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Encyclopedia > LGBT rights in Australia
LGBT rights

For the LGBT rights article for a particular country, see LGBT rights by country. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ...


Around the world World laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in the US. Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ...


By country This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ...


History · Groups · Activists LGBT history refers to the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender cultures around the world, dating back to the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality within ancient civilizations. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Here is a list of gay-rights organizations around the world. ... A list of LGBT rights activists by country, in alphabetical order. ...


Declaration of Montreal Martina Navrátilová and Mark Tewksbury read the Declaration of Montreal at the opening ceremonies of the World Outgames. ...


Same-sex relationships Same-sex union can refer to: same-sex marriage -- the civil or religious rites of marriage that make it equivalent to opposite-sex marriages in all aspects. ...


Marriage · Adoption One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ...


Opposition · Discrimination LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      LGBT rights opposition refers to various movements or attitudes which oppose the extension of certain rights to lesbian and gay people, and by extension to bisexuals, and... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ...


Violence It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gay bashing. ...


Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

The recognition and rights of LGBT couples and individuals in Australia have gradually been increasing within the states and territories. Laws regarding sexual activity apply equally to same-sex and heterosexual activity in all Australian states and territories. Every state and territory, as well as many local governments or councils, will formally recognise both opposite-sex and same-sex relationships in some manner. Victoria and ACT are expected to join Tasmania in recognizing same-sex unions formally in 2008. LGBT people are allowed to legally adopt children in some states and territories. The initialism LGBT also GLBT is in use (since the 1990s) to refer collectively to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... This article is about law in society. ... This article is about sexual practices (i. ... VIC redirects here. ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the federal or Commonwealth level, progress has moved much more slowly. Between 1996 and 2007, the Liberal Government under John Howard made constant attempts to prevent states and territories from recognising same-sex couples, and halted efforts to amend nearly 60 pieces of legislation which recognise opposite sex couples explicitly. In 2007, same-sex marriage became officially prohibited at the federal (Commonwealth) level. LGBT recognition may once again move forward with the recently elected Labor Government, although Victoria and ACT are facing difficulties from the federal government with details of their proposed bills.[1]. John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... VIC redirects here. ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ...


As of 2008, same-sex couples do not receive the same level of recognition as opposite-sex couples in 58 federal law statutes which utilise the phrase 'member of the opposite sex'[1][2]

Contents

LGBT history and activism

Early laws in Australia were based on then-current laws in England, which were inherited upon colonization in 1788. Lesbianism was never illegal in England nor its colonies, including Australia. Sodomy laws, however, were part of Australian law through the 1970s. The punishment for "buggery" (sodomy) was reduced from execution to life in prison in 1899.[3] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ...


In 1951, the New South Wales Crimes Act was amended to ensure that "buggery" remained a criminal act "with or without the consent of the person", removing legal loophole of consent. Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... NSW redirects here. ...


Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement groups were were not organised in Australia until the late 1960s. An Australian arm of the Daughters of Bilitis, which formed in 1969 in Melbourne, is considered Australia's first gay rights organisation.[citation needed] LGBT movements is a collective term for a number of social movements that share related goals of social acceptance of same-sex sexuality and/or gender variance. ... The Australian arm of the Daughters of Bilitis was formed in Melbourne in early 1970, and is considered Australias first gay rights group. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      Here is a list of gay-rights organizations around the world. ...


The Campaign Against Moral Persecution, AKA C.A.M.P., was founded in Sydney in September 1970.[4] C.A.M.P. raised the profile and acceptance of Australia's gay and lesbian communities. Soonafter, the Melbourne-based gay rights organisation Society Five was formed in 1971.[5] This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... Society Five was a gay rights organisation formed in Melbourne, Australia, in January 1971, as the local branch of the national Campaign Against Moral Persecution network. ...


In 1972, the Dunstan Labor government introduced a consenting adults in private type defence in South Australia. This defence was later introduced as a bill by Murray Hill, father of former Defence Minister Robert Hill, In 1975, South Australia became the first state or territory to legalize sexual conduct between males. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Donald Allan Dunstan AC QC (21 September 1926 – 6 February 1999) was an Australian politician. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Department of Defence redirects here. ... Senator Robert Hill Robert Murray Hill (born 25 September 1946), Australian politician, was a Liberal member of the Australian Senate from July 1981 to January 2006, representing South Australia. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ...


