1987, dismantled used a 304.8 metre tall tower

LORAN-C transmitter Afif is the X-ray secondary of the Saudi Arabia South LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7030) and the Master Station of the Saudi Arabia Northern LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 8830 It uses for both chains a transmission power of 400 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Afif is situated... LORAN-C transmitter Al Khamasin is the Master station of the Saudi Arabia South LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7030) and the X-ray secondary of the Saudi Arabia North LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 8830 ). It uses for both chains a transmission power of 1000 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Al Khamasin... LORAN-C transmitter Al Khamasin is the Zulu secondary of the Saudi Arabia South LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7030) and the Zulu secondary of the Saudi Arabia North LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 8830 ). It uses for both chains a transmission power of 1000 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Al Muwassam is... Angissq LORAN-C transmitter was a LORAN-C transmitter at Nanortalik-Angissq, Greenland of GRI 7930, 59°5918N, 45°1024 W ( ). Angissq LORAN-C transmitter had a transmission power of 1000 kilowatts. ... LORAN-C transmitter Ash Shayk is the Yankee secondary of the Saudi Arabia South LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7030) and the Yankee secondary of the Saudi Arabia North LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 8830 ). It uses for both chains a transmission power of 1000 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Ash Shayk is... LORAN-C transmitter Attu is the Whiskey secondary station of the Russian-American LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 5980) and the X-ray secondary of North-Pacific LORAN-C chain ( GRI 9990). ... LORAN-C transmitter Balasore is the Master station of the Calcutta LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 5543). ... Barrigada LORAN-C transmitter was the replacement of Yap LORAN-C transmitter, situated at Barrigada on Guam. ... LORAN-C transmitter Baudette is the Whiskey secondary station of the North Central U.S. LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 8970) and the Yankee Secondary of the Great Lakes LORAN-C chain ( GRI 8290). ... LORAN-C transmitter Billamora is the X-ray secondary station of the Bombay LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 6042). ... LORAN-C transmitter Boise is the Zulu secondary station of the Great Lakes LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 8970). ... CB NDB from the air Cambridge Bay LORAN Tower is a 189 metre tall [[Self supporting[ [lattice tower]] at Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, Canada. ... A non-directional beacon (NDB) is a radio broadcast station in a known location, used as an aviation or marine navigational aid. ... Cape Race LORAN-C transmitter is a LORAN-C transmitter at Cape Race, Canada at 46°4632N, 53°1028 W ( ). Cape Race LORAN-C transmitter used as antenna tower until Februar 2nd, 1993 a 420. ... LORAN-C transmitter Carolina Beach is the Zulu secondary station of the U.S. Southeast chain ( GRI 7270) with a transmission power of 800 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Carolina Beach, situated near Carolina Beach, North Carolina, USA at 34°346. ... LORAN-C transmitter Chongzuo is the Yankee secondary of the China South Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 6780 ). It uses a transmission power of 1200 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Chongzuo is situated near Chongzuo at ( ). Categories: | ... LORAN-C transmitter Dhrangadhra is the Master station of the Bombay LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 6042). ... LORAN-C transmitter Diamond Harbor is the Whiskey secondary station of the Calcutta LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 5543). ... LORAN-C transmitter Ejde is the Master station of the Ejde LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9007). ... LORAN-C transmitter Estartit is the Zulu secondary station of the Mediterrean Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7990). ... LORAN-C transmitter Fallon is the Master station of the U.S. West Coast LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9940). ... LORAN-C transmitter George is a LORAN-C transmitter serving the LORAN-C grids GRI 5990 and GRI 9940 with a transmission power of 1600 kW. LORAN-C transmitter George is situated at George at 47°348. ... LORAN-C transmitter Gesashi is the Whiskey secondary station of the North West Pacific LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 8930) and the X-Ray Secondary of the East Asia LORAN-C chain ( GRI 9930). ... The LORAN-C transmitter Gillette is a LORAN-C transmission facility near Gillette, Wyoming at 44°0011 N and 105°3724 W. Its aerial, a 213. ... LORAN-C transmitter Grangeville is the Whiskey secondary station of the Southeast U.S. LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7980). ... LORAN-C transmitter Havre is the master station of the North-Central U.S. LORAN-C Chain (GRI 8290). ... The Longwave radio mast Hellissandur (also called Gufuskálar ) is a 412 metre high guyed radio mast for longwave transmissions in the vicinity of Hellissandur on the peninsula Snæfellsnes of Iceland at 64°5424″N, 23°5518″W,( ). This mast, which is the tallest structure in Western... Ríkisútvarpið (IPA: ) or RÚV (English: The National Icelandic Broadcasting Service) is Icelands main public-service broadcaster. ... LORAN-C transmitter Helong is the Yankee secondary of the China North Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7430 ). It uses a transmission power of 1200 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Helong is situated near Helong at ( ). Categories: | ... LORAN-C transmitter Hexian is the Master station of the China South Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 6780 ). It uses a transmission power of 1200 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Hexian is situated near Hexian at ( ). Categories: | ... LORAN-C transmitter Johnston Island was a LORAN-C transmitter on Johnston Island. ... Iwo Jima LORAN-C transmitter was a LORAN-C