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Encyclopedia > LIDAR
A FASOR used at the Starfire Optical Range for LIDAR and laser guide star experiments is tuned to the sodium D2a line and used to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere.
A FASOR used at the Starfire Optical Range for LIDAR and laser guide star experiments is tuned to the sodium D2a line and used to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere.
This lidar (laser range finder) may be used to scan buildings, rock formations, etc., to produce a 3D model. The lidar can aim its laser beam in a wide range: its head rotates horizontally, a mirror flips vertically. The laser beam is used to measure the distance to the first object on its path.
This lidar (laser range finder) may be used to scan buildings, rock formations, etc., to produce a 3D model. The lidar can aim its laser beam in a wide range: its head rotates horizontally, a mirror flips vertically. The laser beam is used to measure the distance to the first object on its path.

LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is an optical remote sensing technology that measures properties of scattered light to find range and/or other information of a distant target. The prevalent method to determine distance to an object or surface is to use laser pulses. Like the similar radar technology, which uses radio waves instead of light, the range to an object is determined by measuring the time delay between transmission of a pulse and detection of the reflected signal. LIDAR technology has application in archaeology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, remote sensing and atmospheric physics[1].Other terms for LIDAR include ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping)[2] and laser altimetry[3]. The acronym LADAR (Laser Detection and Ranging)[4] is often used in military contexts. The term laser radar is also in use but is misleading because it uses laser light and not the radiowaves that are the basis of conventional radar.[5] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 4406 KB) Original caption: Though the caption states that this is a sodium laser, this is actually misleading as the lasing medium in the Starfire Optical Range LIDAR laser seen here is really a dye laser which is tuned to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2000x3008, 4406 KB) Original caption: Though the caption states that this is a sodium laser, this is actually misleading as the lasing medium in the Starfire Optical Range LIDAR laser seen here is really a dye laser which is tuned to... A 50W FASOR used at the Starfire Optical Range In physics, a FASOR is an acronym for Frequency Addition Source of Optical Radiation. ... The Starfire Optical Range, as viewed from a helicopter. ... Lick Observatory laser guide star, built by LLNL. Laser guide stars are a form of artificial star created for use in astronomical adaptive optics imaging. ... Solar Fraunhofer lines In physics and optics, the Fraunhofer lines are a set of spectral lines named for the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer (1787--1826). ... A dye laser used at the Starfire Optical Range for LIDAR and laser guide star experiments is tuned to the sodium D line and used to excite sodium atoms in the upper atmosphere. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1920 × 2560 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Surface of the Earth Geomorphology is the study of landforms, including their origin and evolution, and the processes that shape them. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real... Atmospheric physics is the application of physics to the study of the atmosphere. ...

Contents

General description

The primary difference between rhino lidar and radar is that with lidar, much shorter wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are used, typically in the ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared. In general it is possible to image a feature or object only about the same size as the wavelength, or larger. Thus lidar is highly sensitive to aerosols and cloud particles and has many applications in atmospheric research and meteorology[1]. The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... The interferometric visibility (also known as interference visibility or fringe visibility or just visibility) quantifies the contrast of interference in any system which has wave-like properties, such as optics, quantum mechanics, water waves, or electrical signals. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ...


An object needs to produce a dielectric discontinuity in order to reflect the transmitted wave. At radar (microwave or radio) frequencies, a metallic object produces a significant reflection. However non-metallic objects, such as rain and rocks produce weaker reflections and some materials may produce no detectable reflection at all, meaning some objects or features are effectively invisible at radar frequencies. This is especially true for very small objects (such as single molecules and aerosols)[1]. A dielectric is a physical model commonly used to describe how an electric field behaves inside a material. ... In mathematics, a continuous function is one in which arbitrarily small changes in the input produce arbitrarily small changes in the output. ... This article is about the type of Electromagnetic radiation. ... Sine waves of various frequencies; the lower waves have higher frequencies than those above. ... For alternative meanings see metal (disambiguation). ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... http://visibleearth. ...


