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Encyclopedia > LGBT rights in Russia

LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ...


Around the world World laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in the US. Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ...


By country This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ...


History · Groups · Activists LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Here is a list of gay-rights organizations around the world. ... A list of LGBT rights activists by country, in alphabetical order. ...


Declaration of Montreal Martina Navrátilová and Mark Tewksbury read the Declaration of Montreal at the opening ceremonies of the World Outgames. ...


Same-sex relationships Same-sex union can refer to: same-sex marriage -- the civil or religious rites of marriage that make it equivalent to opposite-sex marriages in all aspects. ...


Marriage · Adoption One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ...


Opposition · Discrimination LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      LGBT rights opposition refers to various movements or attitudes which oppose the extension of certain rights to lesbian and gay people, and by extension to bisexuals, and... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ...


Violence John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, was hanged for sodomy under a law that he had helped to institute. ...


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Russia has neither legislation against gay people nor anti-discrimination laws. Homosexuality was first decriminalised in 1917, re-criminalized in 1933, and then decriminalized again 1993 with an "equal" age of consent at the same time. Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Decriminalization is the reduction or abolition of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any...

Contents

Tsarist Russia

Under Tsarist rule homosexuals were commonly persecuted and arrested. Official Tsarist policy in a country dominated heavily by conservative religion, was that homosexuality was a moral sin and was to be punished.


Some center-left people, including Marxists and socialists, spoke for decriminalization. Many socialists however, followed mainstream sentiment on the issue. Nevertheless, laws criminalizing consensual homosexual relations came to an end after the Russian Revolution of 1917.


After the Revolution

After the Russian Revolution in 1917 the Communist Party officially abolished all the old Tsarist laws, although these laws were still retained as a guideline where they had not been explicitly revoked.[1] This included the prohibition on homosexuality. However, prosecutions of male homosexuals did still occur, notably among Orthodox clergy.[2] Under the criminal code of 1922 and 1926, homosexual relations between consenting adults were legalized. Experts on Soviet law note that despite this, homosexual behavior in Soviet Georgia, Central Asia and Uzbek was treated as a criminal act throughout the 1920s. Moreover, in Azerbaijan in 1923, sodomy was made illegal, and then in Uzbekistan in 1926, and Turkmenistan in 1927.[3] Some official Soviet documents during this era spoke of homosexuality as a condition that should not be treated as a crime but rather a sickness that could be cured."[4] 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Soviet Union

Soviet delegates were sent to the German Institute For Sexual Research and at international conferences on human sexuality, they advocated the legalization of homosexuality. In Soviet Russia, Mikhail Kuzmin and other gay poets and writers were free to publish works with homosexual themes until 1929, but the Communist Party under Stalin then made it clear that homosexuality was not a topic for public consumption. Russian gay men and women that wanted a position in government had to marry a person of the opposite sex. In 1933 Joseph Stalin introduced a new criminal code that made homosexuality a crime punishable by five years of hard labor. The Soviet government treated homosexuality as crime against the state akin to espionage.[5] The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early private sexology research institute in Germany from 1919 to 1933. ... Mikhail Alekseevich Kuzmin (Михаил Алексеевич Кузмин, 1872 - 1936) was a Russian reincarnation of Andre Gide. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ...


Until the 1980s, gays and lesbians were routinely forcibly committed to hospitals for reparative therapy, which involved several months of psychotropic drugs.[citation needed] Reparative therapy (also called conversion therapy and sexual reorientation therapy) refers to methods aimed at changing gay, lesbian, and bisexual peoples sexual orientations to heterosexual, or at eliminating or diminishing same-sex desires and behaviors. ...


Post-Soviet

On May 27, 1993, homosexual acts between consenting males were legalized, and since 1999 homosexuality no longer is included on the list of mental disorders in Russia. In 2002, Gennady Raikov, who led a conservative pro-government group in the State Duma, suggested outlawing homosexual acts, but his proposal faced fierce resistance from the Russian gay community and was abandoned. Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... For other uses, see State Duma (disambiguation). ...


