FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > LGBT rights in China
Young men sipping tea and having sex. Individual panel from a hand scroll on homosexual themes, paint on silk; China, Qing Dynasty (eighteenth to nineteenth centuries); Kinsey Institute, Bloomington, Indiana, United States

The situation of homosexuality in Chinese culture is relatively ambiguous in the contemporary context, although many instances have been recorded in the dynastic histories. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction, often shortened to Kinsey Institute, exists to promote interdisciplinary research and scholarship in the fields of human sexuality, gender, and reproduction. The Institute was founded as the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University at Bloomington in 1947 by Alfred... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ...

Contents

Terminology in China

In the old days, terms for homosexuality included "the passion of the cut sleeve" (断袖之癖, Mandarin, Pinyin dùanxìu zhī pǐ), and "the bitten peach" (分桃 py fēntáo). Other, less obscure terms have included "male trend" (男風 py nánfēng), "allied brothers" (香火兄弟 py xīanghǔo xīongdì), and "masculine-dragon preference" (龍陽癖 py lóngyángpǐ). Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally speech of officials), or Beifanghua (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Northern Dialect(s)), is a category of related Chinese dialects spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


The formal word for "homosexuality/homosexual(s)" is tongxinglian (同性戀, py tóngxìnglìan, literally same-sex relations/love) or tongxinglian zhe (同性戀者, py tóngxìnglìan zhě, homosexual people). Instead of this formal word, "tongzhi" (同志 py tóngzhì), simply a head-rhyme word, is more commonly used in the gay community. Tongzhi (literally means 'comrade', and sometimes nü tongzhi, 女同志 py nǚ tóngzhì, literally "female comrade") which was first adopted by Hong Kong researchers in Gender Studies, is used as slang in Mandarin Chinese referring to homosexuals, while in Cantonese gei1 (基), adopted from English gay, is used. This term is also somewhat common in Taiwan. "Gay" is sometimes considered to be offensive when used by heterosexuals or even by homosexuals in certain situations. Another slang term is boli (玻璃, py: bōli, crystal or glass), which is not so commonly used. Among gay university students, the neologism "datong" (大同, py dàtóng, which also refers to utopia in Chinese) is becoming popular. "datong" is short for "daxuesheng tongzhi" (university students [that are] homosexuals). Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This article is on all of the Yue dialects. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Left panel (The Earthly Paradise, Garden of Eden), from Hieronymus Boschs The Garden of Earthly Delights. ...


In Taiwan, lesbians usually call themselves lazi (拉子, py lāzi) or lala (拉拉, py lālā). These two terms are abbreviations of the transliteration of the English term "lesbian". These slang terms are also commonly used in Mainland China now. Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Traditional views towards homosexuality in China's society

A woman spying on a pair of male lovers

All major religions in ancient China have some sort of codex, which have traditionally been interpreted as being against exclusive homosexuality when it interferes with continuation of the family lineage. For example the Confucians have the codex that a man should behave according to somewhat traditional male gender roles and a woman likewise. So, for example, crossdressing is a deed that is against the Confucian natural law. Image File history File links Woman_spying_on_male_lovers. ... Image File history File links Woman_spying_on_male_lovers. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu, lit. ... A bagpiper in military uniform. ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ...


There were some historical accounts of emperors who used to dress themselves in women's clothes, and this was always interpreted as an ill omen; and to beget children (especially sons) is a very important duty for a man in traditional Chinese society. So a man who only has male lovers is not dutiful. Taoism emphasizes maintaining the balance between Yin and Yang. A man-man relation is thought to be a Yang-Yang relation and so is imbalanced and destructive. Taoism is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese religious and philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Yin may refer to: Yin Dynasty, another name for the first historic Chinese nation and dynasty, the Shang. ... Look up yang in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


But on the other hand, none of the major Chinese religions consider homosexuality as a sin as many Christian churches do. Compared to sin in Christian culture, the list of sinful deeds in the codex of Confucianism does not include homosexuality. As long as a man does his duty and sires children, it is his private affair to have other male lovers. Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. ... The issue of Homosexuality within Christianityis that some old fuck wits think that there going 2 hell 4 being themselves, wat i say 2 them is go rape a donkey, and then someone might take an interest in them Traditionally, Christian churches have regarded homosexual sex as sinful, based on...