Lasers provide one solution to these problems. The beam densities and coherency are excellent. Moreover the wavelengths are much smaller than can be achieved with radio systems, and range from about 10 micrometers to the UV (ca. 250 nm). At such wavelengths, the waves are "reflected" very well from small objects. This type of reflection is called backscattering. Different types of scattering are used for different lidar applications, most common are Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering and Raman scattering as well as fluorescence. The wavelengths are ideal for making measurements of smoke and other airborne particles (aerosols), clouds, and air molecules[1]. For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... NM may stand for: National Master, a chess title Nautical mile, a unit of length used for maritime and aviation purposes Neal Morse, an American multi-instrumentalist Network marketing, a business model that combines direct marketing with franchising Neurofiber mitosis, a nerve disease, sometimes confused with neurofibromatosis New Mexico, in... Backscatter is the reflection of waves, particles, or signals back to the direction they came from. ... Rayleigh scattering causing the blue hue of the sky and the reddening at sunset Rayleigh scattering (named after Lord Rayleigh) is the scattering of light, or other electromagnetic radiation, by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the light. ... The Mie theory also called Lorenz-Mie theory is a complete mathematical-physical theory of the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by spherical particles, developed by Gustav Mie in 1908. ... Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ...


A laser typically has a very narrow beam which allows the mapping of physical features with very high resolution compared with radar. In addition, many chemical compounds interact more strongly at visible wavelengths than at microwaves, resulting in a stronger image of these materials. Suitable combinations of lasers can allow for remote mapping of atmospheric contents by looking for wavelength-dependent changes in the intensity of the returned signal. Resolving power is the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together. ...


Lidar has been used extensively for atmospheric research and meteorology. With the deployment of the GPS in the 1980's precision positioning of aircraft became possible. GPS based surveying technology has made airborne surveying and mapping applications possible and practical. Many have been developed, using downward-looking lidar instruments mounted in aircraft or satellites. A recent example is the NASA Experimental Advanced Research Lidar.[6] // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ...


Design

In general there are two types of lidar systems: micropulse lidar systems and high energy systems. Micropulse systems have developed as a result of the ever increasing amount of computer power available combined with advances in laser technology. They use considerably less energy in the laser, typically on the order of one microjoules, and are often "eye-safe" meaning they can be used without safety precautions. High-power systems are common in atmospheric research, where they are widely used for measuring many atmospheric parameters: the height, layering and densities of clouds, cloud particle properties (extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficient, depolarization), temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, trace gas concentration (ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, etc.)[1]. This article is about the machine. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ...


There are several major components to a lidar system:

  1. Laser — 600-1000 nm lasers are most common for non-scientific applications. They are inexpensive but since they can be focused and easily absorbed by the eye the maximum power is limited by the need to make them eye-safe. Eye-safety is often a requirement for most applications. A common alternative 1550 nm lasers are eye-safe at much higher power levels since this wavelength is not focussed by the eye, but the detector technology is less advanced and so these wavelengths are generally used at longer ranges and lower accuracies. They are also used for military applications as 1550nm is not visible in night vision goggles unlike the shorter 1000nm infrared laser. Airborne topographic mapping lidars generally use 1064 nm diode pumped YAG lasers, while bathymetric systems generally use 532 nm frequency doubled diode pumped YAG lasers because 532 nm penetrates water with much much less attenuation than does 1064 nm. Laser settings include the laser repetition rate (which controls the data collection speed). Pulse length is generally an attribute of the laser cavity length, the number of passes required through the gain material (YAG, YLF, etc.), and Q-switch speed. Better target resolution is achieved with shorter pulses, provided the Lidar receiver detectors and electronics have sufficient bandwidth[1].
  2. Scanner and optics — How fast images can be developed is also affected by the speed at which it can be scanned into the system. There are several options to scan the azimuth and elevation, including dual oscillating plane mirrors, a combination with a polygon mirror, a dual axis scanner. Optic choices affect the angular resolution and range that can be detected. A hole mirror or a beam splitter are options to collect a return signal.
  3. Receiver and receiver electronics — Receivers are made out of several materials. Two common ones are Si and InGaAs. They are made in either PIN diode or Avalanche photodiode configurations. The sensitivity of the receiver is another parameter that has to be balanced in a LIDAR design.
  4. Position and navigation systems — Lidar sensors that are mounted on mobile platforms such as airplanes or satellites require instrumentation to determine the absolute position and orientation of the sensor. Such devices generally include a Global Positioning System receiver and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU).