transmitter at Iwo Jima, Japan of Grid 9970 at 24°488N, 141°1932 E( ).. Iwo Jima LORAN-C transmitter has a transmission power of 4000 kilowatts, which is more than the most powerful broadcasting stations. ... LORAN-C transmitter Jupiter is the Yankee secondary station of the Southeast U.S. LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7980). ... LORAN-C transmitter Kargabarun is the Yankee secondary station of the Mediterrean Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7990). ... LORAN-C transmitter Kwang Ju is the Whiskey secondary of the East Asia LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9930). ... LORAN-C transmitter Lampedusa is the X-Ray secondary station of the Mediterranean Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7990). ... LORAN-C transmitter Las Cruces is the X-ray secondary of the South Central U.S. LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9940). ... LORAN-C transmitter Loop Head is a LORAN-C transmitter at Loop Head in the Republic of Ireland, situated at 52° 35 03 N, 9° 49 06 W ( ). LORAN-C transmitter Loop Head is used as Zulu Secondary station with a transmission power of 250 kW at the Ejde LORAN... LORAN Station Malone, Malone, Florida LORAN-C transmitter Malone is the master station of the Southeast U.S. LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 8970) and the Whiskey Secondary of the Great Lakes chain ( GRI 8970). ... Marcus Island LORAN-C transmitter is a LORAN-C transmitter on Marcus Island, Japan of Grid 9970 at 24°178 N, 153°5854 E( ).. Markus Island LORAN-C transmitter had a transmission power of 4000 kilowatts, which was more than the most powerful broadcasting stations ever used. ... LORAN-C transmitter Nantucket is the X-ray secondary of the Northeast US LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9960). ... LORAN-C transmitter Narrow Cape is the Zulu secondary of the North Pacific LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9990) and the X-ray secondary of Gulf of Alaska Chain ( GRI 7960). ... LORAN-C transmitter Niijima is the Master station of the North West Pacific LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 8930) and the Yankee secondary of the East Asia LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9930 ). It uses for both chains a transmission power of 1000 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Niijima is situated near Niijima... LORAN-C transmitter Pohang is the Master station of the East Asia LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9930) and the Zulu secondary of the North West Pacific Chain (GRI 8930). ... The LORAN-C transmitter Port Clarence is a transmission facility for LORAN-C situated at Port Clarence, Alaska at . It uses as aerial a 411. ... The LORAN-C transmitter Rantum is a transmission facility for LORAN-C on the German island Sylt near the village Rantum. ... LORAN-C transmitter Raymondville is the Yankee secondary station of the South Central U.S. LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9610) and the X-ray secondary of Southeast U.S. LORAN-C chain ( GRI 7980). ... LORAN-C transmitter Raoping is the X-raysecondary of the China South Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 6780 ). It uses a transmission power of 1200 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Raoping is situated near Raoping at ( ). Categories: | ... LORAN-C transmitter Rongcheng is the Master station of the China North Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7430 ). It uses a transmission power of 1200 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Rongcheng is situated near Rongcheng at ( ). Categories: | ... A view of the masts The VLF transmitter Rugby is a large VLF transmission facility near the town of Rugby, Warwickshire in England. ... LORAN-C transmitter Saint Paul is the master station of the North Pacific LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9990). ... LORAN-C transmitter Salwa is the Whiskey secondary of the Saudi Arabia South LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7030) and the Whiskey secondary of the Saudi Arabia North LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 8830 ). It uses for both chains a transmission power of 1000 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Salwa is situated near... LORAN-C transmitter Searchlight is the Yankee secondary of the U.S. West Coast LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9940) and the Whiskey secondary of South Central U.S. Chain ( GRI 9940). ... LORAN-C transmitter Sellia Marina is the Master station of the Mediterrean Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7990). ... LORAN-C transmitter Seneca is the master station of the Northeast US LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 9960). ... LORAN-C transmitter Shoal Cove is the X-ray secondary of the Canadian West Coast LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 5990) and the Yankee secondary of Gulf of Alaska Chain ( GRI 7960). ... LORAN-C transmitter Soustons is the X-ray secondary station of the Lessay LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 6731) with a transmission power of 250 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Soustons, situated near Soustons, France at 43°4423 N, 1°2250 W,( ) uses as antenna a 213 metre ( 699 ft... LORAN-C transmitter Tok is the master station of the Gulf of Alaska LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7960). ... LORAN-C transmitter Tokachibuto is the Yankee secondary station of the Eastern Russia CHAYKA Chain ( GRI 7950) and the Yankee secondary of the North West Pacific LORAN-C- Chain (GRI 8930). ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Værlandet LORAN-C transmitter is a LORAN-C transmitter at Værlandet, Norway at 61° 17 49 N, 4° 41 47 E( ) . Værlandet LORAN-C transmitter is the Yankee secondary station of the Ejde chain ( GRI 9007) and a Yankee secondary station of the Sylt chain ( GRI 7499). ... LORAN-C transmitter Veraval is the Whiskey secondary station of the Bombay LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 6042). ... LORAN-C transmitter Xuancheng is the X-ray secondary station of the China North Sea LORAN-C Chain ( GRI 7430 ). It uses a transmission power of 1200 kW. LORAN-C transmitter Xuancheng is situated near Xuancheng at ( ). Categories: | ...