Additional rights organizations followed, including The Gay Teachers Group, and The Homosexual Law Reform Coalition, gay rights organisations which started in the late 1970s.[citation needed]


Other states and territories repealed their laws between 1976 and 1990. The exception was Tasmania, which retained its laws until the Federal Government and the United Nations Human Rights Committee forced their repeal in 1997. Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional monarchy, a federation, and a parliamentary democracy. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The Human Rights Committee is a group of 18 experts who meet three times a year to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by United Nations member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. ...


An estimated 500 people marched down George Street to a rally in Martin Plaza in Sydney on June 24, 1978 as a protest march and commemoration of the Stonewall Riots.[citation needed] Organisers said the march and rally were part of “international homosexual solidarity day” to demonstrate against sexual repression in Australia and other countries.[6] The event recurred annually, becoming the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras which celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2008. is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      The Stonewall riots were a series of violent conflicts between New York City police officers and groups of gay and transgender people that began during the early... Performers in the 2006 Sydney Mardi Gras The Sydney Gay & Lesbian Mardi Gras is an annual gay pride parade and festival for the LGBT community in Sydney, Australia. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1984, the Australian Medical Association removed homosexuality from its list of illnesses and disorders. This article is about the year. ... The Australian Medical Association (the AMA) is the dominant professional association for Australian doctors and medical students. ...


In 1994, the Commonwealth passed the Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994 - Section 4 [7], legalizing sexual activity between consenting adults (in private) throughout Australia. It wasn't until 1997 however when the law in Tasmania prohibiting homosexual sex was overturned in the courts that homosexual activity actually became legal in all Australian states and territories. Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product...


Between 1996 and 2007, during John Howard's term as Prime Minister, many attempts were made to reduce recognition of same-sex couples in federal legislation, as well as to thwart attempts by individual states to recognise same-sex couples. In August 2004, same-sex marriage was officially prohibited when the Marriage Act 1961 and the Family Law Act were amended in order to define marriage as a "union of a man and a woman to the exclusion of all others, voluntarily entered into for life". Amendments were also made to prevent the recognition in Australia of marriages conducted in other countries between a man and another man or a woman and another woman. Plans were made to introduce a bill preventing same-sex couples from adopting, but was dropped after the 2007 elections. Attempts to offer civil unions for same-sex couples in the ACT, which were blocked by the Howard government in 2006 and 2007, will be attempted again under the new Labor government in 2008. John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... The Marriage Act 1961 (Cth) is an act of the Parliament of Australia which governs legal marriage in Australia. ...


All Australian states and territories of Australia (except for Queensland), have age of consent legislation that applies equally regardless whether the participants are male or female, same-sex or opposite-sex. Queensland's age of consent is 16, however it still has a "sodomy law" in their statutes dating back to 1990, punishing anal sex involving any person under 18 with up to 14 years in prison[8]. Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... The ages of consent for sexual activity vary by jurisdiction across Australia and Oceania. ... A sodomy law is a law that defines certain sexual acts as sex crimes. ... Roman men having anal sex. ...


Current Australian activist groups

The Australian Coalition for Equality (ACE) is a national-based lobby group in Australia advocating equal rights for gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender and intersex people. ... // Headline text Community Action Against Homophobia (CAAH) is a community activist organisation based in Sydney, Australia. ...

Anti-discrimination and legal recognition

Commonwealth level

Federal (Commonwealth) laws do not allow same-sex couples to legally marry and same-sex couples are not legally recognised in federal legislation.


Australia does not outlaw discrimination based on sexual orientation at the federal level. However, in response to Australia's obligation to implement the principle of non-discrimination in employment and occupation pursuant to the International Labour Organisation Convention No.111 (ILO 111), the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) Act empowers the HREOC to investigate complaints of discrimination in employment and occupation on various grounds, including sexual preference, and to resolve such complaints by conciliation. It is important to note that such discrimination is not rendered unlawful under the Act. The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) is a national independent statutory body of the Australian Government. ...


In August 2004, during John Howard's term as Prime Minister, same-sex marriage was officially prohibited when the Marriage Act 1961 and the Family Law Act were amended in order to define marriage as a "union of a man and a woman to the exclusion of all others, voluntarily entered into for life". Amendments were also made to prevent the recognition in Australia of marriages conducted in other countries between a man and another man or a woman and another woman. John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... The Marriage Act 1961 (Cth) is an act of the Parliament of Australia which governs legal marriage in Australia. ...