A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer, symbol nm) (Greek: νάνος, nanos, dwarf; μετρώ, metrό, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (or one millionth of a millimetre), which is the current SI base unit of length. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... A beam splitter is an optical device, that splits a beam of light in two. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) is a semiconductor composed of indium, gallium and arsenic. ... Layers of a PIN diode PIN diode is a diode with a wide, undoped intrinsic semiconductor region between p-type semiconductor and n-type semiconductor regions. ... Avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are photodetectors that can be regarded as the semiconductor analog to photomultipliers. ... GPS redirects here. ... An crap is a closed system that is used to detect altitude, location, and motion. ...

Applications

  • In geology and seismology a combination of aircraft-based LIDAR and GPS have evolved into an important tool for detecting faults and measuring uplift. The output of the two technologies can produce extremely accurate elevation models for terrain that can even measure ground elevation through trees. This combination was used most famously to find the location of the Seattle Fault in Washington, USA.[7] This combination is also being used to measure uplift at Mt. St. Helens by using data from before and after the 2004 uplift.[8]
  • Airborne LIDAR systems monitor glaciers and have the ability to detect subtle amounts or growth or decline. NASA's ICESat includes a LIDAR system for this purpose. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper[9] is also used extensively to monitor glaciers and perform coastal change analysis.
  • LIDAR has also found many applications in forestry. Canopy heights, biomass measurements, and leaf area can all be studied using airborne LIDAR systems. Similary, LIDAR is also used by many industries, including Energy and Railroad, and the Depatrment of Transportation as a faster way of surveying.
  • LIDAR may also be used to measure the speed of atmospheric winds. Doppler LIDAR systems developed by NASA measure atmospheric wind speed along a line. Scanning LIDAR, such as NASA's HALIE LIDAR, have been used to measure atmospheric wind velocity in a large three dimensional cone.[10] Applications extend to hurricane monitoring. ESA's wind mission ADM-Aeolus will be equipped with a doppler LIDAR system in order to provide global measurements of vertical wind profiles.[11]
  • Doppler LIDAR systems are also now beginning to be successfully applied in the renewable energy sector to acquire wind speed, turbulence, wind veer and wind shear data. Both pulsed and continuous wave systems are being used. Pulsed systems using signal timing to obtain vertical distance resolution, whereas continuous wave systems rely on detector focussing.
  • MOLA, the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter, used a LIDAR instrument in a Mars-orbiting satellite (the NASA Mars Global Surveyor) to produce a spectacularly accurate global topographic survey of the red planet.
  • In atmospheric physics, lidar is used as a remote detection instrument to measure densities of certain constituents of the middle and upper atmosphere, such as potassium, sodium, or molecular nitrogen and oxygen. These measurements can be used to calculate temperatures. Lidar can also be used to measure wind speed and to provide information about vertical distribution of the aerosol particles.
