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Encyclopedia > LGBT rights in New Zealand

LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality or transgenderism. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ...


Around the world · By country World laws on homosexuality US laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ...


History · Groups · Activists LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... Here is a list of gay-rights organizations around the world. ... This article is new. ...


Declaration of Montreal Martina Navrátilová and Mark Tewksbury read the Declaration of Montreal at the opening ceremonies of the World Outgames. ...


Same-sex relationships Same-sex union can refer to: same-sex marriage -- the civil or religious rites of marriage that make it equivalent to opposite-sex marriages in all aspects. ...


Marriage · Adoption   CA, CT, MD, NY, NJ, OR, RI, VT, WA See also Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ...


Opposition · Discrimination Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Homophobia is a term used to describe: A culturally determined phobia manifesting as fear, revulsion, or contempt for desire or physical love between people of the same sex. ...


Violence John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, was hanged for sodomy under a law that he had helped to institute. ...


Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

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Gays, lesbians and transgendered people have most of the same rights as heterosexuals in New Zealand. The two major exceptions at present are the right to adopt children as a couple, and the right to marry, although civil unions allow "unioned" couples the same rights as married couples. This equality is a relatively recent development. Homosexual sex was only decriminalised in 1986. A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Homosexual Law Reform

Main article: Homosexual Law Reform Act 1986 The New Zealand Homosexual Law Reform Act 1986 legalised consensual homosexual sex. ...


Homosexual sex has been legal in New Zealand since the passage of the Homosexual Law Reform Act in 1986. Prior to that, attempts to change the law had failed, including steps taken by National Member of Parliament, Venn Young, in 1974. In 1986, the Crimes Act was changed with the passing of the Homosexual Law Reform Act, removing the offence of consensual sex between men over the age of sixteen. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation was outlawed several years later in amendments to the Human Rights Act. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Venn Spearman Young (19 February 1929 - February 1993) was a New Zealand politician. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The Human Rights Act 1993 is an Act dealing with discrimination in New Zealand. ...


Transsexuals

New Zealand does not have specific transgender anti-discrimination laws, although New Zealand's anti-discrimination laws are now thought to cover members of the trans communities. The Human Rights Commission in New Zealand said in 2005 that it considered transgendered people to fall within the definition of sex discrimination, and would accept complaints from trans-people. Transsexual Member of Parliament Georgina Beyer had the Human Rights (Gender Identity) Amendment Bill ready for debate in Parliament as a member's bill in 2004. However, on August 16, 2006, New Zealand's Solicitor-General issued an opinion to the effect that transgendered people were covered under the 'sex discrimination' provision of the Human Rights Act 1993. In New Zealand, the Solicitor-General plays an important role in determining the interpretation of the law for government agencies, and Georgina Beyer said when withdrawing her Bill "that's good enough for me". A Human Rights Commission is a body set up to investigate and protect human rights. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Georgina Beyer addresses the International Conference on LGBT Human Rights Georgina Beyer (b 1957) is the worlds first openly transsexual Member of Parliament, currently a list MP for the Labour Party in New Zealand. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Solicitor General refers to a position in government dealing with legal affairs in several countries: United States Solicitor General - the attorney who represents or advises a government when it is party to a legal suit. ...


In 1994, the New Zealand High Court ruled that post-operative transsexuals could marry as their new sex. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... The High Court of New Zealand was established in 1841 and known as the Supreme Court until 1980. ... A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ...


Relationship law

The Property (Relationships) Act 2000 gives de facto couples, whether opposite or same sex, the same property rights as existed since 1976 for married couples on the break-up of a relationship. Original proposals saw only straight de facto couples covered, but the eventual change on the law covered all couples, gay or straight.


The Civil Union Act 2004 established the institution of civil unions for same-sex and opposite-sex couples. The Act is very similar to the Marriage Act with "marriage" replaced by "civil union". The following year, the Relationships (Statutory References) Bills were passed to remove discriminatory provisions from most, although not all, legislation. As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law...


Discrimination

The Human Rights Act 1993 outlaws discrimination on the grounds of sexuality. Initially this law exempted government activities until the year 1999. In 1998 an Amendment Bill was introduced making this exemption permanent. This was abandoned following a change of government in 1999. The new Labour government instead passed another Amendment Act to apply the Human Rights Act to government activities, and also to create a new ability for the Courts to "declare" legislation inconsistent with the Act. The Human Rights Act 1993 is an Act dealing with discrimination in New Zealand. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party. ... The Human Rights Act 1993 is an Act dealing with discrimination in New Zealand. ...


The Royal New Zealand Navy and the Police are amongst many government agencies to have adopted "gay-friendly" policies. The Royal New Zealand Navy (RNZN) is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. ...


Some examples of discrimination are still reported. In January 2006, news headlines were made by a sperm bank's policy of refusing donations from gay men. Homosexual men are also not allowed to give blood. In March 2006, the former policy was amended and the latter is being reviewed. Reportedly some heterosexual male sperm donors have vetoed the use of their gametes for lesbians who seek artificial insemination [1].


Adoption and parenting

Currently there are no specific barriers to gay individuals adopting children, except that men cannot adopt female children. However gay couples cannot adopt as couples. In recent years, Government white papers and Law Commission Reports have suggested inclusive reform is advisable, although wider reform of adoption generally appears to be possible.


