FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > LGBT rights in Germany
This article may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.
The quality of this article or section may be compromised by "weasel words".
You can help Wikipedia by removing weasel words.

Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ...


Around the world World laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in the US. Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ...


By country This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ...


History · Groups · Activists LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Here is a list of gay-rights organizations around the world. ... This article is new. ...


Declaration of Montreal Martina Navrátilová and Mark Tewksbury read the Declaration of Montreal at the opening ceremonies of the World Outgames. ...


Same-sex relationships Same-sex union can refer to: same-sex marriage -- the civil or religious rites of marriage that make it equivalent to opposite-sex marriages in all aspects. ...


Marriage · Adoption International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ...


Opposition · Discrimination LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      LGBT rights opposition refers to various movements or attitudes which oppose the extension of certain rights to lesbian and gay people, and by extension to bisexuals, and... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ...


Violence John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, was hanged for sodomy under a law that he had helped to institute. ...


Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

For extensive information regarding historical legislation against homosexuality in Germany, see Paragraph 175. Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. ...


In the last decade, Germany has become one of the most progressive European nations on the issue of gay rights. This change came despite Germany's long history of anti-gay legislation and persecution.

Contents

Laws against homosexuality

There are currently no laws against same-sex sexual activity in Germany.


Male-male sexual activity was prosecuted under sodomy laws throughout Western Europe from the Middle Ages, and was made a crime nationally under Paragraph 175 in 1871, the year the federal German Empire was formed. The law was extended under Nazi rule, and convictions multiplied by a factor of ten to about 8,000 per year. Penalties were severe, and 5,000 - 15,000 suspected offenders were interred in concentration camps, where most of them died. Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ...


The Nazi additions were repealed in East Germany in 1950, but homosexual relations between men remained a crime until 1968. West Germany kept the more repressive version of the law, legalizing male homosexual activity one year after East Germany, in 1969. The age of consent was equalized in East Germany through a 1987 court ruling, with West Germany following suit in 1989; it is now 16 for female-female, male-male and female-male activity. GDR redirects here. ... Age of consent laws Worldwide While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any...


Military laws

Homosexuals are not banned from military service (conscripts and enlisted).


The Bundeswehr maintained a "glass ceiling" policy that effectively banned homosexuals from becoming officers until 2000. First Lieutenant Winfried Stecher, an army officer demoted for his homosexuality, had filed a lawsuit against former Defense Minister Rudolf Scharping. Scharping vowed to fight the claim in court, claiming that homosexuality "raises serious doubts about suitability and excludes employment in all functions pertaining to leadership." However, before the case went to trial, the Defense Ministry reversed the discriminatory policy. While the German government declined to issue an official explanation for the reversal, it is widely believed that Scharping was overruled by former Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and former Vice-Chancellor Joschka Fischer. The Bundeswehr (German for Federal Defence Force;  ) is the name of the unified armed forces of Germany. ... The term glass ceiling refers to situations where the advancement of a person within the hierarchy of an organization is limited. ... Rudolf Scharping, 2001 Rudolf Scharping (December 2, 1947 in Niederelbert) is a German politician (SPD). ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... Joschka Fischer Joseph Martin Joschka Fischer (April 12, 1948 – ) was German foreign minister and Vice Chancellor in the government of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005. ...


Laws against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation

Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity is illegal throughout Germany, in the field of employment. The country was the first in the world to include "gender identity" nationally in anti-discrimination laws.[1] This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some states have anti-discrimination laws, including the constitutions of Berlin (since 1995), Brandenburg (since 1992) and Thuringia (since 1993), and Saxony-Anhalt in the public sector since 1997. Germany is the first country in the world to include "gender identity" nationally in anti-discrimination laws. See As a signatory to the Treaty of Amsterdam, Germany was required to amend its national anti-discrimination laws to include, among others, sexual orientation. It failed to do so for six years, due to discussions about the scope of the proposed laws. Some of the proposals were debated because they actually surpassed the requirements of the Treaty of Amsterdam; the final version of the law, however, has been criticized as not fully complying with some parts of the Treaty, especially with respect to the specifications about the termination of work contracts through labor courts.[2] The Federal Diet, or Bundestag, finally passed the Equal Treatment Act on 29 June 2006. The Bundesrat (engl.: Federal Council) voted on it without discussion on 7 July 2006. Having come into force on 18 August 2006, the law bans discrimination in employment and certain services. This article is about the capital of Germany. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The Amsterdam Treaty (in full: Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts) which was signed on October 2, 1997, and entered into force on May 1, 1999, made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union which... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Recognition of same-sex relationships

