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Encyclopedia > LGBT rights in Jamaica
LGBT rights
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History · Groups · Activists
Same-sex relationships
Opposition · Persecution
Violence

LGBT right in Jamaica LGBT social movements is a collective term for a number of movements that share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality and/or transgenderism. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... World laws on homosexuality Status of same-sex union laws in North America. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Death of Orpheus In Albrecht Dürers 1494 drawing, the banner hung in the tree reads: Orfeus der erst puseran (Orpheus, the first sodomite). The word puseran(t) derives from the Latin bulgarus from which come also the terms bugger in English and bougre in French. ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an abbreviation used as a collective term to refer to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... A right is the power or privilege to which one is justly entitled or a thing to which one has a just claim. ...

Contents

Overview

Sex between men, according to the criminal law of Jamaica, is illegal and punishable with up to ten years jail.[1]


Social leaders in Jamaica accuse international groups of meddling in domestic affairs. They defend laws against homosexuality as upholding Christian values. One commentator argued that committing a crime in private should not be tolerated, whether a person is using cocaine or having gay sex.


Human rights groups

According to a survey on sexual orientation and human rights in the Americas published in December 2003, "In the Caribbean, Jamaica is by far the most dangerous place for sexual minorities, with frequent and often fatal attacks against gay men fostered by a popular culture that idolizes reggae and dancehall singers whose lyrics call for burning and killing gay men. Draconian laws against sexual activity between members of the same sex continue to be in force not only in Jamaica, but in most of the English-speaking Caribbean."[2] According to Amnesty International, “the gay and lesbian community in Jamaica face extreme prejudice,” and “gay people in Jamaica, or those suspected of being gay, are routinely victims of ill-treatment and harassment by the police, and occasionally of torture.”[3] Sexual orientation describes the direction of an individuals sexuality, often in relation to their own sex or gender. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A sexual minority—the term is most commonly used in the plural, sexual minorities— is a group whose sexual orientation or practices differ from the majority of the surrounding society. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The term Anglophone Caribbean is used to refer to the independent English-speaking countries of the Caribbean region. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an non-governmental membership organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ...


Criminal Code

Jamaican criminal code prohibits sex between men, as is the case in much of the English-speaking Caribbean. Article 76 of the Offences Against the Person Act prohibits “the abominable crime of buggery” (anal sex), with penalties ranging up to ten years in jail with mandatory hard labor. Article 77 provides for penalties of up to seven years in jail for attempted buggery. A Criminal Code is a compilation of government laws that outline a nations criminal offenses, and the maximum and minimum punishments that courts can impose upon offenders when such crimes are committed. ... A sodomy law is a law which defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ...


Article 79 forbids “any act of gross indecency” between men, whether in public or in private, with penalties of up to two years in jail with or without hard labor. “Gross indecency” is not defined, but has been interpreted to include male homosexual conduct between consenting adults in private, or even for simply holding hands.[4] A dictionary definition of Indecent not conforming with accepted standards of behaviour or morality. ...


Political parties

Neither one of the two major political parties in Jamaica have expressed any official support for gay rights. The ruling Peoples National Party views international criticism of its human rights record as meddling, and either claims that homophobia is not a serious problem or that gay rights violate the conservative social values of the Jamaican people. The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The Peoples National Party (PNP) is a democratic socialist Jamaican political party, founded by Norman Manley in 1938. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


The Jamaican Labour Party has likewise avoided the issue, although in 2004, the former Jamaican Attorney General and Justice Minister, Dr Oswald Hardider, stated that he felt that Jamaica law should follow the advice of the Wolfden Committee in Britain and decriminalize homosexuality and prostitution when it occurred between consenting adults in private. None of the other minor political parties have endorsed gay rights. The Jamaica Labour Party is a right-wing political party in Jamaica. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Report of the Departmental Committee on Homosexual Offences and Prostitution (better known as the Wolfenden report, after Lord Wolfenden, the chairman of the committee) was published in Britain on September 3, 1957 after a succession of well-known men were convicted of homosexual offences. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual and romantic attraction between two individuals of the same sex. ... A sex worker in Germany. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also...