This is also true in Taoism. Although each man is regarded as yang (陽,masculine), every man also has some yin (陰,feminine) in him. Some men can have much yin in them. So the presence of some feminine behavior is not viewed as unnatural for men. In this view, homosexuals can even be regarded as something very natural, according to the natural balance of yin and yang. It is also remarkable that many Taoist gods and goddesses live alone or together with some equal deities of the same sex. The very common example is Shanshen (山神,mountain god) and Tudigong (土地公,"keeper of earth", i.e., local god). Every place has its Shanshen and Tudigong, and they sometimes live together. Shanshen and Tudigong are often both males (Tudigong is always a male). More intriguingly, they sometimes manifest themselves as an old man and an old woman. (Such appearances are described quite often in the classical novel Journey to the West). Taoism is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese religious and philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Tu Di Gong Tu Di Gong (土地公) is a popular Chinese deity worshipped by Chinese folk religion worshippers, Taoists, and some Buddhists. ... The four heroes of the story, left to right: SÅ«n Wùkōng, Xuánzàng, ZhÅ« Bājiè, and Shā Wùjìng. ...


Same-sex love in literature

Another remarkable thing is the prominence of friendship between men and women in the ancient Chinese culture. There are many examples in the classic novels, especially in Water Margin, a book about very deep and long lasting male friendships. These bonds were based on revolutionary comradeship in war, instead of homosexual tendencies. However, other works depict less Platonic relationships. In the seminal novel Dream of the Red Chamber, there are examples of males engaging in both same-sex and opposite-sex acts. A good deal of ancient Chinese poetry was written in the female voice and portrayed semi-sexual relationships between teen-aged girls, before they were pulled apart by marriage. Male poets would also use the female narrative voice to lament being abandoned by a male comrade or king. It has been suggested that Guo Shiguang be merged into this article or section. ... Dream of the Red Chamber (Traditional Chinese: 紅樓夢; Simplified Chinese: 红楼梦; pinyin: Hónglóu mèng), also known as A Dream of Red Mansions, The Story of the Stone, or Chronicles of the Stone (Traditional Chinese: 石頭記; Simplified Chinese: 石头记; pinyin: Shítóu jì) is one of the masterpieces of Chinese fiction. ...


There is also a tradition of erotic literature, which is less known as it is supposed that most such works have been purged in the periodic book burnings that have been a feature of Chinese history. However, isolated manuscripts have survived. Chief among these is the anthology "Bian er Zhai", Cap but Pin, or A Lady's Pin under a Man's Cap, a series of four short stories in five chapters each, of passion and seduction. The first short story, Chronicle of a Loyal Love, involves a twenty-year-old academician chasing a fifteen-year-old scholar and a bevy of adolescent valets. In another, "Qing Xia Ji" Record of the Passionate Hero, the protagonist, Zhang, a valiant soldier with two warrior wives, is seduced by his younger friend Zhong, an unusual arrangement as it is usually the older man who takes the initiative with a boy. The work appeared in a single edition some time between 1630 and 1640. Erotic literature is a literary genre that either takes the form of erotica written to arouse the reader, or to give instruction in sexual technique. ...


More recently, Ding Ling, an author of the 1920s in China, was a prominent and controversial feminist author, and it is generally agreed that she had lesbian (or at least bisexual) content in her stories. Her most famous piece is "Miss Sophia's Diary", a seminal work in the development of a voice for women's sexuality and sexual desire. A contemporary author, Huang Biyun (Cantonese: Wong Bikwan), writes from the lesbian perspective in her story "She's a Young Woman and So Am I".


