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Encyclopedia > LGBT rights in Turkey

The human rights of LGBT people in Turkey is one of the more controversial human rights issues in Turkey. As Turkey is a secular republic currently in accession talks with the European Union, homosexuality is not technically illegal. But despite the widespread veneration received by famous and well-respected gay and transgender artists like Zeki Müren and Bülent Ersoy over the years, an open expression of homosexuality by ordinary people largely remains a taboo topic in public opinion.[citation needed] Starting from the 1990s, recent years saw the active efforts of several civil rights groups, which ask for better recognition and anti-discrimination laws. The initialism LGBT is used to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Turkey is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights and the Turkish Constitution guarantees basic human rights to all Turkish citizens. ... Zeki Müren (1931-1996) was a prominent Turkish actor, singer, and composer, by many regarded as even the best ever. ... Bülent Ersoy is a Turkish celebrity, born in 1952. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...

Contents

History

Turkish LGBT rights activists created the Radical Democrat Green Party to campaign for on a left-wing Green platform that included support for LGBT human rights. Several of its members participated in a hunger strike in 1987 to protest the police harassment of LGBT citizens. Mossy, green fountain in Wattens, Austria. ... The initialism LGBT is used to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The initialism LGBT is used to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ...


In 1988 the civil code was amended to allow for transgender people to have a sex change operation, under medical approval. In the 1990s the LGBT movement fought against government bans on LGBT conferences, which prompted the creation of Lambda Istanbul, and in 1994 the newly created Freedom and Solidarity Party banned discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity within its party, and Demet Demir, nominated by this party, became the first transgendered candidate for the local council elections in Istanbul. Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the political party, for the web directory abbreviated ODP see Open Directory Project. ... Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, normally conceived of as falling into several significant categories based around the sex or gender that the individual finds attractive. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


In 1996 The Supreme Court overturned a lower court's ruling and removed a child from her lesbian parent, on the grounds that homosexuality is immoral. While bias motivated violence against gay and transgender people intensified as did efforts at government censorship, the desire of Turkey to join the European Union has forced the government to grant official recognition to LGBT rights organizations, respect a greater degree of the freedom of speech and the press and to entertain gay rights legislation. Gay themed conferences and gatherings now regularly take place, particularly in Istanbul and Ankara. Several universities have LGBT associations. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...


LGBT civil rights organizations

The two major LGBT community-based civil rights organizations are Lambda Istanbul, a member of ILGA-Europe which was established in 1993 in Istanbul, and KAOS GL, established in 1994 in Ankara. During the early 1990s, the organizations' proposals for cooperation were refused by the Government Human Rights Commission. April 1997, when members of Lambda Istanbul were invited to the National Congress on AIDS, marked the first time a Turkish LGBT organization was represented at the government level. During early 2000s, new organizations began to be formed in cities other than Istanbul and Ankara, like the Pink Triangle Group in İzmir and the Rainbow Group in Antalya. The European Region of the International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA-Europe) is the European branch of ILGA, created in 1996. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... KAOS GL is a group founded in September, 1994, to unite Turkeys LGBT people (homosexuals) in the struggle against discrimination. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Year 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar). ... The 2000s are the current decade, spanning from 2000 to 2009. ... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... Antalya (formerly known as Adalia; from Pamphylian Greek: Αττάλεια Attália) is a large town and tourist destination, situated on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. ...


In 1996, another LGBT organization, LEGATO, was founded as an organization of Turkish university students, graduates and academicians, with its first office in Middle East Technical University in Ankara. The organization continued to grow with other branches in numerous other universities and a reported 2000 members. In March 2007 LGBT students organized for the first time as a student club(gökkuşağı) and club gökkuşağı is approved by Bilgi University officially. Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The LeGaTo Logo The Lesbian and Gay Inter-University Organization (Turkish: Ãœniversitelerarası Lezbiyen ve Gey TopluluÄŸu - LEGATO) is an LGBT organization in Turkey aimed at university students. ... Middle East Technical University (METU; in Turkish, Orta DoÄŸu Teknik Ãœniversitesi, or ODTÃœ) is a public research university in Ankara, Turkey, founded in 1956. ...


During June 2003, the first public LGBT pride march in Turkey's history, organized by Lambda Istanbul, was held on the Istiklal Avenue. In July 2005, KAOS GL applied to the Ministry of Interior Affairs and gained legal recognition, becoming the first LGBT organization of the country with legal status. During the September of the same year, a lawsuit by the Governor of Ankara was filed to cancel this legal status, but the demand was rejected by the prosecutor. In August 2006, the gay march in Bursa organized by the Rainbow Group, officially approved by the Governor's Office, was cancelled due to large scale public protests by an organized group of citizens. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Istiklal Avenue (İstiklal Caddesi in Turkish), is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ...


The organizations actively participate in AIDS-HIV education programs and May Day parades. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... May Day is May 1, and refers to any of several holidays celebrated on this day. ...


In 2006 Lambda Istanbul was evicted from its building, when the landlady learned that the organization was promoting LGBT rights. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The initialism LGBT is used to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ...


Law

Penal code

Gay sexual conduct between consenting adults in private is not a crime in Turkey. The age of consent for both heterosexual and homosexual sex is 18. The criminal code also has vaguely worded prohibitions on "public exhibitionism,” and “offenses against public morality" that are used to harass gay and transgender people. GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any...