See also

CHAYKA is a Russian radio navigation system, similar like LORAN-C. It is also run on 100 kHz and is described like LORAN-C by its GRI. There are 5 CHAYKA-chains in use. ... Alpha (also called RSDN-20 ) is a Russian system for long range radio navigation. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Omega is the name for the first truly global radionavigation system for aircraft operated by the United States of America in cooperation with six partner nations. ... Decca Navigator Mk 12 The Decca Navigator System was a hyperbolic low frequency radio navigation system (also known as multilateration) that was first deployed during World War II when the Allied forces needed a system which could be used to achieve accurate landings. ... This article is about a portion of a periodic process. ... SHORAN SHORAN is an acronym for SHOrt RAnge Navigation and is the name give to the precision radar beacon type electronic navigation/bombing system used by both the B-26 and the B-29 for precision bombing in the Korean War. ... The navigators Oboe CRT display Oboe (Observer Bombing Over Enemy) was a British aerial blind bombing targeting system in World War II, based on radio transponder technology. ... G-H was a radio navigation system developed by Britain during World War II to aid RAF Bomber Command. ... GEE (short for Grid and pronounced simply as G) or AMES Type 7000 was a British radio navigation system used during World War II; the ideas in GEE were developed by the Americans into the LORAN system. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ...

References

  • Jennet Conan, Tuxedo Park: A Wall Street Tycoon and the Secret Palace of Science That Changed the Course of World War II (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002, ISBN 0-684-87287-0) pp. 231-232.
  • Department of Transportation and Department of Defense (2006-02). 2005 Federal Radionavigation Plan (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-02-26.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
LORAN (1014 words)
LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation) is a terrestrial radio-navigation system using ground-based transmitters.
Hyperbolic LORAN lines of position (LOP) are formed by measuring the difference in reception times of synchronized signals.
LORAN suffers from electronic effects of weather and in particular atmospheric effects related to sunrise and sunset.
loran: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (2610 words)
LORAN (LOng RAnge Navigation) is a terrestrial navigation system using low frequency radio transmitters that use the time interval between radio signals received from three or more stations to determine the position of a ship or aircraft.
LORAN use is in deep decline, with GPS being the primary replacement, however there are current attempts to enhance and re-popularize LORAN.
GRI 9960, the designation for the LORAN chain serving the Northeast U.S. Due to the nature of hyperbolic curves, it is possible for a particular combination of a master and 2 slave stations to result in a "grid" where the axis intersect at acute angles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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