Ancient China

Young men engaged in erotic play; Hand scroll with homosexual theme, opaque watercolor on paper; Beijing, Qing Dynasty, late 19th c. Private collection

Homosexuality has been documented in China since ancient times. According to the scholar Ji Yun of the Qing Dynasty, already at the very beginning, Huang Di (The Yellow Emperor, 2697? - 2597? BCE), legendary king and founder of the Chinese culture, had male lovers. Two notable royal examples come from a formulaic expression, yútáo duànxiù (余桃断袖). Yútáo, or "the leftover peach", recorded in Hanfeizi, speaks of Mi Zixia (彌子瑕), a beautiful youth cherished by Duke Ling of Wei (衛靈公) who once shared an already bitten but very delicious peach with the duke, who appreciated the gesture (although once the growing Mi Zixia lost his beauty, the duke looked back on this event and said Mi was being insincere [1]). Duànxiù, or "breaking the sleeve", refers to Emperor Ai of Han China's act of cutting his sleeve, on which his adored male concubine Dongxian (董賢) was sleeping, in order not to wake him. This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor (黄帝 Hu ng D ) is a Chinese mythical character, a culture hero said in legend to be the ancestor of all Chinese people. ... Four-character idioms, or chéng yǔ (成語, literally to become (part of) the language) are widely used in 文言 wényán. ... Binomial name Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... ... Emperor Ai of Han (51 BC–7 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ...


Scholar Pan Guangdan (潘光旦) came to the conclusion that nearly every emperor in the Han Dynasty had one or more male sex partners. There are also descriptions of lesbians in some history books. It is believed homosexuality was popular in the Song, Ming and Qing dynasties. Chinese homosexuals did not experience high-profile persecution comparing with that was received by homosexuals in Europe during the Middle Ages. Han Dynasty commanderies and kingdoms, AD 2 Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD... A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Kaifeng (960–1127) Linan (1127–1279) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou Dynasty 960  - Battle of Yamen; the end of Song rule 1279 Population  - Peak est. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun; Mongolian: Манж Чин), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was the ruling Chinese Dynasties. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


In some areas, same sex love was particularly appreciated. The province of Fujian was especially noted for the widespread practice of male love, and even its tradition of boy marriage, a temporary arrangement that lasted only until the boy reached maturity and took a female wife.


The Qing official Zhu Gui (1731-1807), a grain tax circuit intendant of Fujian in 1765, intending to improve the moral shortcomings of the people under his jurisdiction, promulgated a "Prohibition of Licentious Cults," criticizing the respect the people of Fujian paid to such cults (yinci). One cult which he found particularly troublesome was the cult of Hu Tianbao. As he reports,

The image is of two men embracing one another; the face of one is somewhat hoary with age, the other tender and pale. [Their temple] is commonly called the small official temple. All those debauched and shameless rascals who on seeing youths or young men desire to have illicit intercourse with them pray for assistance from the plaster idol. Then they make plans to entice and obtain the objects of their desire. This is known as the secret assistance of Hu Tianbao. Afterwards they smear the idol's mouth with pork intestine and sugar in thanks. (Michael Szonyi, "The Cult of Hu Tianbao and the eighteenth-Century Discourse of Homosexuality." Late Imperial China - Volume 19, Number 1, June 1998, pp. 1-25)

Same-sex love was also celebrated in Chinese art, many examples of which have survived the book burnings of the Cultural Revolution. Though no large statues are known to still exist, many hand scrolls and paintings on silk can be found in private collections[2]. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) was a period of social chaos and political anarchy in the Peoples...


In the year 1944, the scholar Sun Cizhou published a work stated that one of the most famous ancient Chinese poets, Qu Yuan, was a lover of his King. Sun cited the poetry of Qu Yuan to prove his claim. In Qu Yuan's most important work Li Sao (Sorrow of parting), Qu Yuan called himself a beautiful man (or woman, mei ren). A word he used to describe his king was used at that time by women to characterize their lovers. Qu Yuan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (ca. ... Li Sao (Chinese:離騷; Pinyin: Lí São) is one of the most famous poems in Chinese history. ...


The first law against homosexuals in China went into effect in 1740. There was no record in the history as to how effectively the law was enforced. The more devastating event for Chinese homosexuals was, ironically, the enlightenment that came after the Self-Strengthening Movement, when homophobia was imported to China along with Western science and philosophy. Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Self-Strengthening Movement (Chinese: 洋务运动 or 自強運動; c 1861–1894) was a period of political reforms aimed at modernizing and liberalizing Chinese institutions toward the end of the Qing Dynasty, following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers. ... Homophobia is the irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ...


