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Encyclopedia > LGBT rights in the United States
LGBT and Queer studies series
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Lesbian · Gay · Bisexual · Transgender · Homosexuality
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The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Queer studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... A transgender woman at New York Citys gay pride parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English)) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      This timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history details notable events in the Common Era West. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism. ... This is a timeline of AIDS, including some discussion of early AIDS cases (especially those before 1980). ... Christopher Street Parade Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concern the culture, knowledge, and references shared by members of sexual minorities or transgendered people by virtue of their membership in those minorities or their state of being transgendered. ... The sociological construct of a gay community is complex among those that classify themselves as homosexual, ranging from full-embracement to complete and utter rejection of the concept. ... Gay pride or LGBT pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. ... For other uses, see Coming out (disambiguation). ... Gay slang or LGBT slang in linguistics refers to a form of English slang used predominantly among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) people. ... A gay village (also gay ghetto or gayborhood) is usually an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries where a large number of gay, lesbian, transgender, and bisexual people live. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... The word queer has traditionally meant strange or unusual, but it is also currently often used in reference to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and asexual communities. ... Questioning is a term that can refer to a person who is questioning his or her sexual identity or sexual orientation. ... World laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in the US. Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ... sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The militaries of the world have a variety of responses to homosexual and bisexual orientations. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ...


Around the world World laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in the US. Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ...


By country This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ...


History · Groups · Activists LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Here is a list of gay-rights organizations around the world. ... A list of LGBT rights activists by country, in alphabetical order. ...


Declaration of Montreal Martina Navrátilová and Mark Tewksbury read the Declaration of Montreal at the opening ceremonies of the World Outgames. ...


Same-sex relationships Same-sex union can refer to: same-sex marriage -- the civil or religious rites of marriage that make it equivalent to opposite-sex marriages in all aspects. ...


Marriage · Adoption One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ...


Opposition · Discrimination LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      LGBT rights opposition refers to various movements or attitudes which oppose the extension of certain rights to lesbian and gay people, and by extension to bisexuals, and... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ...


Violence John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, was hanged for sodomy under a law that he had helped to institute. ...


Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

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The LGBT rights movement in the United States seeks to achieve equality for all Americans, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity (heterosexual, lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or transgendered). LGBT social movements is a collective term for a number of movements that share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality and/or gender variance. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... “Bisexual” redirects here. ... A transgender woman at New York Citys gay pride parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English)) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at...

Contents

History

Background

In the United States, as early as the turn of the twentieth century several groups worked in hiding to avoid persecution to advance the rights of homosexuals, but little is known about them (Norton 2005).


A better documented group is Henry Gerber’s Society for Human Rights (formed in Chicago in 1924), which was quickly suppressed (Bullough 2005). Serving as an enlisted man in occupied Germany after World War I, Gerber had learned of Magnus Hirschfeld’s pioneering work. Upon returning to the U.S. and settling in Chicago, Gerber organized the first documented public homosexual organization in America and published two issues of the first gay publication, entitled Friendship and Freedom. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Magnus Hirschfeld in 1933 Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German-Jewish physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ...


In 1948, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male was published by Alfred Kinsey, a work which was one of the first to look scientifically at the subject of sexuality. Kinsey's incredible assertion, backed by a great deal of research, that approximately 10% of the adult male population (and about half that number among females) were predominantly or exclusively homosexual for at least three years of their lives, was a dramatic departure from the prevailing beliefs of the time. Before its publication, homosexuality was not a topic of discussion, generally, but afterwards it began to appear even in mainstream publications such as Time magazine, Life magazine, and others. The Kinsey Reports are two controversial books on human sexual behaviour, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953), by Dr. Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell Pomeroy and others. ... Alfred Charles Kinsey (June 23, 1894 – August 25, 1956), was an American biologist and professor of entomology and zoology who in 1947 founded the Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction at Indiana University, now called the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction. ... “TIME” redirects here. ... Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ...


Despite the entry of the subject into mainstream consciousness very little actual change in the laws or mores of society was seen until the mid-1960s, the time the sexual revolution began. This was a time of major social upheaval in many social areas, including views of sexuality. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ...