In February 2006, Grand Mufti Talgat Tadzhuddin was quoted as saying about Moscow gay pride marchers, "If they come out on to the streets anyway they should be flogged. Any normal person would do that - Muslims and Orthodox Christians alike..."[6] Days later, one of Russia's Chief Rabbis, Berl Lazar, joined Tadzhuddin in condemning the march in saying that it "would be a blow for morality", but he didn't go as far as saying that marchers should be beaten.[7] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The title of Grand Mufti (Arabic: ‎) refers to the highest official of religious law in a Sunni Muslim country. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... // Chief rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that countrys Jewish community. ... Rabbi Berel Lazar is the Chief Rabbi of Russia, and is the chairman of the rabbinical alliance of the CIS. Education A native of Milan, Italy, Rabbi Lazar was born in 1964 to parents who were among the first emissaries of Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson. ...


In late April and early May 2006, protestors blockaded some popular gay clubs in Moscow. After initial complaints that police had failed to intervene, later blockade attempts were met with arrests.[8]


In May 2006, a gay rights forum was held in Moscow. An accompanying march was banned by the mayor in a decision upheld by the courts. Some activists tried to march despite the ban and attempted to lay flowers at the Tomb of the Unknown Solider. This act and the presence of non-Russian activists aroused a nationalist reaction in addition to a religious condemnation of homosexuality, leading to the presence of both neo-Nazi groups and Orthodox protesters threatening the gay activists. According to the BBC, anti-march protestors beat the marchers, and about 50 marchers and 20 protestors were arrested when riot police moved in to break up the conflict.[9] For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ...


On May 27, 2007, a gay rights demonstration banned by Yury Luzhkov as "satanic" was held in Moscow again and for the second year running degenerated into violent clashes with anti-gay extremists. For the second time police failed to protect gay rights activists. Italian MP Marco Cappato was kicked by an anti-gay activist and then detained when he demanded police protection. British gay rights veteran Peter Tatchell and Russian gay leader Nikolay Alexeyev were detained as well.[10][11] Satanism can refer to a number of belief systems depending on the user and contexts. ... Marco Cappato (b. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Peter Gary Tatchell (born 25 January 1952) is an Australian-British human rights activist, who is best known internationally for his attempts to perform a citizens... Nikolai Alekseev (b. ...


Support for gay marriage in Russia is at 14% [1]


References

  1. ^ Hazard, John N. "Unity and Diversity in Socialist Law". Law and Contemporary Problems, vol. 30, No. 2, Unification of Law, Spring 1965, p. 271.
  2. ^ Healey, Dan. Homosexual Desire in Revolutionary Russia: The Regulation of Sexual and Gender Dissent. University of Chicago Press, 2001, p. 118.
  3. ^ Healey, Dan. "Masculine purity and 'Gentlemen's Mischief': Sexual Exchange and Prostitution between Russian Men, 1861-1941". Slavic Review. Vol. 60, No. 2 (Summer, 2001), p. 258.
  4. ^ Dan Healey GLQ 8:3 Homosexual Existence and Exisitng Socialism New Light on the Repression of Male Homosexuality in Stalin's Russia p. 349 - 378 2002
  5. ^ Dan Healey GLQ 8:3 Homosexual Existence and Exisitng Socialism New Light on the Repression of Male Homosexuality in Stalin's Russia p. 349 - 378 2002
  6. ^ Kim Murphy (2006-05-26). Gay Pride Parade Polarizes Moscow. Los Angeles Times.
  7. ^ "Russian Chief Rabbi Echoes Muslim Leader in Protesting Gay Pride in Moscow", Moscow News, 2006-02-16. 
  8. ^ Moscow Gay Club Blockades. GayRussia.ru (2006-05-02).
  9. ^ "Banned Moscow gay rally broken up", BBC News, 2007-05-27. 
  10. ^ Arrests at Russian gay protests, BBC News, May 27, 2007.
  11. ^ Eggs and punches at Russia gay march by Mike Levy, BBC News, May 27, 2007.

Stuart's a big raving gay The Slavic Review is the leading international journal in Slavic studies with the coverage centered on Russia, Central Eurasia and Eastern and Central Europe. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ...


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