Modern China

Activists Chen Yu-Rong and Wang Ping of the Gender/Sexuality Rights Association Taiwan

Homosexuality went underground after the formation of the People's Republic of China. The Communist regime persecuted homosexuals, especially during the Cultural Revolution, when many homosexuals were punished with long prison terms and sometimes execution. Social tolerance of homosexuality declined. Gender/Sexuality Rights Association Taiwan was established in May 1999 in Taiwan. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Proletarian Cultural Great Revolution; often abbreviated to 文化大革命 wénhuà dà gémìng, literally Great Cultural Revolution, or even simpler, to 文革 wéngé, Cultural Revolution) was a period of social chaos and political anarchy in the Peoples...


Since the policy of Reform and Opening Up in 1979, the communist party has been loosening its control over this kind of behavior. But the practice of homosexuality is still labeled as a "moldering life style of capitalism". The Peoples Republic of China was proclaimed in the aftermath of the Communist Partys triumph in the Chinese Civil War by Mao Zedong on October 1, 1949. ...


A notable change occurred during the late 1990s and early 2000s, when sodomy was decriminalized in 1997, and the new Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders removed homosexuality from its list of mental illnesses on April 20, 2001.[3] The situation has continued to evolve in 2004. Many consider the magazine "Menbox" [4] to be a gay magazine in all but name. Recently, a transsexual woman, Chen Lili was allowed to compete in the China selection pageant for the Miss Universe competition. François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A transsexual (sometimes transexual) person establishes a permanent identity with the opposite gender to their assigned (usually at birth) sex. ... Logo of the Miss Universe event. ...


An Internet survey in 2000 showed that Chinese people are becoming more tolerant towards homosexuality: among the 10,792 surveyed, 48.15% were in favor, 30.9% disapproved, 14.46% were uncertain, and 7.26% were indifferent. Gay-bashing is rare in modern China. But some scholars complain that the government is too indifferent on this issue, doing nothing to promote the situation of homosexuality in China. During the 2002 Gay Games, only 2 persons from the mainland were sent to take part , and apart from gay websites the media gave little coverage to the event. The authorities still refuse to promote either gay issues or gay rights in China. Although there is no explicit law against homosexuality or same-sex acts between consenting adults, neither are there laws protecting gays from discrimination, nor are there any gay rights organizations in the PRC. It is believed that the Chinese policy towards the gay issue remains the "Three nos": no approval, no disapproval, and no promotion (不支持, 不反对, 不提倡). Gay bashing is an expression used to designate verbal confrontation with, denigration of, or physical violence against people thought to be lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered (LGBT) because of their apparent sexual orientation or gender identity. ... The Federation of Gay Games logo The Gay Games is a popular sporting and cultural event organized by LGBT athletes, artists, musicians, and others. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also...


The number of homosexuals in China remains unclear. From one source, the homosexuals number between 360,000 and 480,000, another statement based on Chinese government documents and academic studies states that the figure is 15 million. An official statistics, as quoted in a news report in China Daily, put the figure for mainland China at "approximately 30 million".[1] Compared to the higher proportions of homosexuals in other countries, many find these figures unconvincing.[citation needed] ...


The loosening of restrictions on Internet use has resulted in a blossoming of gay websites in the PRC mainland, even though the police sometimes intervene and shut down such websites. The Internet has been very important to the mainland Chinese gay community. Although there are no gay organizations in mainland China, there are some organized Internet sites that function as advisory institutions.