Gay liberation

In the late 1960s, the more socialistic "liberation" philosophy that had started to create different factions within the civil rights, black power, anti-war, and feminist movements, also engulfed the homophile movement. A new generation of young gay and lesbian Americans saw their struggle within a broader movement to dismantle racism, sexism, western imperialism, and traditional mores regarding drugs and sexuality. This new perspective on gay liberation had a major turning point with the Stonewall riots in 1969. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ... The feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement or Womens Liberation) is a series of campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights (including abortion), domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, and sexual violence. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      The Stonewall riots were a series of violent conflicts between New York City police officers and groups of gay and transgender people that began during the early... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...

Gay Activist magazine June 1971

On Friday, June 27, 1969 a police raid of a gay bar—a common practice and, like this particular raid, often conducted during city elections—had a new development as some of the patrons in the bar began actively resisting the police arrests. Some of what followed is in dispute, but what is not in dispute is that for the first time, a large group of LGBT Americans who had previously had little or no involvement with the organized gay rights movement, rioted for three days against police harassment and brutality. These new activists were not polite or respectable, but rather angry activists that confronted the police and distributed flyers attacking the Mafia control of the gay bars and the various anti-vice laws that allowed the police to harass gay men and gay drinking establishments. This second wave of the gay rights movement is often refereed to as the Gay Liberation movement to draw a distinction between the previous homophile movement. Image File history File linksMetadata Gay_Activist_June_1971. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gay_Activist_June_1971. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ...


New gay liberation organization were created such as the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) in New York City and the Gay Activists' Alliance (GAA). In keeping with the mass frustration of LGBT people, and the adoption of the socialistic philosophies that were being propagated in the late 1960s1970s, these new organizations engaged in colorful and outrageous street theater (Gallagher & Bull 1996). The GLF published "A Gay Manifesto" that was influenced by Paul Goodman working titled “The Politics of Being Queer” (1969). Gay Liberation Front Poster, New York 1970 Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was the name of a number of Gay Liberation groups, the first of which was formed in New York City in 1969, immediately after the Stonewall riots. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Gay Communists Alliance was founded in New York Cremlin in December 1969 after the Stonewall riots, by dissident members of the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) who wanted to form a non-violent single issue, politically neutral, militant organizaiton whose goal was to secure basic human rights, dignity and freedom... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Street theatre is a form of theatrical presentation and performance in outdoor public spaces without a specific paying audience. ... Paul Goodman (1911–1972) was a poet, writer, public intellectual. ...


The gay liberation movement spread to countries throughout the world, and heavily influence many of the modern gay rights organizations. Today, GLBT people commemorate the Stonewall riots by annual marches that became known as Pride parades and marches. However, the split among gay rights organization between the liberal-reformist homophile versus the socialistic gay liberationist philosophy still exists. Today, organizations such as the Human Rights Campaign follow a more mainstream, middle class-oriented and reformist tradition, while other organizations such as the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF) try to be grassroots-oriented and support local and state groups to create change from the ground up. Baton twirlers perform in the 2002 Divers/Cité pride parade in downtown Montreal A pride parade is part of a festival or ceremony held by the LGBT community of a city to commemorate the struggle for gay liberation, gay rights, and gay pride. ... HRC logo The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is one of the largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) equal rights organization in the United States. ... The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF) is an organization working for the civil rights of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people in the United States. ...