In April 2006, the Sunday Herald ran a front page headline "No homos!" in which opposition leader Bruce Golding vowed that "homosexuals would find no solace in any cabinet formed by him".[5] The statement was supported by several clergymen and a trade union leader. During the 2001 elections Golding's party used as its theme song Chi Chi Man by T.O.K.,[6] which celebrates the burning and killing of gay men.[7] Bruce Golding was the founder of the Jamaican National Democratic Movement (NDM). ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Batty boy, battyman and chi chi man are derogatory terms used in Jamaica, Belize and the rest of the Anglophone Caribbean to describe gay men. ... Founded in the early 1990s, T.O.K. are a dancehall boyband hailing from Kingston, Jamaica was comprised of 4 young adults playing reggae. ...


Violence against homosexuals

According to Human Rights Watch (2004), "Verbal and physical violence, ranging from beatings to brutal armed attacks to murder, are widespread. For many, there is no sanctuary from such abuse. Men who have sex with men and women who have sex with women reported being driven from their homes and their towns by neighbors who threatened to kill them if they remained, forcing them to abandon their possessions and leaving many homeless." In addition, "police actively support homophobic violence, fail to investigate complaints of abuse, and arrest and detain men based on their alleged homosexual conduct."[8] In one gay-hate murder, "several witnesses [said] that police participated in the abuse that ultimately led to his mob killing, first beating the man with batons and then urging others to beat him because he was homosexual."[9] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Amnesty International agrees: "Gay men and lesbian women have been beaten, cut, burned, raped and shot on account of their sexuality";[10] and gays and lesbians constitute one of the "most marginalized and persecuted communities in Jamaica".[11] Amnesty gave an example of a recent incident reported in a national newspaper, where a father encouraged a mob to beat up his son, who he suspected was gay, while he looked on smiling. No charges were laid. Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an non-governmental membership organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ...


While police do not compile statistics on attacks against homosexuals,[12], J-FLAG, the Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals and Gays, report that they know of 30 gay men who have been murdered in Jamaica between 1997 and 2004.[13]


The violence has prompted hundreds of LGBT Jamaicans to seek asylum in nations such as Great Britain, Canada and the United States,[14] and several have been successful.[15] In 2005, the European Parliament passed a resolution calling on Jamaica to repeal their sodomy laws and to actively combat widespread homophobia.[16] Look up asylum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sign in the entrance of the European Parliament building in Brussels, written in all the official languages used in the European Union as of July 2006 The European Parliament building in Strasbourg The debating chamber, or hemicycle, in Strasbourg The European Parliament building in Brussels The European Parliament (formerly European...


Recent reported incidents of violence include:

  • In January 2006, Nokia Cowan, a young Jamaican man, plunged to his death off a pier in Kingston after reportedly being chased through the streets by a mob yelling homophobic epithets.[17]
  • In April 2006, students at the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies rioted as police attempted to protect a man who had been chased across the campus because another student had claimed the man had propositioned him in a bathroom. The mob demanded that the man be turned over to them. It only dispersed when riot police were called in and one officer fired a shot in the air. If the claim of a sexual advance is substantiated, the chased man could face charges.[18]

The University of the West Indies, also known as UWI, is an autonomous regional institution supported by and serving 16 countries and territories in the Caribbean - Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. ...

Political activism

The only LGBT rights organization in Jamaica is the Jamaican Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG). The organization was created in 1998, and operates underground and anonymously. In June 2004 the founder and public face of J-FLAG and Jamaica's leading gay-rights activist, Brian Williamson, was stabbed to death in his home. Police ruled that the murder was the result of a robbery, but J-FLAG believes his murder was a hate crime.[19] Human Rights Watch researcher Rebecca Schleifer had a meeting with Williamson that day, and arrived at his home not long after his body had been discovered: 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Brian Williamson (d. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...

   
LGBT rights in Jamaica
She found a small crowd singing and dancing. One man called out, "Battyman he get killed." Others were celebrating, laughing and shouting "Let's get them one at a time", "That's what you get for sin". Others sang "Boom bye bye", a line from a well-known dancehall song by Jamaican star Buju Banton about shooting and burning gay men. "It was like a parade," says Schleifer. "They were basically partying."[20]
   
LGBT rights in Jamaica

Human Rights Watch also reports that police helped a suspect evade identification, and consistently refused to consider the possibility of a homophobic motive for the killing, with the senior officer responsible for the investigation claiming “most of the violence against homosexuals is internal. We never have cases of gay men being beaten up [by heterosexuals].”[21] Image File history File links Cquote1. ... Battyman is the term used in Jamaican language to describe a homosexual male; it thus bears a similar meaning as gay, queer and faggot. ... Image File history File links Cquote2. ...


