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Encyclopedia > LGBT rights in South Korea

LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality or transgenderism. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ...


Around the world · By country World laws on homosexuality US laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in Western Europe. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ...


History · Groups · Activists


Declaration of Montreal Martina Navrátilová and Mark Tewksbury read the Declaration of Montreal at the opening ceremonies of the World Outgames. ...


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Marriage · Adoption Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live together as a family. ... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ...


Opposition · Persecution Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Violence The Death of Orpheus In Albrecht Dürers 1494 drawing, the banner hung in the tree reads: Orfeus der erst puseran (Orpheus, the first sodomite). The word puseran(t) derives from the Latin bulgarus from which come also the terms bugger in English and bougre in French. ...


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Homosexuality in South Korea is not specifically mentioned in either the South Korean Constitution or in the Civil Penal Code. Article 92 of the Military Penal Code, however, singles out sexual relations between members of the same sex as "sexual harassment," hence punishable by a maximum of one year servitude. The Military Penal Code does not distinguish between consensual and non-consensual crimes and states informed consensual intercourse between homosexual adults as "reciprocal rape" (hangul: 상호강간; hanja: 相互强姦). The Constitution of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) is its basic law. ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... It has been suggested that Victimless crime be merged into this article or section. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ...


Western observers have often pointed out that general awareness of homosexuality as a practice or as a sexuality itself remained generally low among Koreans, primarily due to the strong Confucian traditions of most Koreans regardless of their official religious affiliation and the cultural emphasis on economic development over individual liberties.[citation needed] More recently, however, there has been increased awareness and debate over the issue including several gay-related themes in the mass media and recognizable figures and celebrities "coming out" in public. Sexual orientation refers to the direction of an individuals sexuality, normally conceived of as falling into several significant categories based around the sex or gender that the individual finds attractive. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Religion in South Korea is dominated by the traditional Buddhist faith. ... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones (often homosexual or bisexual) sexual orientation or gender identity. ...

Contents

History

Although there is very little mention of homosexuality in Korean literature or traditional historical accounts, several members of nobility and Buddhist monks have been known to either profess their attraction to members of the same sex or else be actively involved with them.[1] The earliest such recorded example might be that of King Hyegong, the 36th ruler of the Silla Dynasty who was killed at the age of 22 by his noblemen who revolted in protest of his "femininity." [2]; see also "Hyegong-wang" (惠恭王) in Samguk Sagi Silla Bon-gi. Korean literature is the body of literature produced in Korea. ... Hyegong of Silla (756-780, r. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... We dont have an article called Samguk sagi Start this article Search for Samguk sagi in. ...


King Chungseon (1275-1325) and King Gongmin (1325-1374) of Goryeo are both on record as having kept several wonchung ("male lovers") in their courts as “little-brother attendants” (chajewhi) who served as sexual partners. After the death of his wife, King Gongmin even went so far as to create a ministry whose sole purpose was to seek out and recruit young men from all over the country to serve in his court.[3] Chungseon of Goryeo (1275-1314, r. ... Gongmin ruled Goryeo (Korea) from 1351 until 1374. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian...


Evidence of homosexual activities among the common people are harder to find as there are fewer records pertaining to them.


During the Joseon Era before the Japanese annexation there were travelling theater groups known as namsandang which included underaged males called midong (beautiful boys). The troupes provided "various types of entertainment, including band music, song, masked dance, circus, and puppet plays," sometimes with graphic representations of same-sex intercourse, including anal penetration performed on stage.[4] Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong Capital Hanseong Language(s) Korean Religion Confucianism Government Monarchy Wang  - 1392 - 1398 Taejo  - 1418 - 1450 Sejong  - 1776 - 1800 Jeongjo  - 1863 - 1897 Proclaimed Emperor Gojong Yeong-uijeong  - 1431 - 1449 Hwang Hui  - 1466 - 1472 Han Myeonghoe  - 1592 - 1598 Ryu Seongryong  - 1894 Kim Hongjip...


Political Representation

The Democratic Labour Party (Korean: 민주노동당), established in January 2000, is the third-largest political party in South Korea and has a political panel known as the Sexual Minorities Committee (Korean: 민주노동당 성소수자위원회) which advocates the recognition and political representation of sexual minorities. Their stated agenda includes a campaign against homophobia and discrimination based on sexual preferences, equal rights for sexual minorities (in their own words "complete freedom, equality, and right of pursuit of happiness for homosexuals")[5] as well as the legalization of same-sex marriages.[6] On its campaign bid for the 2004 parliamentary elections, the Democratic Labour Party promised the abolition of all inequalities against sexual minorities and won a record 10 seats in the Kukhoe National Assembly. Political parties in South Korea lists political parties in South Korea. ... The Democratic Labour Party(DLP) (Korean hangul: 민주노동당; hanja: 民主勞動黨; revised: Minju Nodong-dang; McCune-Reischauer: Minju Nodong-dang) is a political party in South Korea, established in January 2000. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In politics, representation describes how residents of a country are empowered in the government. ... Homophobia is the fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... A sexual minority—the term is most commonly used in the plural, sexual minorities— is a group whose sexual orientation or practices differ from the majority of the surrounding society. ... Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live together as a family. ... Legislative elections were held in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) on April 15, 2004. ... The National Assembly is the South Korean parliament. ...