On May 21, 2006, Green List MP Metiria Turei raised the issue of gay adoption, arguing that New Zealand's Adoption Act 1955 did not meet the complexities of contemporary New Zealand society. She argued following the enactment of the Civil Union Act in particular that lesbian and gay prospective parents should be enabled to legally adopt. As they already have access to reproductive technologies, fostering and guardianship responsibilities and rights, this may lead to an increased profile for that debate. [2]. Her Adoption (Equity) Bill is currently within Parliament's members bill ballot, and may yet be drawn from the ballot and debated. May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Metiria Turei (born 1970) is a member of Parliament for the Green Party of New Zealand. ... Legal status of gay adoption in Europe (map needs to be changed; UK, Norway, Iceland see text). ... Civil unions in New Zealand were ratified on 9 December 2004 when Parliament passed the Civil Union Bill to establish the institution of civil union for same-sex and opposite-sex couples. ...


Politics

Gay rights were a major political issue during the Homosexual Law Reform debates, but have subsequently become much less so. The Civil Union Act was opposed by nearly half of Parliament, but in tones much more restrained than that of the Homosexual Law Reform era. The Destiny political party, founded to bring ‘Christian morality’ into politics, received only 0.62% of the party vote in the 2005 general election. Although a significant percentage of the electorate is uncomfortable with what they see as the ‘social engineering’ of civil unions and other gay-friendly legislation, most politicians are careful not to appear overtly homophobic. Civil unions in New Zealand were ratified on 9 December 2004 when Parliament passed the Civil Union Bill to establish the institution of civil union for same-sex and opposite-sex couples. ... Current Destiny New Zealand logo Destiny New Zealand, a Christian political party in New Zealand, centres around the charismatic Destiny Church, founded and led by the televangelist Brian Tamaki. ... The 2005 New Zealand general election will be a nation-wide election for the New Zealand Parliament, and is to be held on 17 September 2005. ... Homophobia is a term used to describe: A culturally determined phobia manifesting as fear, revulsion, or contempt for homosexuality. ...


There are a number of gay and lesbian Members of Parliament (MPs). The first to be elected was Chris Carter, who became the first openly gay MP when he came out shortly after the 1993 election. He lost his seat in the 1996 election, but won it again in the 1999 election and became New Zealand's first openly gay cabinet minister in 2002. Carter wed his long-time partner of thirty three years, Peter Kaiser, in a civil union on February 10, 2007. Chris Carter Christopher Joseph Carter is a New Zealand politician and a member of Cabinet. ... The 1993 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1996 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1999 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 46th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The New Zealand Cabinet functions as the policy and decision-making body of New Zealand governments executive branch. ... A civil union is a recognized union similar to marriage. ...


Tim Barnett was the first MP to be elected as an openly gay man, in the 1996 election. In 1997, Barnett and Carter started Rainbow Labour as a branch of the Labour Party to represent gay, lesbian, and transgender people within a major mainstream party, the first of its kind in New Zealand. Timothy John Barnett is a member of the New Zealand Parliament for Christchurch Central since 1999. ... The 1996 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... Rainbow Labour is affliated with the New Zealand Labour Party as a branch for gay and lesbian members of that party. ...


Maryan Street was New Zealand's first openly lesbian woman elected in the 2005 election. However, the National Party's Marilyn Waring had preceded Street, and while she was outed at one point, Waring's strong pro-choice identification and vocal feminism overshadowed her lesbianism, which was then ignored. Since she left Parliament in 1984, Waring has more openly acknowledged her sexual orientation. In 2005, Chris Finlayson became the first openly gay National MP, elected to Parliament on his party's MMP party list in New Zealand's 2005 general election, and Charles Chauvel (Labour) is the other gay current MP. Maryan Street is a New Zealand political candidate. ... The 2005 New Zealand general election will be a nation-wide election for the New Zealand Parliament, and is to be held on 17 September 2005. ... The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... Marilyn Waring (born 1952) is a renowned New Zealand feminist, an activist for female human rights, an author and an academic. ... Chris Finlayson is a New Zealand politician who successfully stood for the National Party in the 2005 elections. ... Charles Chauvel (born Gisborne, 16 April 1969) is a New Zealand commercial lawyer, described since 2000 as leading or recommended in the labour law and public law listings of a number of international legal directories. ...


Georgina Beyer became the first transsexual mayor in the world when she became the Mayor of Carterton in 1995. In the 1999 election, she became the world's first transsexual MP. She retired from Parliamentary politics on February 14, 2007. Georgina Beyer addresses the International Conference on LGBT Human Rights Georgina Beyer (b 1957) is the worlds first openly transsexual Member of Parliament, currently a list MP for the Labour Party in New Zealand. ... Carterton is a small town in a farming area of the Wairarapa district in New Zealand’s North Island. ... The 1999 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the 46th session of the New Zealand Parliament. ...


Pride events

The first gay pride events were held in the 1970s. In the 1990s, the Hero Parade was held annually in Auckland. It was a significant public event which was publicised throughout New Zealand, and which created a significant amount of attention during the period when the Parade was held (1992-2001). The controversy it raised amongst conservative Christians was dwarfed by crowds of extraordinary size by New Zealand standards. The Hero Festival continues but it does not attract as much attention, because there are no longer any Parades. The Hero Parade was an (almost) annual gay and lesbian Parade through the streets of Auckland, New Zealand, in the 1990s. ...


Bibliography

  • New Zealand Law Commission: Adoption: Options for Reform: Wellington: New Zealand Law Commission Preliminary Paper No 38: 1999: ISBN 1-877187-44-5

References

See also


 
 

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