The mainstream media sometimes cover notable gay events abroad, such as pride parades. But some critics charge that the purpose of the media is mostly to smear homosexuality. Lacking a film rating system, the PRC government forbids gay movies to be shown on TV or in theaters because they are "inappropriate". Despite having received much attention in Taiwan, Hong Kong and other places, the gay-themed movie Lan Yu is still forbidden in the PRC mainland (the film also features references to the Tiananmen Square Protests of 1989) although the actors are all Mainlanders, and the story is based on a quite popular Internet story written by a mainland netizen. New Western films like Brokeback Mountain in 2006, was denied release in the mainland, even though there was an overall public interest as the film was directed by Ang Lee. Baton twirlers perform in the 2002 Divers/Cité pride parade in downtown Montreal A pride parade is part of a festival or ceremony held by the LGBT community of a city to commemorate the struggle for gay liberation, gay rights, and gay pride. ... Motion picture rating systems are issued to give moviegoers an idea of the suitability of a movie for children and/or adults in terms of issues such as sex, violence and bad language. ... Lan Yu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a gay-themed Chinese film by Hong Kong director Stanley Kwan in 2001. ... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labour activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15, 1989 and June 4, 1989. ... A Netizen (a portmanteau of Internet and citizen) [also known as a cybercitizen] is a person actively involved in online communities. ... Brokeback Mountain is an Academy Award-winning 2005 film that depicts the complex emotional, sexual, and romantic relationship between two men in the American West from 1963 to 1983. ... Ang Lee (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) (born October 23, 1954) is an Academy Award-winning film director from Taiwan. ...


Although more prominent in first-tier Chinese cities like Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen, gay clubs, bars, tea houses, saunas and support centers are also becoming more widespread in second-tier cities like Xi'an, Dalian, and Kunming. Occasionally, these locations are subject to police harassment. Similar to the development of the gay scene in other countries, other less formal 'cruising spots' exist in parks, public washrooms, malls, and public shower centers. Being gay is particularly difficult in the countryside; in China this is especially severe as the vast majority of people live in the countryside with no Internet access and no possibility to move to a city. Country dwellers do not often speak of homosexuality, and when they do, it is usually considered a disease. [5] Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shenzhen is a sub-provincial city of Guangdong province in southern China, located at the border with the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. ... Xian (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsi-An; Postal System Pinyin: Sian), is the capital of Shaanxi province in China and a sub-provincial city. ... Dalian (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Japanese: Dairen; Russian: Далянь, Dalian or Дальний, Dalny) is the governing sub-provincial city in the eastern Liaoning Province of Northeast China. ... Lake Dianchi An old wooden house and a modern skyscraper in the background. ...


Many cases show that gay people still have to endure prejudice from the justice system and harassment from police, including detention and arrest. In October 1999, a Beijing court ruled that homosexuality was "abnormal and unacceptable to the Chinese public" [Washington Post 24 January 2000], which was the first time this official attitude was stated openly. Another notable case happened in July 2001, when at least 37 gay men were detained in Guangdong Province. Recently, in late April, the State Administration of Radio Film and Television (国家广播电影电视总局) has initiated a campaign to clear violence and sexual content from the media. Programmes related to homosexual topic, scene or language are considered to be "going against the healthy way of life in China", and are banned. [6] [7] Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Guangdong (Simplified Chinese: 广东; Traditional Chinese: 廣東; pinyin: Guǎngdōng; Wade-Giles: Kuang-tung; Kwangtung in older transliteration; Cantonese: gwong2 dung1), is a province on the south coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

LGBT Portal
LGBT and Queer studies series
LGBT Portal
Gender · Homosexuality · Bisexuality · Transgender
LGBT history
Timeline · Gay Liberation · Social movements · AIDS timeline
Culture
Community · Pride · Coming out · Gay slang · Gay village · Queer theory · Religion · Symbols
Law
Marriage · Civil union · Adoption · Sodomy law · Military service · Hate crime · Laws by country
Categories
This box: view  talk  edit

Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Queer studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... Gender in common usage refers to the sexual distinction between male and female. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth, as well as the role traditionally held by society. ... LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history details notable events in the Common Era West. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality or transgenderism. ... This is a timeline of AIDS. 1959 The first known case of HIV in a human was found in a person who died in the Congo (Zhu et al. ... Christopher Street Parade Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures concern the culture, knowledge, and references shared by members of sexual minorities or transgendered people by virtue of their membership in those minorities or their state of being transgendered. ... The idea of a gay community is complex reflecting the diverse nature of the individuals who make up that community. ... The gay pride or simply pride campaign has three main premises: that people should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity, that sexual diversity is a gift, and that sexual orientation and gender identity are inherent and cannot be intentionally altered. ... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones (often homosexual or bisexual) sexual orientation or gender identity. ... Gay slang in linguistics refers to a form of English slang used predominantly among LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender) people. ... A gay village (sometimes called a gay ghetto and increasingly gayborhood) is usually an urban geographic location with generally recognized boundaries where a large number of gay and lesbian people, as well as bisexual and transgender people live. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... World laws on homosexuality US laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ...   CA, CT, MD, NY, NJ, OR, RI, VT, WA See also Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live... A civil union is a recognized union similar to marriage. ... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ... A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The militaries of the world have a variety of responses to homosexual and bisexual orientations. ... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ...