On July 30, 2004, the Committee filed a formal complaint against the Incheon District Court's decision to refuse the recognition of same-sex marriages. The complaint was filed on the grounds that the decision is uncostitutional since neither the Constitution nor civil law define marriage as being between a man and a woman (the only mentioned requisite is age of majority) and that the Constitution explicitly forbids discrimination "pertaining to all political, economic, social, or cultural aspects of life of an individual." The Committee also claimed that refusal to recognize same-sex marriages constitutes discrimination based on sexual orientation and a refusal to provide equal protection under the law.[7] July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth...


Movies and Media

The 2005 South Korean film The King and the Clown by Lee Jun-ki is a homosexual-themed movie based on a court affair between a king and his male jester. The movie soon became the highest grossing in Korean film in history, surpassing both Silmido and Taegukgi. Interestingly, the Korean title for The King and the Clown is "왕의 남자" which translates as "The King's Man" or "The King's Lover." Other recent movies include No Regret (Korean: 후회하지 않아) by celebrated director Lee Songhwee-il (Korean: 이송희일), which starred in the 2006 Busan International Film Festival.[8] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Silmido is a 2003 South Korean film directed by Kang Woo-suk. ... Taegukgi: The Brotherhood of War (known simply as Brotherhood in Europe, or 태극기 in Korea or 太極旗 in Hanja) is a 2004 film directed by Kang Je-gyu dealing with the Korean War, a bloody civil war where brothers turn into enemies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Pusan International Film Festival(PIFF, 부산국제영화제), taking place in Busan, South Korea, is one of the most significant film festivals in Asia. ...


Homosexuality remained mostly taboo in South Korea until recently, largely due to strong and prevalent confucian tendencies. The popular culture of South Korea, however, has begun addressing the issue much more visibly in recent times. Noteworthy are the airing of several popular "gay themed" commercials[9] as well as the issuing of South Korea's first magazine for sexual minority audiences.[10] Several popular and prominent entertainment figures have also made their sexualities public. Among the most noted of these are model and actress Harisu, a trans woman who makes frequent appearances in television,[11] and actor Hong Seok-cheon[12] who after being fired from his job due to his coming out scandal[13], has since returned to his acting career and has appeared in several debate programs in support of gay rights.[14] Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism developed in Korea. ... The contemporary culture of South Korea derives from the traditional culture of Korea, but since the 1948 division of Korea, it has developed separately from North Koreas culture. ... A sexual minority—the term is most commonly used in the plural, sexual minorities— is a group whose sexual orientation or practices differ from the majority of the surrounding society. ... Lee Kyung-eun (popularly known as Harisu, in Korean hangul: 하리수, hanja: 河莉秀) (born 17 February 1975) is a singer, model and actress from South Korea. ... Transwomen or trans women are transsexual or transgendered people who were assigned male sex at birth (or, in some cases of intersexuality, later) and feel that this is not an accurate or complete description of themselves. ... Hong Seok-cheon is a South Korean television and film actor who caused considerable controversy in his home country when he came out as a homosexual in 2002. ...


Censorship Issues

Article 31 of the National Human Rights Committee Law states that "no individual is to be discriminated against on the basis of his or her sexual orientation". However, the National Human Rights Committee has no legal power and lacks support from local Gay and Lesbian Associations as it has not requested the repeal of Article 92 of the Military Penal Code.


The Government of South Korea practices censorship of gay-content websites through its Information and Communications Ethics Committee(정보통신윤리위원회), an official organ of the Ministry of Information and Communication. Homosexual and gay-related websites have been frequent and easy censorship targets, being blocked, filtered, or even outright banned by the Government. [15] Most recently the Ethics Committee included several prominent gay websites and servers on its banned list, declaring them "Harmful Media to Adolescents" ("청소년유해매채물").[16] [17] The government of South Korea is divided into three branches: executive, judicial, and legislative. ... The Ministry of Information and Communication or MIC is a ministry of the government of South Korea. ...


However, on April 2, 2003 the Korean National Human Rights Protection Committee officially advised Korea's Youth Protection Committee to remove anti-gay language from the 1997 Youth Protection Act that underpinned the 2001 Ministry of Information and Communications decision.[18]


Military Service

Military Service is mandatory for all male citizens in South Korea. Enlistees are drafted through the Military Manpower Administration (MMA; Korean: 병무청) which administers a "psychology test" at the time of enlistment that includes several questions regarding the enlistee's sexual preferences. Homosexual military members in active duty are categorized as having a "personality disorder" or "behavioural disability" and can either be institutionalized or dishonorably discharged. A psychiatric hospital (also called at various places and times, mental hospital, mental ward, sanitarium or asylum) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ...