A friend of Williamson's, Lenford "Steve" Harvey, who was openly gay and ran Jamaica AIDS Support for Life, was shot to death on the eve of World AIDS Day the following year. Gunmen reportedly burst into his home and demanded money, demanding to know "Are you battymen?" "I think his silence, his refusal to answer that question sealed it," said Yvonne McCalla Sobers, the head of Families Against State Terrorism. "Then they opened his laptop and saw a photograph of him with his partner in some kind of embrace that showed they were together. So they took him out and killed him."[22] Four people have been charged with the killing. Steve Lenford Harvey (1975?–2005) was a leader in the Jamaican homosexual/transgender community, and led several programs to assist people suffering from HIV/AIDS, and to promote safer-sex education and AIDS awareness in Jamaica. ... The Red Ribbon is the global symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. World AIDS Day, observed December 1 each year, is dedicated to raising awareness of the global AIDS epidemic caused by the spread of HIV infection. ...


Public attitudes toward LGBT people

In 2004, Human Rights Watch issued a report on the status of LGBT people in Jamaica. The report documented widespread homophobia and argued that the high level of intolerance was harming public efforts to combat violence and the AIDS-HIV pandemic.[8] The Caribbean has by far the highest rates of HIV/AIDS in the Americas, with heterosexual contact the predominant route of HIV transmission.[23] 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Homophobia is the fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections in humans resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... Human immunodeficiency virus or HIV is a retrovirus that causes Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a condition in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. ...


A recent poll showed that 96% of Jamaicans were opposed to any move that would seek to legalise homosexual relations.[24] Many Jamaicans are devoutly Christian and claim that their anti-gay stance is based on religious grounds.[25] In February 2006, a coalition of church leaders and members of the Lawyers' Christian Fellowship declared their opposition to the privacy provisions of a proposed Charter of Rights that would form the basis of an amended Jamaican Constitution. Chief among the concerns was that homosexuality could be made legal, although the Justice Minister AJ Nicholson and the Leader of the Opposition Bruce Golding have denied this; both oppose legalizing homosexuality.[26] Bruce Golding was the founder of the Jamaican National Democratic Movement (NDM). ...


Local LGBT-rights group J-FLAG acknowledges that anti-LGBT sentiment is influenced by certain passages from the Bible, but counters that "the appropriation by legislatures of the Christian condemnation of homosexuals is a purely arbitrary process, guided largely by individual biases and collective prejudices. In the case of adultery, of which much more mention is made in Biblical text, Jamaica has no law pertaining to its condemnation or prosecution. The same applies to the act of fornication."[27] Moreover, adultery and fornication are praised as signs of male virility in the lyrics of popular songs, particularly in Jamaican Dancehall.


Portrayal of LGBT people in popular music

Jamaican reggae and dancehall singers, such as Buju Banton, Beenie Man, Vybz Kartel, Elephant Man, Sizzla, Capleton, T.O.K. and Shabba Ranks, write and perform songs that advocate attacking or killing gays and lesbians. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Inna heights album cover, Original Release Date: November 25, 1997 Buju Banton (born Mark Anthony Myrie 1973) is a Jamaican dancehall, ragga, and reggae singer. ... Beenie Man (born Anthony Moses Davis August 22, 1973 in Kingston, Jamaica), is a well established Deejay. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Joseph Carey Merrick. ... Sizzla Kalonji is the stage name of Miguel Orlando Collins (born 17 April 1976), a Jamaican reggae musician. ... Capleton performing at Bob Marley Birthday Bash 2K6. Capleton, born Clifton George Bailey III on 13 April 1967 in the parish of St Mary, Jamaica is a reggae artist. ... Founded in the early 1990s, T.O.K. are a dancehall boyband hailing from Kingston, Jamaica was comprised of 4 young adults playing reggae. ... Shabba Ranks was the (internationally) most popular dancehall artist before Shaggy. ...


Buju Banton, one of Jamaica's most popular singers, wrote the hit song "Boom Bye Bye" threatens gay men with a "gunshot in ah head", and suggests pouring acid over them and setting them on fire. Banton and two other men were charged in September 2005 in relation to an attack on six gay men in Kingston in 2004. Police alleged that he was one of about a dozen armed men who forced their way into a house and beat up the occupants while shouting homophobic insults. Banton was reportedly identified by several witnesses, but he was not arrested until 15 months after the warrant was issued, and was acquitted in January 2006. There are reports that the investigation and prosecution were poorly conducted.[28] The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ...