Gay migration

In the 1970s many gay people moved to San Francisco, where they rapidly acquired considerable political influence, including getting one of their member, Harvey Milk, elected to the city's Board of Supervisors, a legislative chamber often known as a City Council in other municipalities. Milk was assassinated in 1978 along with the city's mayor, George Moscone. The White Night Riot on May 21, 1979 was a reaction to the manslaughter conviction and sentence given to the assassin, Dan White, which were thought to be too lenient. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... For Harvey Milk High School Harvey Bernard Milk (May 22, 1930 – November 27, 1978), an American politician and gay rights activist, was the first openly gay city supervisor of San Francisco, California. ... A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... San Francisco Examiners front page for Moscone-Milk Assassinations; November 28, 1978 The Moscone-Milk Assassinations took place on Monday, November 27, 1978, when San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk were shot and killed in San Francisco City Hall by former Supervisor Dan White. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Mayor Moscone George Richard Moscone (November 24, 1929 – November 27, 1978) was the mayor of San Francisco, California from January 1976 until his assassination in November 1978. ... The White Night Riots, beginning on May 21, 1979, were the San Francisco, California, gay communitys response to the minimal sentence given to former San Francisco City Supervisor Dan White for killing George Moscone, then Mayor of San Francisco and Harvey Milk, the openly gay supervisor of said city... This article is about the San Francisco Supervisor. ...

Rainbow gay pride flag flying over Castro Street, San Francisco, June 2005

The first national gay rights march in the United States took place on October 14, 1979 in Washington, DC, involving perhaps as many as 100,000 people. Image File history File linksMetadata RainbowFlagCastroSF2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RainbowFlagCastroSF2005. ... Six color rainbow gay pride flag flying over the Castro gay village in San Francisco, June 2005 The six colors of the most common gay pride flag. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


Historian William A. Percy considers that a third epoch of the gay rights movement began in the early 1980s, when AIDS received the highest priority and decimated its leaders, and lasted until 1998, when HAART made AIDS a chronic illness in developed countries (Percy & Glover 2005). It was during this era that direct action groups such as ACT UP were formed. HAART redirects here. ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ... ACT UP, or the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, is a diverse, non-partisan group of individuals . ...


Civil rights laws

Family law

In 1972, the Supreme Court of Minnesota in Baker v. Nelson ruled that it did not violate the federal Constitution for a state to deny a civil marriage license to a same-sex couple. The controversy over same-sex marriage was revived in 1993, when the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled that the state constitutional ban on sex discrimination meant that same-sex couples were entitled to a civil marriage license [1]. Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Baker v. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 1996, Hawaii amended its constitution so as to allow the state legislative to define marriage between a man and a woman, but Domestic partnership in Hawaii have existed since 1997. Yet, initial court ruling, prompted the United States Congress to enact the Defense of Marriage Act, with several states also enacting similar versions. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Since 1997, the state of Hawaii has offered reciprocal beneficiary registration for any adults who are prohibited by state law from marrying, including same-sex couples. ... The Defense of Marriage Act, or DOMA, is the commonly-used name of a federal law of the United States that is officially known as Pub. ...


In 1999, the Vermont State Supreme Court ruled in Baker v. Vermont that the state had to offer the legal benefits and responsibilities of civil marriage to same-sex couples, and thus the state legislature enacted a civil unions bill. The Massachusetts Supreme Court made a similar decision in case of Goodridge v. Department of Public Health (2004), except the court ruled that state had to either transform all civil marriages into civil unions or offer civil marriage to same-sex couples. Since 2004 marriage is open in Massachusetts. This article is about the year. ... Baker v. ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Holding The denial of marriage licenses to same-sex couples violated provisions of the state constitution guaranteeing individual liberty and equality, and was not rationally related to a legitimate state interest. ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not... Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...


In 2007 a similar decision in Iowa ruled that restriction of marriage to opposite-sex couples is discriminatory. The decision was stayed to allow the state government time to appeal, but not before one same-sex couple had been legally issued a marriage license. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage in the U.S. state of Iowa began on August...


These state court opinions prompted calls for a Federal Marriage Amendment, along with state amendments to ensure that courts would not change the civil definition of marriage. As of 2007, the legal options available to same-sex couples depends on what state they reside in. The United States Federal Marriage Amendment (FMA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which would define marriage in the United States as a union of one man and one woman. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


State legislatures in Connecticut (2005), California (1999), Hawaii (1996), Maine (2004), New Jersey (2006), Washington (2007), New Hampshire (2007), Oregon (2007) Vermont (1999) and the District of Columbia (2001) have enacted either civil unions or more limited domestic partnership options for same-sex couples. Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      A domestic partnership is a legal or personal relationship between individuals who live...