As of 2007, The Commonwealth Government does not provide protections for "sexual orientation and gender identity" as yet in the Human Rights Commission Act 1981 (Commonwealth legislation) despite constant attemps by the Democrats and the Greens, since 1995.[2]. However there is this, instead: HUMAN RIGHTS (SEXUAL CONDUCT) ACT 1994. The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is a Green Australian political party. ...

  • More information on anti-discrimination legislation (state, territory and commonwealth law) [3].

International implications

In May 2006, Attorney General Philip Ruddock blocked a gay Australian man from marrying in Europe. Ruddock refused to grant a gay man living in the Netherlands a 'Certificate of No Impediment to Marriage' document required by some European countries before marriage, to prove foreigners are in fact single. Under Ruddock's instructions, no such documents were to be released to gay and lesbians individuals intending to marry overseas[9]. Following a request for the certificate the following statement was received: Philip Maxwell Ruddock (born March 12, 1943), is the Attorney-General in the Coalition Government of Australian Prime Minister John Howard. ...

Following the advice of the Australian Attorney-General's Department we herewith certify that Australian law does not allow the issue of a Certificate of No Impediment to Marriage to persons wishing to enter into a same-sex marriage.

Australian Embassy, Netherlands on behalf of the Attourney-General's Office[9]

Civil union proposals

After the United Kingdom began allowing same-sex civil partnerships in December 2005, Prime Minister John Howard said he would be opposed to legislation granting similar civil unions in Australia. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not...


In 2006 the government of the ACT, led by Chief Minister Jon Stanhope, legislated for same-sex civil unions within the ACT. The legislation was overturned by the federal government with Philip Ruddock saying Stanhope was deliberately baiting them. Ruddock received criticism from the Greens party, but claimed that the ACT's policy was not for civil unions but for marriage which was legally defined within the The Marriage Legislation Amendment Bill. Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... For the 18th century British politician, see John Stanhope. ... Philip Maxwell Ruddock (born March 12, 1943), is the Attorney-General in the Coalition Government of Australian Prime Minister John Howard. ...


In Australia, civil celebrants conduct commitment ceremonies so that gay and lesbian couples can participate in a ceremony to acknowledge their love and partnership. The federal government however has introduced a registration system whereby prospective celebrants must undergo Government-approved, accredited training and meet specific criteria set by the Attorney-General's Department to be declared a "fit and proper person" to hold the office of "marriage celebrant". Under the new rules a registered celebrant is not permitted to conduct legally binding commitment ceremonies for same-sex couples, although they may conduct non-legally binding ceremonies as long as both the couple and those attending are under no illusion that the ceremony is a legal marriage. [4]


Social Security Act 1991

Centrelink, being a federal agency, does not recognize same-sex relationships, though they will honor all other cohabitating opposite-sex/de facto relationships. While this reduces the amount of government benefits for same-sex couples, this does allow the non-working partner to claim benefits as a single person.


Inheritance and property rights

Without the automatic legal protections that married couples receive under the law with regard to inheriting assets from their partners, same sex couples have had to take specific legal actions. With the increased legal recognition of domestic partnerships, this situation is changing. For example, superannuation (tax-incentivised retirement funds) legislation recognised "interdependent relationships", which included same-sex relationships.[citation needed] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the business definition. ... Superannuation is a pension scheme in Australia. ...


In 2008, gay and de facto couples who separate are expected to win the same property rights as married couples under federal law. The changes would allow them to resolve disputes in the Family Court rather than state courts. Family Court would also adjudicate on the division of assets, including superannuation. The plan has been up for discussion since 2002, and all states eventually agreed to grant equivalent rights to gays and de factos, but the change was blocked because the Howard government insisted on excluding gay couples.[10]


Military service

In 1992, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) ended its prohibition on openly gay or lesbian members serving in the military. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. ...


The ADF also recognizes "interdependent relationships", which include same-sex relationships, regarding benefits available to active duty members.[11] This means equal benefits in housing, moving stipends, education assistance and leave entitlements. The ADF will acknowledge personnel’s same-sex partnerships as "interdependent relationships." These benefits apply only to ADF members who are involved in interdependent relationships with a same-sex partner. To be recognised as interdependent, same-sex partners will have to show they have a "close personal relationship" that involves domestic and financial support.