One of Beenie Man's songs contains the lyrics: "I'm a dreaming of a new Jamaica, come to execute all the gays."[29] Lyrics from Sizzla’s songs include: “Shot batty boy, my big gun boom” (Shoot queers, my big gun goes boom).[30] "A Nuh Fi Wi Fault" by Elephant Man boasts: "Battyman fi dead!/Please mark we word/Gimme tha tech-nine/Shoot dem like bird".[31] Batty boy, battyman and chi chi man Byron Borzecki Category: ... Battyman is the term used in Jamaican language to describe a homosexual male; it thus bears a similar meaning as gay, queer and faggot. ... The Intratec TEC-9 is a blowback-operated, semi-automatic 9mm Parabellum caliber firearm, classified by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms as a handgun. ...


Shabba Ranks's reputation was badly damaged by his explicitly homophobic views and lyrics. This was evidenced by a notorious incident on the Channel 4 programme 'The Word' where he appeared to advocate the crucifixion of homosexuals. This view was also aired, for example, on his track "No Mama Man", where the following lyrics can be heard: "If Jamaica would a legalize gun / to kill battyboy would be the greatest fun". Shabba Ranks was the (internationally) most popular dancehall artist before Shaggy. ... Homophobia is a term used to describe: A culturally determined phobia manifesting as fear, revulsion, or contempt for homosexuality. ... Channel 4 is a public-service television broadcaster in the United Kingdom (see British television). ... The Word was a 1990s Channel 4 television programme in the United Kingdom. ... Crucifixion of St. ... Since its coinage, the word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings. ...


An international campaign against homophobia by reggae singers has been launched by Outrage!, UK-based gay human rights group.[32], the UK-based Stop Murder Music Coalition (SMM) and others. An agreement to stop anti-gay lyrics during live performances and not to produce any new anti-gay material or re-release offending songs was reached in February 2005 between dancehall record labels and organizations opposed to anti-gay murder lyrics. As of July 2006 this agreement seems to have been revoked. [33] OutRage! is a direct action group in the United Kingdom which fights for the rights of lesbian, gay and bisexual people. ...


The Canadian High Commission in Jamaica is also requiring performers who wish to tour in Canada to sign an Entertainer Declaration that states that they have read and fully understand excerpts from the Canadian Criminal Code, Charter of Rights and Human Rights Act and "will not engage in or advocate hatred against persons because of their… sexual orientation."[34] The Canadian Criminal Code (formal title An Act respecting the Criminal Law) is the codification of most of the criminal offences and procedure in Canada. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... The Canadian Human Rights Act is a statute originally passed by the Government of Canada in 1977 with the express goal of extending the law to ensure equal opportunity to individuals who may be vicitims of discriminatory practices based on a set prohibited grounds such as gender, disability, or religion. ...