However, a backlash of these efforts was felt during the 2004 election cycle where fourteen states amended their constitution to ban legal recognition of same-sex marriages and often civil unions as well. Laws in Virginia, Michigan, and Ohio, the most far-reaching, forbids recognition of any benefits similar to those of marriage between people of the same sex. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Largest metro area Metro Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 97,990 sq mi (253,793 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 491 miles (790 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...


A single gay person or a same-sex couple can adopt in some locations, although there are fewer locations where they may adopt children jointly with their partners. For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ...


Anti-discrimination laws

Employment discrimination refers to discriminatory employment practices such as bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, and compensation, and various types of harassment. In the United States there is "very little statutory, common law, and case law establishing employment discrimination based upon sexual orientation as a legal wrong."[1] Some exceptions and alternative legal strategies are available. President Bill Clinton's Executive Order 13087 (1998) prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation in the competitive service of the federal civilian workforce,[2] and federal non-civil service employees may have recourse under the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution.[3] Private sector workers may have a Title VII action under a quid pro quo sexual harassment theory,[4] a "hostile work environment" theory,[5] a sexual stereotyping theory,[6] or others.[7] Employment discrimination refers to employment practices that are prohibited by law such as bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, compensation, and various types of harassment. ... In the United States, employment discrimination is prohibited by a collection of state and federal laws, as well as by ordinances of counties and municipalities. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Same-sex relationships Opposition · Persecution Violence Executive Order 13087 was signed by U.S. President Bill Clinton on May 28, 1998, amending Executive Order 11478 to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation in the competitive service of the federal civilian... Due process of law is a legal concept that ensures the government will respect all of a persons legal rights instead of just some or most of those legal rights, when the government deprives a person of life, liberty, or property. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ...


20 states, the District of Columbia, and over 140 cities and counties have enacted such bans. As of September 2007, the states banning sexual orientation discrimination in private sector employment are California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin (the first state to do so, in 1982).[8] Many of these laws also ban discrimination in other contexts, such as housing or public accommodation. A proposed bill to ban anti-gay employment discrimination nationwide, known as the Employment Nondiscrimination Act (ENDA), has been introduced in the U.S. Congress, but its prospects of passage were not believed to be good when there was a Republican-controlled Congress. However, the Democratic victory at the 2006 mid-term elections may present a new opportunity for the bill to pass.[9] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N  - Longitude 75° 03′ W to 79° 29... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  Ranked 46th  - Total 9,350 sq mi (24,217 km²)  - Width 68 miles (110 km)  - Length 190 miles (305 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked... President Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act of 1968 On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (also known as CRA 68), which was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... The Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) is a proposed U.S. federal law that would prohibit discrimination against employees by their employers on the basis of sexual orientation. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The 2006 United States midterm elections were held on Tuesday, November 7, 2006. ...

Current US LGBT civil rights policies
Animation showing the evolution of US LGBT civil rights policies
Legality of same-sex unions in the US

Thirteen states had reformed their state civil rights code (or experienced court decisions) to include sexual orientation and gender identity, while another seven had amended their civil rights code to only include sexual orientation [2]. Aside from state law, about a hundred cities in thirty three states had enacted some type of civil rights legislation that includes sexual orientation. Image File history File links US_LGBT_civil_rights_August_2007. ... Image File history File links US_LGBT_civil_rights_August_2007. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 439 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 515 pixel, file size: 800 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 439 pixelsFull resolution (938 × 515 pixel, file size: 800 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 396 pixelsFull resolution (1234 × 611 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 396 pixelsFull resolution (1234 × 611 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png) Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ...


Housing discrimination refers to discrimination against potential or current tenants by landlords. In the United States, there is no federal law against such discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity, but at least thirteen states and many major cities have enacted laws prohibiting it.[10] President Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act of 1968 On April 11, 1968, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968 (also known as CRA 68), which was meant as a follow-up to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ...