  • In oceanography, lidars are used for estimation of phytoplankton fluorescence and generally biomass in the surface layers of the ocean. Another application is airborne lidar bathymetry of sea areas too shallow for hydrographic vessels.
  • One situation where LIDAR has notable non-scientific application is in traffic speed law enforcement, for vehicle speed measurement, as a technology alternative to radar guns. The technology for this application is small enough to be mounted in a hand held camera "gun" and permits a particular vehicle's speed to be determined from a stream of traffic. Unlike RADAR which relies on doppler shifts to directly measure speed, police lidar relies on the principle of time-of-flight to calculate speed. The equivalent radar based systems are often not able to isolate particular vehicles from the traffic stream and are generally too large to be hand held. While there are distinct advantages to being able to pick out one vehicle in a pack, LIDAR has very serious problems associated with "sweep" error. Sweep error is almost always present because automobiles are typically targeted at distances ranging from several hundred feet to over one thousand feet. If the targets were flat surfaces moving forward, such as a large semi-tractor trailer truck, LIDAR can be more accurate. But, when the target is a jelly-bean-shaped automobile or SUV, sweep error is inevitable. Most traffic LIDAR systems send out a stream of approximately 100 pulses over the span of three-tenths of a second. A "black box," proprietary statistical algorithm picks and chooses which progressively shorter reflections to retain from the pulses over the short fraction of a second.
  • Military applications are not yet known to be in place and are possibly classified, but a considerable amount of research is underway in their use for imaging. Their higher resolution makes them particularly good for collecting enough detail to identify targets, such as tanks. Here the name LADAR is more common.
  • Lidar has been used to create Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems for automobiles. Systems such as those by Siemens and Hella use a lidar device mounted in the front of the vehicle to monitor the distance between the vehicle and any vehicle in front of it. In the event the vehicle in front slows down or is too close, the ACC applies the brakes to slow the vehicle. When the road ahead is clear, the ACC allows the vehicle to speed up to speed preset by the driver.
  • Laser imaging systems can be divided into scanning systems and non-scanning systems. The scanning system can again be divided into sub-groups by the way the laser beam is scanned across the object. Beam-scanners scan a narrow beam, typically in lines on top of each other, therefore this type of system is called a Laser Line Scanner (LLS). Fan-beam scanners scan a fan-shape beam across the object.
  • 3-D imaging is done with both scanning and non-scanning systems. "3-D gated viewing laser radar" is a non-scanning laser radar system that applies the so-called gated viewing technique. The gated viewing technique applies a pulsed laser and a fast gated camera. There are ongoing military research programmes in Sweden, Denmark, the USA and the UK with 3-D gated viewing imaging at several kilometers range with a range resolution and accuracy less than ten centimeters.

Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. ... Look up preston in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Seattle Fault cuts across Puget Sound and into Seattle itself. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological formation. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (IPA [ˈnæsÉ™]) is an agency of the United States government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... ICESat (Courtesy NASA) ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite), part of NASAs Earth Observing System, is a satellite mission for measuring ice sheet mass balance, cloud and aerosol heights, as well as land topography and vegetation characteristics. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ... A decidous beech forest in Slovenia. ... The canopy is the habitat found at the uppermost level of a forest, especially rainforest. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... This article is about the European Space Agency. ... The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment from the Apollo 11 mission The ongoing Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment measures the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser ranging. ... Tests of Einsteins general theory of relativity did not provide an experimental foundation for the theory until well after it was introduced in 1915. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was a US spacecraft developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Aerosol, is a term derived from the fact that matter floating in air is a suspension (a mixture in which solid or liquid or combined solid-liquid particles are suspended in a fluid). ... Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... Bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to topography. ... Hydrography is the measurement of physical characteristics of waters and marginal land. ... For the band, see The Police. ... U.S. Army soldier uses a radar gun to catch speeding violators at Tallil Air Base, Iraq. ... A source of waves moving to the left. ... Stanley is an autonomous vehicle created by Stanford Universitys Stanford Racing Team. ... The driverless car is an emerging family of technologies, ultimately aimed at a full taxi-like experience for car users, but without a driver. ... Darpa Grand Challenge The DARPA Grand Challenge is a prize competition for driverless cars, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), the central research organization of the United States Department of Defense. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cruise control. ... Split image of JET with right side showing hot plasma during a shot. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... , Abingdon (traditionally known as Abingdon-on-Thames) is a market town in Oxfordshire in Southern England. ... In physics, Thomson scattering is the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a charged particle. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plasma. ... A hemispherical cup anemometer of the type invented in 2000 by John Thomas Romney Robinson An anemometer is a device for measuring the velocity or the pressure of the wind, and is one instrument used in a weather station. ... A barograph is a recording aneroid barometer. ... A barometer is an instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. ... A ceiling balloon cabinet A fully inflated ceiling balloon Diagram of a filler stand Regulator valve and pressure guages attached to helium cylinder A ceiling balloon is used by meteorologists to determine the height of the base of clouds above ground level during daylight hours. ... Ceiling projector exterior Interior of a ceiling projector Alidade for use with a ceiling projector The ceiling projector or cloud searchlight is used to measure the height of the base of clouds (called the ceiling) above the ground. ... Laser Ceilometer A ceilometer is a device using a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud base. ... Dark adaptor goggles The Dark adaptor goggles are one of the lesser known tools in the field of meteorology. ... A disdrometer is an instrument used to measure the drop size distribution and velocity of falling precipitation. ... Field mill is a specialized instrument used for measuring the strength of electrical fields in the atmosphere near thunderstrom clouds. ... The interior of a Stevenson screen showing a motorized psychrometer Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. ... Standard Ice Accretion Indicator (upside down) The Ice Accretion Indicator is an L-shaped piece of aluminium 38 cm (14. ... Lightning detector at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. ... A nephelometer is an instrument for measuring suspended particulates in a liquid. ... Nephoscope is instrument for measuring the altitude, direction, and velocity of movement of clouds. ... A pyranometer is a type of actinometer used to measure broadband solar irradiance on a planar surface. ... radiosonde with measuring instruments A radiosonde (Sonde is German for probe) is a unit for use in weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. ... Standard Rain Gauge Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder Close up of a Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder chart A rain gauge (also known as an udometer or a pluviometer) is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation (as opposed... Snow Gauge A snow gauge is a meteorological instrument used to record the depth of snowfall at a specific location. ... SODAR (sonic detection and ranging) - meteorological instrument which priciple of operation is based on sound waves scattering by atmosheric turbulence. ... A solarimeter is a pyranometer used to measure combined direct and diffuse solar radiation. ... A sounding rocket, sometimes called an elevator research rocket, is an instrument-carrying suborbital rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its flight. ... Exterior of a Stevenson screen Interior of a Stevenson screen A Stevenson screen or Instrument shelter is a meteorological screen to shield instruments against precipitation and direct heat radiation from outside sources, while still allowing air to circulate freely around them. ... Sunshine Recorders are used to indicate the amount of sunshine at a given location. ... A thermograph is a recording thermometer. ... A common mercury thermometer A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or temperature gradient, using a variety of different principles. ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ... Weather radar in Norman, Oklahoma with rainshaft (Source: NOAA) Environment Canada King City (CWKR) weather radar station. ... Weather vane Weather cock Aerovane A weather vane, also called a wind vane, is a movable device attached to an elevated object such as a roof for showing the direction of the wind. ... A windsock is a large, conical, open-ended tube designed to indicate wind direction and relative wind speed. ... A wind profiler is a piece of weather observing equipment that uses sound waves to detect the wind speed and direction at various elevations above the ground. ...