Immigration and sponsorship

Australian Citizens and Permanent Residents may sponsor their same-sex partners to Australia through an interdependency visa specifically created for same-sex couples. The temporary and permanent visas (Subclasses 310 and 110) allow the applicant to live, work, study and receive Medicare benefits in Australia. [12]


State and territory level

At state and territory levels, there is some form of recognition for same-sex couples, mainly through being considered in de facto relationships. De facto couples, for example in Tasmania since 2004 and Victoria since 2007, have access to many rights and can easily prove that a relationship exists through a registry. However in New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia, Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory and Queensland, same-sex and de facto couples often must go to court to prove a relationship exists. The inability of same sex couples to have conclusive evidence of their relationships can make it difficult for them to access rights accorded to them under the law. In November 2007, with the Labor party winning a large number of seats in all levels of government, debate about civil partnership(s) was re-introduced. [13][14][15] The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ... As Thought Process During the process of thinking, recognition occurs when some event, process, pattern, or object recurs. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... VIC redirects here. ... NSW redirects here. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd...


ACT

The "ACT Discrimination Act 1991" [5] prohibits discrimination based on sexuality and transexuality (and other grounds) in: access to premises; membership or services of a club; access to or membership of a professional or trade organisation; provision of goods, services or facilities; accommodation; partnerships and qualifying bodies; education; requests for information; work and employment.[16]


The current legislation in effect that recognises same-sex couples in the ACT is the Domestic Relationship Act 1994. Attempts were made by the ACT to recognize Civil Partnerships starting in 2006, but were overturned by the Howard government: The Civil Unions Act 2006, which created civil unions for same-sex and opposite-sex couples and made them legally equivalent to marriage, was enacted on 9 June 2006, but quickly disallowed by the Governor-General on 13 June 2006. A second ACT bill was blocked again in February 2007. Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... The Civil Unions Act 2006 (ACT) was an Act of the Australian Capital Territory Legislative Assembly which established civil unions for same-sex, opposite-sex or transgender couples that allowed for equal legal recongnition with marriage under territory law. ... A civil union is one of several terms for a civil status similar to marriage, typically created for the purposes of allowing homosexual couples access to the benefits enjoyed by married heterosexuals (see also same-sex marriage); it can also be used by couples of differing sexes who do not... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In December 2007, following the elections and the newly elected Labor Government, the Civil Partnerships Bill 2007 went before the ACT Legislative Assembly.[17] Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


In February 2008, Attorney-General Robert McClelland responded to the proposed ACT legislation, saying the Rudd Government would not allow civil unions, and reiterated Labor's preference for a system of state-based relationship registers, similar to Tasmania's model. "The ceremonial aspects of the ACT model were inappropriate," Mr McClelland said. Attorney-General of the ACT, Simon Corbell, responded that "we will stand by our commitment to our community for the legal option for a ceremony."[18] 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General or Attorney-General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... Robert McClelland may refer to: Robert McClelland, Australian politician Robert McClelland, U.S. politician This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product...


New South Wales

In 1977, the "Anti-Discrimination Act 1977" [6] which prohibits discrimination in places of work, the public education system, delivery of goods and services, and other services such as banking, health care, property and night clubs was passed in New South Wales.[19] The NSW Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 is an Act of the NSW Parliament relating to discrimination in places of work, the public education system, delivery of goods and services, and other services such as banking, health care, property and night clubs. ... NSW redirects here. ...


The Workers Compensation Act, the Victims Compensation Act and the Criminal Procedure Act have been reformed to include same-sex couples in addition to a further 60 pieces of legislation through the Property (Relationships) Legislation Amendment Act from 1999, and again in 2002 through the Miscellaneous Acts Amendment (Relationships) Act. All these Acts includes dependents both opposite-sex and same-sex partners, parents, carers and siblings.


The city of Sydney (since 2005) provides a Relationships Declaration Program available for all couples offering limited legal recognition. While making a relationship declaration does not confer legal rights in the way marriage does, it may be used to demonstrate the existence of a de-facto relationship within the meaning of the NSW Property (Relationships) Act 1984 and other legislation. [20][21][22] [23] [24] [25] This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... In July 2004, the City of Sydney Council, led by Lord Mayor Clover Moore, introduced a re-working of the former South Sydney Councils Partnership Registration scheme, renaming it the City of Sydney Relationship Declaration Program. ...