Hate crime laws

Main article: Hate crime laws in the United States

Hate crime laws (also known as bias crimes laws) protect against crimes motivated by feelings of enmity or animus against a protected class. The current statutes permit federal prosecution of hate crimes committed on the basis of a person's race, color, religion, or nation origin when engaging in a federally protected activity (see 1969 hate crime law). Legislation is currently pending that would add gender, sexual orientation, gender-identity, and disability to this list, as well as remove the prerequisite that the victim be engaging in a federally protected activity (see Matthew Shepard Act). The DOJ/FBI, as well as campus security authorities, are required to collect and publish hate crime statistics (see Hate Crime Statistics Act and Campus Hate Crimes Right to Know Act). Hate crime laws in the United States (also known as bias crimes) protect against crimes motivated by feelings of enmity or animus against a protected class. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      The Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2007 (LLEHCPA; sometimes called the Matthew Shepard Act), HR 1592, would expand the 1969 United States federal hate... The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


45 states and the District of Columbia have statutes criminalizing various types of bias-motivated violence or intimidation (the exceptions are AR, GA, IN, SC, and WY). Each of these statutes covers bias on the basis of race, religion, and ethnicity; 32 of them cover sexual orientation; 32 cover disability; 28 cover gender; 13 cover age; 11 cover transgender/gender-identity; 5 cover political affiliation.[11] 31 states and the District of Columbia have statutes creating a civil cause of action, in addition to the criminal penalty, for similar acts.[11] 27 states and the District of Columbia have statutes requiring the state to collect hate crime statistics; 16 of these cover sexual orientation.[11] ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Atlanta Largest city Atlanta Largest metro area Atlanta metro area Area  Ranked 24th  - Total 59,411 sq mi (154,077 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 2. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... In the most general sense, a liability is anything that is a hindrance, or puts individuals at a disadvantage. ...


In Wisconsin v. Mitchell (1993) the Supreme Court unanimously held that state penalty-enhancement laws for hate crimes were constitutional and did not violate First Amendment rights to freedom of thought and expression. Holding Enhanced sentencing for bias-motivated crimes does not violate a defendants First Amendment rights. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... “First Amendment” redirects here. ...


Important Supreme Court decisions

In 1958, the Supreme Court of the United States reversed a lower court's ruling and thus, established a precedent that a homosexual publication was not intrinsically "obscene" and thus protected by the First Amendment. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ...


On May 22nd, 1967, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which among other things banned homosexuals, as constitutional. This ban remained in effect until 1991 [3]. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) of 1952 (Also known as the McCarran-Walter Act) restricted immigration into the U.S. and is codified under Title 8 of the United States Code. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1972, a Tacoma teacher of 12 years with a perfect record was terminated after a high school student outed him to the principal. On October 3, 1977, the Supreme Court agreed with the school board's claim that becoming a "known homosexual" automatically impaired his efficiency as a teacher which used various methods to support this claim: 1. Defined homosexuality based on the New Catholic Encyclopedia which deemed the act as implicitly immoral; 2. An "immoral" person could not be trusted to instruct students as his presence would be inherently disruptive. Justice Charles Horowitz based the Court's conclusion of Gaylord v. Tacoma School Ditrict No. 10 solely on the testimony of one student, three teachers and administration who objected to a known homosexual teaching at the school because it "would create problems" from the presence of such faculty. This landmark case is significant as it was the first homosexual discrimination case decision to be aired on national network news. In fact, it was simultaneously aired on all three national evening news networks totaling approximately 60 million viewers. [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]


On June 30, 1986, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in Bowers v. Hardwick, that homosexual citizens had no constitutional right to privacy. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding A Georgia law prohibiting sodomy was valid because there was no constitutionally protected right to engage in homosexual sodomy. ... The right to privacy is a purported human right and an element of various legal traditions which may restrain both government and private party action. ...


On May 20, 1996, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in Romer v. Evans against an amendment to the Colorado state constitution that would have prevented any city, town or county in the state from taking any legislative, executive, or judicial action to protect homosexual citizens from discrimination on the basis of their sexual orientation. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Holding An amendment to the Colorado Constitution that allows discrimination against homosexuals and prevents the state from protecting them violated equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment, because it was not rationally related to a legitimate state interest, but instead was motivated by animus towards homosexuals. ...