See also

A laser range-finder is a device which uses a laser beam in order to determine the distance to a reflective object. ... An atomic line filter, or ALF, (sometimes atomic resonance filter or ARF) is a class of optical band-pass filters used in the physical sciences for filtering light with great precision, accuracy and efficiency. ... Time Domain Reflectometry is a form of one-dimensional radar. ... In telecommunication, an optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) is an optoelectronic instrument used to characterize an optical fiber. ... In satellite laser ranging (SLR) a global network of observation stations measure the round trip time of flight of ultrashort pulses of light to satellites equipped with retroreflectors. ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... Optech Incorporated is a Canadian-owned for-profit company operating since 1974 and focusing on Laser-based survey systems. ...

External links

  • LAS Converter. LAS is LiDAR data Exchange Format Standard specified by ASPRS. Many users need LAS data, as supplied by operator, to be converted into ASCII format or from LAS1.0 to LAS1.1 format. This facility is not available in several common software. This free utility can help in data conversion.
  • An Airborne Altimetric LiDAR tutorial. A tutorial on altimetric LiDAR.
  • NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar . NASA's EAARL is an airborne Lidar designed to map complex coastal environments above and below the water, within vegetated areas. It is also being used to map the bottom topography is shallow braided rivers and streams.
  • CALIPSO: The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite -- space-based laser remote sensing of clouds and aerosols for a better understanding of climate change issues
  • NCAR REAL: NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) created the Raman-shifted Eyesafe Aerosol Lidar. This eyesafe high energy lidar with scanning capability expands the applications to include mapping urban atmospheric pollutants and studies of dispersion very near the surface of the earth.
  • NASA lidar tutorial.
  • NOAA Oceanographic (Fish) Lidar
  • Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX)
  • EOSL - The Electro-Optical Systems Laboratory at GTRI has a nationally known program in lidar research and development.
  • The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Raman Lidar Laboratory - This laboratory has a ground and an upcoming airborne Raman lidar measuring water vapor, aerosols and other atmospheric species
  • The USGS Center for LIDAR Information Coordination and Knowledge (CLICK) - A website intended to "facilitate data access, user coordination and education of lidar remote sensing for scientific needs."
  • [1] Tutorial slides on LIDAR (aerial laser scanning): Principles, errors, strip adjustment, filtering.
  • [2] Tutorial slides on LIDAR (aerial laser scanning): Extraction and modelling.
  • Weier, John. 2004. Conservation in 3D. Conservation in Practice 5(3):39-41. On the conservation applications of LIDAR.
  • SPIE Newsroom Articles on LIDAR
  • Press release from Siemens covering the lidar-based Adaptive Cruise Control system.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is the nonprofit applied research arm of the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta, Georgia. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Cracknell, Arthur P. & Hayes, Ladson (2007), Introduction to Remote Sensing (2 ed.), London: Taylor and Francis, ISBN 0849392551, OCLC 70765252
  2. ^ Approximately 10,200 hits on Google on 8 August 2007.
  3. ^ Approximately 95,600 hits on Google on 8 August 2007.
  4. ^ [Laser Detection and Ranging Approximately 12,300 hits on Google] on 8 August 2007.
  5. ^ Approximately 114,000 relevant hits on Google on 8 August 2007.
  6. ^ 'Experimental Advanced Research Lidar', NASA.org. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
  7. ^ Tom Paulson. 'LIDAR shows where earthquake risks are highest, Seattle Post (Wednesday, April 18, 2001).
  8. ^ 'Mount Saint Helens Lidar Data', Washington State Geospatial Data Archive (September 13, 2006). Retrieved [8 August] 2007.
  9. ^ 'Airborne Topographic Mapper', NASA.gov. Retrieved [8 August] 2007.
  10. ^ Thomas D. Wilkerson, Geary K. Schwemmer, and Bruce M. Gentry. Lidar Profiling of Aerosols, Clouds, and Winds by Doppler and Non-Doppler Methods, NASA International H2O Project (2002).
  11. ^ 'Earth Explorers: ADM-Aeolus', ESA.org (European Space Agency, 6 June 2007). Retrieved [8 August] 2007.
  12. ^ CW Gowers. ' Focus On : Lidar-Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on JET' JET.EFDA.org (undated). Retrieved [8 August] 2007.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Frequently Asked Questions on Police Lidar (3068 words)
Jamming lidar is not illegal under FCC rules since they don't regulate this part of the spectrum, but most jurisdictions have a law which makes it illegal to "interfere with the duties of a police officer." I am not a lawyer and the above should not be considered legal advice.
Presumably the lidar gun has a narrow band filter passing about 10 nanometer of the spectrum, reducing this CW jammer by a factor of about 40, meaning that the light is now 5 microWatts.
Exact numbers are not important because the lidar problem is one where the signal power falls as 1/(Range^4), and consequently a factor of 2 error in estimate of signal power leads to a small error in estimate of range.
LIDAR - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1590 words)
The primary difference between lidar and radar is that with lidar, much shorter wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are used, typically in the ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared.
In atmospheric physics, lidar is used as a remote detection instrument to measure densities of certain constituents of the middle and upper atmosphere, such as potassium, sodium, or molecular nitrogen and oxygen.
In oceanography, lidars are used for estimation of phytoplankton fluorescence and generally biomass in the surface layers of the ocean.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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