Turkish towns and cities are given some leeway to enact various "public morality" laws. For example, It was once reported that in Adana males were prohibited from kissing in public, on the cheek. However, there has been no evidence of enforcement of this regulation. Men kissing as a form of greeting is common in Turkey. Istanbul has a very open gay scene with around 20 bars and clubs plus various other venues such as cinemas and Turkish baths. Gay bars have been used to shoot pop videos and celebrities can often be spotted there. Turkish artists tend to have sympathies with gays, particularly in recent years. Adana (Greek Άδανα)(the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ...


Article 428 prohibits "obscene" and "indecent" books, songs, literature, etc [1]. Although the extent that these conditions apply to homosexual themes in the media has been liberalized in recent years. The film Brokeback Mountain was permitted to be shown in select theaters, but the Turkish Culture Ministry ruled that no one under the age of eighteen may be in the audience [2]. It should be noted that age limits applied to Brokeback Mountain in many countries. Several books with gay themes have been published recently including 'Volkan's story' - about a gay policeman. Bestsellers often include gay characters. In 1997, Hamam: The Turkish Bath was released. The film depicted a gay romance between a married man from Italy and a Turkish teenager. The film was successful internationally and was even broadcast on state TV. Gay characters have started to appear on television series, although often in stereotypical or very restricted roles. The popular gay themed TV series Will & Grace and Queer as Folk have both been broadcast in Turkey by Digiturk (also Six Feet Under and Angels in America by CNBC-E).İstanbul Film Festival(held every year by İKSV) contains some selected LGBT themed movies. The !F Independent Film Festival, held every year in Istanbul and with a smaller selection of films in Ankara, has a LGBT section. Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ... Brokeback Mountain is an Academy Award-winning 2005 film that depicts the relationship between two men in the American West from 1963 to 1983. ... Brokeback Mountain is an Academy Award-winning 2005 film that depicts the relationship between two men in the American West from 1963 to 1983. ... Hamam (Il Bagno Turco, a. ... Will & Grace is a popular Emmy Award winning and Golden Globe nominated American television sitcom that was originally broadcast from 1998 to 2006. ... Queer as Folk is an American and Canadian television series co-production, produced by Showtime and Temple Street Productions which was based on the British series of the same name created by Russell T. Davies. ... Digiturk (or DIGITURK) is a Turkish Satellite television provider, founded in 1999, with services starting in mid-2000. ... Six Feet Under is a critically acclaimed American television drama created by Alan Ball that was originally broadcast from 2001 to 2005. ... Angels in America is an award winning 2003 HBO miniseries adapted from the play of the same name by Tony Kushner. ... CNBC-e is a hybrid business and financial/entertainment channel operated in Turkey by CNBC Europe and the NTV Group. ...


Military law

In Turkey, compulsory military service applies to all male Turkish citizens between the ages of 20 and 41. However, Turkish military law bans homosexuals from military service as a mental illness, and those homosexuals discovered to be gay in the armed forces will be discharged immediately. // Overview In Turkey, compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty one years of age (with some exceptions). ...


In reality however, the military has made it so difficult to prove homosexuality that most gay men do compulsory service. To prove that someone is homosexual, the suspect must undergo anal examination and the military must also see visual "evidence" prior to discharging an alleged homosexual.


Mehmet Tarhan, a Kurdish homosexual living in Turkey, is famed for conscientiously objecting to having to do military service. Rather than having to face all of that trouble, he could have stated that he was gay in order to avoid having to do military service. However, the Turkish military perceives homosexuality as an illness, and requires those analyses stated above to support such a claim. Tarhan didn't want to be labelled as "ill", though, and instead, sought to be classified as a conscientious objector. Mehmet Tarhan (born 1978) is a gay anarchist and a conscientious objector who was imprisoned for refusing military service in Turkey. ...


Anti-discrimination law

No laws exist in Turkey that protect LGBT people from discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, public accommodations or credit. The initialism LGBT is used to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ...


Family law

Turkey does not recognise same-sex marriages, civil unions or domestic partnership benefits. The Turkish Council of State has ruled that homosexuals should not have custody of children. Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage, and—less frequently—homosexual marriage) refers to marriage between partners of the same gender (for other forms of same-sex unions that are different from marriages, see the articles linked in that section). ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not... The Turkish Council of State is the highest court in the Republic of Turkey and is based in Ankara. ...


References

  • Turkey LGBT History, on KAOS GL's website.

References

  • turkgayclub's history, on turkgayclub's website.

See also

KAOS GL is a group founded in September, 1994, to unite Turkeys LGBT people (homosexuals) in the struggle against discrimination. ... In musical notation legato indicates that musical notes are played smoothly. ...

External links

  • Istanbul: Asia meets Europe and ancient meets modern, a gay.com travelogue of Istanbul, including a comprehensive review of gay clubs and tips
  • A city comes out, a recent article on St. Petersburg Times about the situation of LGBT people in Turkey.
  • KAOS GL, official site of KAOS GL
  • turkgayclub, official site of turk gay club http://www.turkgayclub.com
  • Lambda Istanbul, official site of Lambda Istanbul
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  • TRGI, TR Gay International, a bilingual guide to the LGBTQ Life in Turkey.

 
 

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