On March 4, 1998, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in the case Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services that federal laws banning on-the-job sexual harassment also applied when both parties are the same sex. The lower courts, however, have reached differing conclusions about whether this ruling applies to harassment motivated by anti-gay animus. is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Oncale v. ... Sexual harassment is harassment or unwelcome attention of a sexual nature. ...


On June 28, 2000, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Boy Scouts of America had a First Amendment right to exclude people from its organization on the basis of sexual orientation, irrespective of any applicable civil rights laws. Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... The first ten Amendments to the U.S. Constitution make up the Bill of Rights. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, usually conceived of as classifiable according to the sex or gender of the persons whom the individual finds sexually attractive. ...


In 2003, the United States Supreme Court ruled in Lawrence v. Texas that laws against sodomy or anal sex cannot be directed at homosexuals alone. The majority opinion, written by Justice Anthony Kennedy, explicitly reverses Bowers v. Hardwick [4]. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding A Texas law prohibiting homosexual sodomy violated the privacy and liberty of adults, under the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, to engage in private intimate conduct. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... Roman men having anal sex. ... This article is about the Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. ...


LGBT interest groups

In the 21st century, defending homosexuals against anti-gay bias and gay-bashing and other forms of discrimination is a major element of American gay rights, something gay rights groups see as part of a broader struggle for human rights. Among the voices for the LGBT community are Human Rights Campaign (HRC) and The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (NGLTF or The Task Force). The ideological split is seen between these two organizations. The Task Force is usually seen as more progressive and left of center, whereas HRC is seen as more centrist. Progressive gay rights organizations include the Gay & Lesbian Victory Fund and Leadership Institute, The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force, Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) and the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD) and various local gay community centers. Gay rights organizations include the Log Cabin Republicans, the Independent Gay Forum and even other organizations have arisen such as Gays and Lesbians for Individual Liberty and the Outright Libertarians. The United States Green Party has a LGBT Lavender Green caucus. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Gay bashing is an expression used to designate verbal confrontation with, denigration of, or physical violence against people thought to be lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT) because of their apparent sexual orientation or gender identity. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... HRC logo The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is one of the largest lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) equal rights organization in the United States. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force (The Task Force) is an organization working for the civil rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in... The Gay & Lesbian Victory Fund is an American political action committee, dedicated to increasing the number of openly LGBT public officials in US political life. ... PFLAG contingent at San Francisco Pride 2004. ... The Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD) is dedicated to promoting and ensuring fair, accurate and inclusive representation of people and events in the media as a means of eliminating homophobia and discrimination based on gender identity and sexual orientation. ... List of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Queer Community Centers: // Hasselt, Belgium - Inderdaad Ottawa - GLBTTQ Community Centre of Ottawa (website, currently under development) Toronto - The 519 located at Church and Wellesley (website) Gay West Community Network located in Parkdale (website) University of Toronto Drop-in Centre (website) Waterloo - Wilfrid Laurier... For other uses, see Log Cabin Republican (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Outright Libertarians is a United States association of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and other self-identified queer (LGBTQ) Libertarian Party activists and supporters. ... The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      A button with the NLGC Logo The National Lavender Greens Caucus (NLGC) is the United States Green Partys advocacy group on gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, intersex...


Opposition

The main opponents of the advances of the gay rights movement in the US have generally been social conservatives. Religion is the most cited reason for opposing gay rights. Regionally, opposition to the gay rights movement has been strongest in the Southern and rural states. Conservatism or political conservatism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52...


U.S. political parties

Among the two major parties, The Democratic Party has endorsed some gay rights legislation in its national party platform since the 1980s. The Republican Party has close ties to the religious right and thus tends to oppose gay rights legislation, as does its national party platform. However, there are some variations among individual politicians, i.e., a Democrat in a more rural district is less likely to support gay rights, while a Republican in a more urban district may be more likely to support gay rights. For example, former senator Barry Goldwater, a conservative Republican, had expressed his views on gay rights which are more concurrent with a left-wing approach; he said gays should be allowed in the military, etc. Similarly, Rudy Giuliani, also a noted Republican, does support civil unions and other forms of gay rights. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Rudolph William Louis Giuliani III, (born May 28, 1944) is an American lawyer, prosecutor, businessman, and Republican politician from the state of New York. ...