Same-sex marriage in China

During the evaluation of the amendment of the marriage law in the Chinese mainland in 2003, there was the first discussion about homosexual marriage. Though this issue was rejected, this was the first time that an item of gay rights was discussed in China. However, just not long before the new marriage law went into effect, an officer stated in a press conference that same-sex marriage is still forbidden in China, on August 19, 2003. A marriage is a committed relationship between or among individuals, recognized by civil authority and/or bound by the religious beliefs of the participants. ...   CA, CT, MD, NY, NJ, OR, RI, VT, WA See also Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Li Yinhe (李銀河), a well-known sexology scholar among the mainland Chinese gay community, has tried to legalize same-sex marriage during the National People's Congress in 2000 and 2004 (Legalization for the Chinese Same-Sex Marriage, 《中国同性婚姻合法化》 in 2000 and Chinese Same-Sex Marriage Bill, 《中国同性婚姻提案》 in 2004). According to Chinese law, 35 delegates' signatures are needed to make an issue a bill to be discussed in the Congress. Her effort failed due to lack of support from the delegates. Many scholars and homosexuals don't think it's possible for China to pass such a law in the near future. Li Yinhe addressing the International Conference on LGBT Human Rights Li Yinhe (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Lǐ Yínhé) (February 4, 1952 – ) is a sociologist, sexologist, and an activist for LGBT rights in Peoples Republic of China. ... The Great Hall of the People, where the NPC convenes The National Peoples Congress (全国人民代表大会 in Pinyin: Quánguó Rénmín Dàibiǎo Dàhuì, literally Pan-Nation Congress of the Peoples Representatives), abbreviated PNCOTPR, is the highest...


For the 2006 National People's Congress, Li proposed the same-sex marriage bill again. Some gay websites called for their members to sign their names for the supports of this bill. But as expected, this bill was dismissed again. The 2006 Chinese National Peoples Congress, or more formally, the 4th Plenary Session of the 10th National Peoples Congress, is currently being held in Beijing, China, in conjunction with the 2006 CPPCC. Many things are listed on the agenda for the week-long session of Chinas parliament. ...


Hong Kong

Male homosexual behavior was illegal before 1991 in Hong Kong, the maximum sentence being life imprisonment. The Legislative Council agreed to decriminalize buggery after the public debate that arose in 1980. Nevertheless, two other attempts at introducing anti-discrimination legislation failed in 1993 and 1997. The Legislative Council (abbreviated as LegCo; Chinese: 立法會, Pinyin: Lìfǎ Huì; formerly 立法局, Lìfǎ Jú) is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Anal sex or anal intercourse is a form of human sexual behavior. ...


There are several gay-rights organizations in Hong Kong, such as Rainbow Action and Tongzhi Culture Society. In 2003, the Catholic Church of Hong Kong released an article condemning same-sex marriage. As a result, a group of protestors rushed into a church and interrupted the service.   CA, CT, MD, NY, NJ, OR, RI, VT, WA See also Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live...


Before 2005 - In Hong Kong, sex between two consenting males was illegal for those under age 21. In 2005, a Hong Kong High Court case brought by William Roy Leung triggered debate within the Hong Kong community regarding this law. The government lost the case, with Judge Hartmann finding that the existing legislation was discriminatory towards gay men and unconstitutional under the "bill of rights in Hong Kong". The Advocate: Hong Kong gays fight sodomy laws From 2006 the age of consent is now 16 for all - The court decided not to appeal, pronouncing the "Buggery" law "dead." 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any contract or behaviour regulated by...