References

  1. ^ Crimes against gays are mounting in Jamaica and across the Caribbean By Tim Padgett. Wednesday, April 12, 2006
  2. ^ World Policy Institute, Sexual Orientation and Human Rights in the Americas, Andrew Reding (Senior Fellow, World Policy Institute; Director, Project for Global Democracy and Human Rights). December 2003. Report online.
  3. ^ Amnesty International, Jamaica: Killings and violence by police: How many more victims? (London: Amnesty International, April 2001), AI Index: AMR 38/003/2001, 40.
  4. ^ Offenses Against the Person Act, 1864, revised 1969, Articles 76, 77, 79
    J-FLAG, “Know Your Rights,” online
  5. ^ Sunday Herald, Jamaica, April 8, 2006: No Homos! Opposition to gays in the cabinet.
  6. ^ The Guardian, Troubled Island, by Gary Younge, Thursday April 27, 2006
  7. ^ Lyrics online.
  8. ^ a b Human Rights Watch, Hated to Death: Homophobia, Violence, and Jamaica’s HIV/AIDS Epidemic, November 2004. Report online.
  9. ^ Ibid.
  10. ^ Amnesty International media release: Battybwoys affi dead ("Faggots have to die"): Action against Homophobia in Jamaica, 17 May 04.
  11. ^ Amnesty International, 10 June 2004. (AMR 38/010/2004). Press Release. Jamaica: Amnesty International Mourns Loss of Leading Human Rights Defender.
  12. ^ "Rights-Jamaica: Gays Living in Fear.", by Dionne Jackson Miller. Inter Press Service, 16 June 2004.
  13. ^ The Guardian, If You’re Gay in Jamaica, You’re Dead, by Diane Taylor, August 2, 2004. Article online
  14. ^ Thompson, Tony, “Jamaican gays flee to save their lives: Homophobia runs so deep in society that asylum can be the only chance of survival,” The Jamaica Observer, 20 October 2002, 25.
    See also: [1].
  15. ^ BBC news, Growing up gay in Jamaica, Wednesday, 15 September, 2004.
  16. ^ Amendment 25: Human rights in the world and the EU's policy. "Paragraph 79 calls on the Government of Jamaica to take effective action to stop the extra-judicial killing of people by security forces; also calls on the Government of Jamaica to repeal sections 76, 77 and 79 of the Offences Against the Person Act, which criminalise sex between consenting adult men and are used as justification for unacceptable harassment, notably against HIV/AIDS educators; asks the Government of Jamaica to actively fight widespread homophobia." Report online.
  17. ^ 356gay.com, Anti-Gay Violence Claims Another Life In Jamaica, by 365Gay.com Newscenter Staff, January 4, 2006.
  18. ^ Jamaica Gleaner, Alleged homosexual attacked at UWI, by Andrew Wildes. Wednesday, April 5, 2006. Article online.
    See also: 365gay.com, Jamaican Students Riot, Try To Kill Gay Student, by 365Gay.com Newscenter Staff, January 4, 2006.
  19. ^ BBC news, Jamaican gay activist murdered, Thursday, 10 June, 2004.
  20. ^ Reported in The Guardian, Troubled Island, by Gary Younge, Thursday April 27, 2006
  21. ^ Letter Urging Jamaican Government to Protect Rights Defenders and Address Violence and Abuse Based on Sexual Orientation and HIV Status, November 30, 2004. Human Rights Watch
  22. ^ Ibid.
  23. ^ http://www.avert.org/caribbean.htm
  24. ^ Reported in Amnesty International media release: Battybwoys affi dead ("Faggots have to die"): Action against Homophobia in Jamaica, 17 May 04.
    Also reported in: The Guardian [London]. 26 June 2004. Gary Younge. "Chilling Call to Murder as Music Attacks Gays."
  25. ^ Wockner, Rex, “Bishops denounce gay sex,” International News #400, 24 December 2001
  26. ^ RadioJamaica.com, Wed Feb 15, 2006. Homosexuality won’t be legalised, says Justice Minister
  27. ^ J-FLAG, “Parliamentary Submission: The Jamaica Forum for Lesbians All-Sexuals and Gays (J-FLAG) with regard To ‘An Act to Amend the Constitution of Jamaica to Provide for a Charter of Rights and for Connected Matters’,” 2001. Submission online. [Accessed 22 June 2006].
  28. ^ http://www.petertatchell.net/international/bujubanton.htm
  29. ^ http://www.365gay.com/newscon05/09/092705reggae.htm
  30. ^ http://www.365gay.com/newscon05/08/083005reggae.htm
  31. ^ http://www.365gay.com/NewsContent/091703tatchellRap.htm
  32. ^ http://www.365gay.com/newscon05/09/092705reggae.htm
  33. ^ http://www.fradical.com/Homophobia_bad_sexism_good1.htm
  34. ^ Ibid.

The World Policy Institute at The New School in New York City is a research and education policy center that has been a source of informed policy leadership for over 50 years. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an non-governmental membership organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the last endnote or footnote. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an non-governmental membership organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an non-governmental membership organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ... Inter Press Service is a news agency with the specific purpose to support the production and dissemination of information on national and international realities with particular regard to the developing countries. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the last endnote or footnote. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an non-governmental membership organization with the stated purpose of campaigning for internationally recognized human rights. ...

External links

  • J-FLAG – Jamaica Forum for Lesbians, All-Sexuals and Gays
  • Amnesty International USA: "Battybwoys affi dead" – Action against homophobia in Jamaica
  • TIME.com: The Most Homophobic Place on Earth?
  • The Jamaica Star: Gay people, get real!
  • Global Gayz: Gay Jamaica – Crime and Punishment
  • 2004 Jamaica update from UNHCR
  • Murder in Dancehall
  • Gay in JA – BBC radio documentary (RealPlayer format)

 
 

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