On November 15, 1989, Massachusetts Governor Dukakis signed the Gay Rights Bill into law. Massachusetts became the second state, after Wisconsin, to pass such a bill.


Today, active minor political parties have wide-ranging views on gay rights. The Libertarian Party has endorsed a libertarian perspective on gay rights since it was created in 1972, and the Green Party also has endorsed gay rights since it was created in the 1980s. While many American Socialist and Communist political parties initially preferred to ignore the issue, most support gay rights causes. The Socialist Party USA was the first party to nominate an openly gay man, David McReynolds, as its Presidential candidate in 1980.The Constitution Party strongly opposes gay rights and is tied to the Christian Reconstructionist movement. The libertarian perspective on gay rights has been a topic of debate among libertarians, especially in the United States. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American political party, Green Party. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The Socialist Party USA (SP USA) is one of the heirs to the Socialist Party of America of Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas. ... David McReynolds David McReynolds (born October 25, 1929) is an American socialist politician. ... The Constitution Party is a conservative United States political party. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Christian Reconstructionism is a religious and political movement within Protestant Christianity. ...


Bibliography

See also

Adoption by same-sex couples refers to the adoption of children by gay or lesbian couples. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... In the United States, domestic partnership is a legal status similar to marriage that has been available to same-sex couples (and sometimes opposite-sex couples). ... This article is about the US military policy. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Same-sex relationships Opposition · Persecution Violence Started by champion activist Gabe Cochrane in 2000, Gay Blue Jeans Day alternatively National Gay Blue Jeans Day or just Gay Jeans Day is a celebration frequently advertised on college campuses in the United... The human rights record of the United States of America has featured an avowed commitment to the protection of specific personal political, religious and other freedoms. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Same-sex relationships Opposition · Persecution Violence LGBT movements in the United States comprise an interwoven history of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender social and political movements in the United States of America, beginning in the early 20th century. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ... For other uses, see Log Cabin Republican (disambiguation). ... The National Stonewall Democrats is a grassroots network connecting LGBT Democratic activists from Seattle, Washington to Austin, Texas to Little Rock, Arkansas to Atlanta, Georgia. ...

References

  1. ^ 1 Sexual Orientation and the Law § 5:17
  2. ^ http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=1998_register&docid=fr02jn98-135.pdf
  3. ^ Ashton v. Civiletti, 613 F.2d 923, 20 Fair Empl. Prac. Cas. (BNA) 1601, 21 Empl. Prac. Dec. (CCH) P 30297 (D.C. Cir. 1979)
  4. ^ Kelly v. City of Oakland, 198 F.3d 779, 81 Fair Empl. Prac. Cas. (BNA) 1455, 77 Empl. Prac. Dec. (CCH) P 46281 (9th Cir. 1999)
  5. ^ Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services, Inc., 523 U.S. 75, 118 S. Ct. 998, 1002 (1998)
  6. ^ Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989)
  7. ^ See generally 1 Sexual Orientation and the Law § 5.
  8. ^ http://www.hrc.org/worknet/nd/states_ban_dso.asp
  9. ^ http://www.sovo.com/2007/1-12/news/national/national.cfm
  10. ^ http://realestate.findlaw.com/tenant/tenant-fair-housing/tenant-fair-housing-orientation.html
  11. ^ a b c State Hate Crime Laws, Anti-Defamation League, June 2006. Retrieved 2007-05-04.
  12. ^ http://www.stateofthenewsmedia.org/2006/narrative_networktv_audience.asp?cat=3&media=5
  13. ^ http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1977-10/1977-10-03-NBC-11.html
  14. ^ http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1977-10/1977-10-03-CBS-15.html
  15. ^ http://openweb.tvnews.vanderbilt.edu/1977-10/1977-10-03-ABC-3.html
  16. ^ http://www.qrd.org/qrd/www/orgs/glstn/teachers.legal.rights

The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ...

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