In 09/07/2006, RTHK broadcasted a programme called ” Gay. Lovers”. It was criticized and accused of promoting homosexuality. It aroused a great controversy in Hong Kong at that time. On one hand, people believed that RTHK should speak for the minority and it was objective enough in that program. On the other hand, some people believed that the program was encouraging people to be gay. This incident shows that homosexuality is still not generally accepted in Hong Kong.


Taiwan

The status of homosexuals has been improving in Taiwan. In the 1970s, some novels regarding homosexuality were published. One of the most prominent writers is Pai Hsien-yung, who introduced gay characters in his novels, the most famous being Crystal Boys. More recently, some gay TV series and movies have been produced and gained great attention among gay communities in both Taiwan and Mainland China, including the TV series Crystal Boys, adapted from Pai Hsien-yung's novel by the same title, and the movie Formula 17. Kenneth Hsien-yung Pai (白先勇, pinyin: Bái Xiānyǒng, born July 11, 1937) is a writer who has been described as a melancholy pioneer. ... Crystal Boys (孽子, pinyin: Nièzǐ) is a novel written by Pai Hsien-yung and first published in 1983 in Taiwan. ... Formula 17 (17歲的天空, pinyin: shi2 qi1 sui4 de tian1 kong1) is a 2004 movie which was directed by Chen Yin-jung (陳映蓉). It stars Tony Yang (楊佑寧), Duncan (周群達), King Chin (金勤), Dada Ji (季宏全), Jimmy Yang (楊俊明), Jason and Chang (張大鏞). It is a gay romantic comedy. ...


Recent Taiwanese homosexual news and events

  • At the end of October 2003, the government of Taiwan announced plans to legalise civil unions or same-sex marriage, which would make Taiwan the first place in Asia to permit it. So far these plans have not yet been implemented.
  • On November 1, 2003 Taiwan Pride, the first gay pride parade in the Chinese-speaking world, was held in Taipei, with over 1,000 people attending [8]. Still, many participants wore masks to hide their identity because homosexuality remains a social taboo in Taiwan.
  • On January 17, 2004 Taipei's police raided and arrested 93 gay men at a private orgy party, amidst allegations that they were using drugs. Many people in Taiwan were shocked by reports which revealed that nearly one-third of the attendees were HIV positive. These arrests received severe condemnation from the local gay community. This event is now known as the "HOMEPA(Home Party) Event" by the Taiwanese gay community.
  • In 2004-2005, the Taiwanese director Ang Lee directed the gay Western film Brokeback Mountain, receiving high critical acclaim and academy awards.
  • In 2007 Taiwan passed legislation banning discrimination against sexual orienatation. [9]

Look up October in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A civil union is a recognized union similar to marriage. ...   CA, CT, MD, NY, NJ, OR, RI, VT, WA See also Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live... World map showing the location of Asia. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Taiwan Pride 2005 on Zhongxiao East Road in Taipei. ... For other uses, see Taipei (disambiguation). ... Fang mask used for the ngil ceremony, an inquisitorial search for sorcerers. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ang Lee (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) (born October 23, 1954) is an Academy Award-winning film director from Taiwan. ... Brokeback Mountain is an Academy Award-winning 2005 film that depicts the complex emotional, sexual, and romantic relationship between two men in the American West from 1963 to 1983. ...

Culture

People

The following are prominent Maindland Chinese and Taiwanese people who have come out to the public or are actively working to improve gay rights in Mainland China and Taiwan:

  • Leslie Cheung (bisexual or gay singer and actor from Hong Kong - deceased)
  • Pai Hsien-yung (gay writer from Taiwan)
  • Li Yinhe (the well known scholar on sexology in China)
  • Josephine Ho (researcher and political activist in Taiwan)

Leslie Cheung Kwok-Wing (September 12, 1956 – April 1, 2003) (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Cantonese IPA: , Jyutping: zoeng1 gwok3 wing4; Mandarin Pinyin: Zhāng Guóróng, Wade-Giles: Chang Kuo-jung; nickname Gor-gor (哥哥, Elder Brother in Cantonese), was an actor and a musician from Hong Kong. ... Kenneth Hsien-yung Pai (白先勇, pinyin: Bái Xiānyǒng, born July 11, 1937) is a writer who has been described as a melancholy pioneer. ... Li Yinhe addressing the International Conference on LGBT Human Rights Li Yinhe (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Lǐ Yínhé) (February 4, 1952 – ) is a sociologist, sexologist, and an activist for LGBT rights in Peoples Republic of China. ... Josephine Ho (何春蕤, Hanyu Pinyin Hé Chūnruí)) is a professor at Taiwans National Central University. ...