This is a problem since South Korea does not allow for conscientious objection and dishonorable discharge bears with it significant social pressure, as many South Korean companies will request a complete military service profile at the time of a job application. On military records, the applicants can appear as having been dishonorably discharged either due to their homosexuality or for being "mentally handicapped." [19] A conscientious objector is an individual whose personal beliefs are incompatible with military service, or sometimes with any role in the armed forces. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Transgender Rights

The Supreme Court of South Korea has ruled that in order for a person to be eligible for a sex-change operation they must be over 20 years of age, single and without children.[20] In the case of MTF (Male-to-Female) gender reassignment operations, the person must first finish his compulsory military service of 24 to 28 months. In June 22, 2006 however, the Supreme Court ruled that transgender individuals who had undergone successful gender reassignment surgery have the right to declare themselves in their new gender in all legal documents. This includes the right to request a correction of their gender-on-file in all public and government records such as the census registry.[21] The Supreme Court of Korea is the highest court in South Korea. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Legal instrument is a legal term of art that is used for any written legal document such as a certificate, a deed, a will, an Act of Parliament or a law passed by a competent legislative body in municipal (domestic) or international law. ...


Everyday Life

The Korean word for "homosexual" is Dongseong Yeon'aeja (hangul: 동성연애자; hanja: 同性戀愛者, lit. "same-sex lover"), which is usually shortened to simply Dongseong-aeja ("동성애자" 同性愛者). South Korean homosexuals however, make frequent use of the term ibanin or eban'in ("이반인"; "異般人" also "二般人") which means "different person" or "distinct person," and is usually shortened to iban or eban ("이반"; "異般").[22] The word is a direct play on the word ilban-in ("일반인"; "一般人") meaning "normal person" or "ordinary person." Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ...


Homosexuality remains largely taboo in South Korean society and same-sex couples are rarely, if ever, seen in public. This lack of visibility is also reflected in the relatively low-profile maintained by many gay clubs in South Korea, most of which are concentrated in metropolitan areas such as Seoul's historic Jong-no, the "college district" of Sincheon, or the foreign sector of Itaewon (especially in the section known as "Homo-hill"). [23] Busan and the other large cities also maintain their own gay nightlife. Jongno-gu is a gu, or district, in central Seoul, South Korea. ... Sincheon or Sinchŏn can refer to several things in South and North Korea: Sincheon (Gyeonggi), a stream in northern Gyeonggi province. ... Itaewon is a dong, or city district, in Yongsan-gu, Seoul, South Korea. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan, is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ...


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.utopia-asia.com/korlife2.htm
  2. ^ Hyung-Ki Choi et al.. South Korea (Taehan Min’guk). International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. Continuum Publishing Company. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  3. ^ Hyung-Ki Choi et al.. South Korea (Taehan Min’guk). International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. Continuum Publishing Company. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  4. ^ Hyung-Ki Choi et al.. South Korea (Taehan Min’guk). International Encyclopedia of Sexuality. Continuum Publishing Company. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  5. ^ http://www.hani.co.kr/section-003000000/2004/09/003000000200409191151001.html
  6. ^ http://www.hani.co.kr/section-003000000/2004/09/003000000200409191151001.html
  7. ^ http://blog.naver.com/draft23?Redirect=Log&logNo=80004596491
  8. ^ http://movie.naver.com/movie/bi/mi/basic.nhn?code=50304
  9. ^ http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LOD&office_id=108&article_id=0000039407&section_id=001&menu_id=001
  10. ^ http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LOD&office_id=019&article_id=0000152387&section_id=001&menu_id=001
  11. ^ http://www.jenellerose.com/htmlpostings/harisu.htm
  12. ^ Hanson, Lisa (2004-06-26). Gay community at crossroads. Korea Herald. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  13. ^ 홍석천, 이성애자 마초 변신 “놀랍죠?” (Korean) (2006-09-07). Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  14. ^ http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LOD&office_id=213&article_id=0000001915&section_id=001&menu_id=001
  15. ^ South Korea. Reporters sans frontières. Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  16. ^ http://cham2.jinbo.net/maybbs/view.php?db=nocensor&code=news&n=77&page=6
  17. ^ http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=7248
  18. ^ http://www.utopia-asia.com/korlife1.htm
  19. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGASA250022004?open&of=ENG-KOR
  20. ^ http://www.queerkorea.org/board/zboard.php?id=news&page=1&sn1=&divpage=1&sn=off&ss=on&sc=on&select_arrange=headnum&desc=asc&no=299
  21. ^ http://news.naver.com/news/read.php?mode=LOD&office_id=143&article_id=0000030810&section_id=001&menu_id=001
  22. ^ http://www.kirikiri.org/bbs/zboard.php?id=fag_1&page=1&sn1=&divpage=1&sn=off&ss=on&sc=on&select_arrange=headnum&desc=asc&no=15
  23. ^ http://www.utopia-asia.com/korseoul.htm

The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality (ISBN 0826414885) is a four-volume reference work on human sexuality. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality (ISBN 0826414885) is a four-volume reference work on human sexuality. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality (ISBN 0826414885) is a four-volume reference work on human sexuality. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... The Korea Herald is one of a handful of English-language newspapers in South Korea. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, or RSF) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to freedom of the press. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ...

See also

  • List of Korea-related topics

This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ...

Other


 
 

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