There is legal recognition of same-sex couples. Registered life partnerships (effectively, a form of civil union) have been instituted since 2001, giving same-sex couples rights and obligations in areas such as inheritance, alimony, health insurance, immigration and name change. In 2004, this act was amended to also give registered same-sex couples adoption rights (stepchild adoption only), as well as reform previously cumbersome dissolution procedures with regard to division of property and alimony. Same-sex marriage (also called gay marriage, marriage equality, and often just marriage by its proponents, and—usually by its opponents—homosexual marriage) refers to a marriage between individuals of the same gender (for other forms of same-sex unions that are different from marriages, see the articles... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ...


Later that year, the Social-Democrats (SPD) and The Greens proposed allowing same-sex marriage. Registered partnerships do not enjoy the tax benefits of marriages. The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) is the second oldest political party of Germany still in existence and also one of the oldest and largest in the world, celebrating its 140th anniversary in 2003. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized...


Social acceptance of homosexuality

In a December 2006 poll conducted by the Angus-Reid Global Monitor, regarding social, economic, and political attitudes for member-states of the European Union; Germany ranked seventh at 52% of the population supporting same-sex marriage. 52% is higher than the European Union average of 44% supporting same-sex marriage. Also polled, with similar averages were Czech Republic tying Germany with 52% in support, and Austria with 49% in support. Under the current leadership in Germany; it is difficult to ascertain the future of this issue, even with a percentage above fifty percent in support. However, with a percentage of the population this high, it is recommended that German recognition of same-sex relationships be merged with the debates in other regions and countries section of the same-sex Marriage category. http://angus-reid.com/polls/index.cfm/fuseaction/viewItemID/14203


Political parties

As of August 2006, there are three prominent German politicians who are openly gay, namely Berlin's mayor Klaus Wowereit (from the Social Democratic Party, having outed himself with the now famous words "I am gay, and [being] that is a good thing"), Volker Beck (from the Green Party) and Guido Westerwelle, the head of the liberal Free Democratic Party. In addition, Hamburg's mayor Ole von Beust (Christian Democratic Union) didn't deny anything but considered it private matter. In July 2007, Minister of Education for Hesse, Karin Wolff, came out as a lesbian.[1] This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Klaus Wowereit Klaus Wowereit (born October 1, 1953 in Berlin) is a German politician, member of the SPD (Social Democratic Party), and mayor of Berlin since the 2001 state elections. ... The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) is the second oldest political party of Germany still in existence and also one of the oldest and largest in the world, celebrating its 140th anniversary in 2003. ... While outing often refers to an outdoor excursion, in the late twentieth century the term acquired an additional meaning: taking someone out of the closet - that is, publicising that someone is gay. ... Volker Beck campaigning in Freiburg, Germany, in 2005 Volker Beck (born 12 December 1960 in Stuttgart) is a German politician, specifically a Green Party representative in the Bundestag first as their Speaker for Legal Affairs (1994-2002) and now as the Green Party whip. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... Carl-Friedrich Arp Freiherr von Beust, generally called Ole von Beust, born April 13, 1955 in Hamburg, Germany, Mayor of the city-state (Bundesland) of Hamburg since 2001. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density...


Gay rights legislation is generally supported by the Social Democratic Party, with more support coming from the Free Democratic Party, the Green Party and the Left Party. The Christian Democratic Union tend to oppose the expansion of gay rights in the area of marriage and family law, but in light of strong public support for gay rights, tend to put on a public image of supporting tolerance. The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... The Left Party (Vänsterpartiet) is a political party in Sweden. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ...


In the Bavarian city of Munich, the gay-rights party Rosa Liste (Pink List) is one of the governing parties (together with SPD and the Greens), a first in German history. Rosa Liste is also part of some local borough assemblies in the city. Munich is the third-largest city in Germany, capital of the Free State of Bavaria and among the four most important cities of Germany (along with the capital Berlin, the country's largest harbour city Hamburg and Frankfurt, the country's financial centre). For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ...


The government participation of Rosa Liste is generally seen as a good sign and landmark for gay rights by gay-rights activists.