Movies and TV series

Many gay movies or TV series have been made in Hong Kong, Taiwan and China, including:

Bishonens movie poster Bishonen (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Cantonese: Meisiunin zi lyun) is a 1998 movie from Hong Kong about an ill-fated gay romance. ... In computing, a buffer is a region of memory used to temporarily hold output or input data, comparable to buffers in telecommunication. ... Crystal Boys (孽子, pinyin: Nièzǐ) is a novel written by Pai Hsien-yung and first published in 1983 in Taiwan. ... East Palace, West Palace (SC: 东宫西宫, pinyin: Dōng gōng xÄ« gōng) is a 1996 film directed by Zhang Yuan starring Han Si, Hu Jun and Zhao Wei. ... Eternal Summer (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a 2006 Taiwanese film directed by Leste Chen. ... Farewell My Concubine is a 1993 Chinese film directed by Chen Kaige which depicts the effects of various Chinese political turmoils during the 20th century on a Peking opera troupe. ... Formula 17 (17歲的天空, pinyin: shi2 qi1 sui4 de tian1 kong1) is a 2004 movie which was directed by Chen Yin-jung (陳映蓉). It stars Tony Yang (楊佑寧), Duncan (周群達), King Chin (金勤), Dada Ji (季宏全), Jimmy Yang (楊俊明), Jason and Chang (張大鏞). It is a gay romantic comedy. ... Happy Together (春光乍泄) is a 1997 Hong Kong movie directed by Wong Kar-wai, starring Leslie Cheung and Tony Leung Chiu Wai. ... I Am Not What You Want (天使, literally: angel, pinyin: tiānshǐ) is a romance movie produced by Kit Hung in Hong Kong in 2001. ... Lan Yu is also the Chinese name for Orchid Island. ... The Wedding Banquet (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsi yen), is a 1993 film about a gay Taiwanese immigrant man who marries a woman to placate his parents and get her a green card. ...

See also


LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence LGBT social movements share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality or transgenderism. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ...


Around the world · By country World laws on homosexuality US laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ...


History · Groups · Activists LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... Here is a list of gay-rights organizations around the world. ... This article is new. ...


Declaration of Montreal Martina Navrátilová and Mark Tewksbury read the Declaration of Montreal at the opening ceremonies of the World Outgames. ...


Same-sex relationships Same-sex union can refer to: same-sex marriage -- the civil or religious rites of marriage that make it equivalent to opposite-sex marriages in all aspects. ...


Marriage · Adoption   CA, CT, MD, NY, NJ, OR, RI, VT, WA See also Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ...


Opposition · Discrimination Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Homophobia is a term used to describe: A culturally determined phobia manifesting as fear, revulsion, or contempt for desire or physical love between people of the same sex. ...


Violence John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, was hanged for sodomy under a law that he had helped to institute. ...


Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

Gender/Sexuality Rights Association Taiwan was established in May 1999 in Taiwan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The History of Sexuality is also the title of a book, by Michel Foucault. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      Homosexuality in India, despite having an ancient history, is still considered a taboo subject, by both Indian civil society and the government of India. ... Homosexuality has been recorded from ancient times in Japan; indeed, at some times in Japanese history love between men was viewed as the purest form of love. ... // There are no statistics on how many homosexuals there are in Singapore or what percentage of the population they constitute. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Queer studies is the study of issues relating to sexual orientation and gender identity. ... China and greater China (the Chinese region, including Peoples Republic of China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan (Republic of China)) have a long history of transgenderism. ...

External links

  1. ^ China Daily (10th October, 2005) - Lesbians, gays gaining acceptance on mainland (published on the Xinhuanet.com website)

Books

  • Bret Hinsch, Passions of the Cut Sleeve: The Male Homosexual Tradition in China, The University of California Press, 1990, ISBN 0-520-06720-7.

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m