Overall, the sexual orientation of politicians are not of public interest and kept as a private matter. The public in Germany accepts the sexual orientation of politicians, celebrities and other people of public interest. Media hypes (à la "Mayor of Berlin is gay") are of no interest and would rather damage the journalist's career than the politician's.[citation needed] "Denouncing" ("outing") a celebrity as being gay is seen as insulting, immature, amd even homophobic behaviour by the media.[citation needed] Homophobia is a term used to describe: A culturally determined phobia manifesting as fear, revulsion, or contempt for homosexuality. ...


East Germany (1949 - 1990)

Both East and West Germany inherited the anti-gay law Paragraph 175. Communist gay activist Rudolf Klimmer, modeling himself on Magnus Hirschfeld and his Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, campaigned to have the law repealed, but was unsuccessful. However, the law was reverted back to the version found in the 1925 criminal code, which was considerably milder than the version adopted in 1935 under Nazi rule. Meanwhile, West Germany kept the 1935 formulation of the law. Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. ... Magnus Hirschfeld in 1933 Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German-Jewish physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee, WhK) was founded in Berlin in 1897 to campaign for social recognition of homosexual and transgender men and women, and against their legal persecution. ...


In the five years following the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany, the GDR government instituted a program of "moral reform" to build a solid foundation for the new socialist republic, in which masculinity and the traditional family were championed while homosexuality, seen to contravene "healthy mores of the working people", continued to be prosecuted under Paragraph 175. Same sex activity was "alternatively viewed as a remnant of bourgeois decadence, a sign of moral weakness, and a threat to the social and political health of the nation."[3] Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ...


In East Germany, Paragraph 175 ceased to be enforced in 1957 and remained on the books until 1968, with West Germany repealing it one year later. According to historian Heidi Minning, attempts by lesbians and gays in East Germany to establish a visible community were "thwarted at every turn by the G.D.R. government and SED party."[4] She writes: The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ...

Police force was used on numerous occasions to break up or prevent public gay and lesbian events. Centralized censorship prevented the presentation of homosexuality in print and electronic media, as well as the import of such materials.

Ironically, the Protestant church provided more support than the state, allowing meeting spaces and printing facilities. The Protestant Church in the GDR supported fringe groups, such as gay rights groups and punks, throughout the 1980s.


Towards the end of the 1980s however, just before the collapse of the iron curtain, the East German government opened a state-owned gay disco in Berlin. On August 11, 1987 the East German Supreme Court affirmed that "homosexuality, just like heterosexuality, represents a variant of sexual behavior. Homosexual people do therefore not stand outside socialist society, and the civil rights are warranted to them exactly as to all other citizens." is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1989 the German film titled "Coming Out" directed by Heiner Carow was exhibited on the night that the Berlin wall came down, and tells a story of an East German man coming to accept his own homosexuality, with much of it shot in the local gay bars. This was the first and only East German gay rights film. Coming Out is the name of a film made by the East German film monopoly, DEFA. Directed by Heiner Carow and satrring Matthias Freihof, Dagmar Manzel and Dirk Kummer, the film deals with the process of the protagonists coming out. ...


Jürgen Lemke (often spelt "Jurgen Lemke" in the English-speaking world) is considered one of the most prominent East German gay rights activists and has published a book on the subject (Gay Voices from East Germany, English edition published in 1991). Lemke advocates the belief that the gay community was far more united in the GDR than it was in the West.


References

  • ^ German Wikipedia on the Equal Treatment Act (website version as of 6 November, 2006)
  • ^ Jennifer V. Evans. The moral state: Men, mining, and masculinity in the early GDR, German History, 23 (2005) 3, 355-370
  • ^ Heidi Minning. Who is the 'I' in "I love you"?: The negotiation of gay and lesbian identities in former East Berlin, Germany. Anthropology of East Europe Review, Volume 18, Number 2, Autumn 2000

See also

Since 1 August 2001, Germany has allowed registered partnerships for same-sex couples. ... Lesben und Schwulenverband in Deutschland (LSVD) (Lesbian and Gay Asscoiation in Germany) is the largest civil rights organisation of homosexuals in Germany. ... This article is about the human rights situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. ...

External links

  • (German) LSVD (Lesben- und Schwulenverband in Deutschland), The Lesbian and Gay Federation of Germany (site in German).

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m