  • Sydney Relationships Declaration Program

Northern Territory

In March 2004, the Northern Territory enacted the Law Reform (Gender, Sexuality and De Facto Relationships) Act 2003 to remove legislative discrimination against same sex couples in most areas of territory law. The Act removed distinctions based on a person's gender, sexuality or de facto relationship in approximately 50 Acts and Regulations. As in NSW and the ACT, reform has also included enabling the lesbian partner of a woman to be recognized as the parent of their partner’s child across State law. Members of the Legislative Assembly in the Northern Territory can take their same-sex partners with them on overseas trips at taxpayer expense, the territorial Remuneration Tribunal ruled on 9 December 2003. The tribunal redefined a de-facto spouse as a "person who is not married to the Member, but is in a marriage-like relationship with the Member." For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004...


The Northern Territory Anti-Discrimination Act 2007 [7] [8] prohibits discrimination based on sexuality.[26] For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004...


Queensland

In December 2002, Queensland's Discrimination Law Amendment Act 2002 created a new, non-discriminatory definition of "de facto partner" into 61 pieces of legislation. Amendments were made to the Property Law Amendment Act and Industrial Relations Act 1999 to recognize same-sex partners in regard to the distribution of property in the event of a separation. Couples in same-sex relationships who are victims of relationship violence may take out domestic violence orders against a violent partner, and other protective measures, including counseling services.


Queensland prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in the Anti-Discrimination Act 1991[27] [9].


Queensland's Industrial Relations Bill includes same-sex partners in the definition of spouse. This gives same-sex partners access to state-based parental, family, bereavement and carer’s leave provisions. The bill also recognizes a de-facto spouse.


South Australia

South Australia's Equal Opportunity Act 1984 [10] includes "sexual orientation/sexuality/gender idenity", making it illegal to discriminate in clubs, pubs, other establishments, restaurants, housing, memberships to establishments, goods and services, education and training, etc. For the song, see South Australia (song). ...


In 2003 and 2006, South Australia passed the Statutes Amendment (Equal Superannuation Entitlements for Same Sex Couples) Act 2003 (number 13).[28] For the song, see South Australia (song). ... An Act of Parliament or Act is law enacted by the parliament (see legislation). ...


The Statutes Amendment (Domestic Partners) Act 2006 (Number 43), which took effect 1 June 2007 dispensed with the term "de facto" and categorized couples as "domestic partners". This means same-sex couples and any two people who live together are now covered by the same laws. Same-sex couples may make a written agreement called a Domestic Partnership Agreement about their living arrangements. This may be prepared at any time and is legal from the time it is made, but must meet other requirements, such as joint commitments, before being recognised as domestic partners. Until the bill’s passage South Australia was the only state or territory to not recognize same-sex couples in legislation. [29][30][31][32][33][34][35] is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ...

  • South Australia Domestic Partners Legislation Official Fact Sheets and Agreement Forms

Tasmania

The Tasmanian Anti-Discrimination Act 1998 [11] prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation (and other characteristics) in: employment; education and training; provision of facilities, goods and services; accommodation (including residential and business); membership and activities of clubs; and administration of any law of State or any State program.[36]


Tasmania's Relationship Act 2003 provides for recognition and registration of a type of domestic partnership in two distinct categories: Significant Relationships and Caring Relationships. These relationships provide a limited number of rights in the areas of Superannuation, Taxation, Insurance, Health Care, Hospital Visitation, Wills, Property Division, and Employment Conditions (such as parenting and bereavement leave).

LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Same-sex relationships Opposition · Persecution Violence The Australian state of Tasmania does not recognize same-sex marriage. ...

Victoria

Since August 2001, Victoria has amended 60 Acts to included same-sex couples called the Statute Law Amendment (Relationships) Act and the Statute Law Further Amendment (Relationships) Act called unregistered co-habitation, legally giving same-sex couples some rights equal to those enjoyed by de facto couples, including hospital access, medical decision making, superannuation, inheritance rights, property tax, landlord/tenancy rights, mental health treatment, and victims of crime procedures. Victoria prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in the Equal Opportunity Act 1995.[37] [12] VIC redirects here. ... VIC redirects here. ...


In March 2006, independent Victorian MP Andrew Olexander proposed a private member's bill to allow civil partnerships in the state, but the state government would not allow it to be drafted by the parliamentary counsel. [13] Andrew Phillip Olexander (born February 26, 1965) is an Australian politician. ...


The city of Melbourne provided a "Relationship Declaration Register" for all relationships and carers starting in 2007. While the register does not confer legal rights in the way traditional marriage does, it may be used to demonstrate the existence of a de facto relationship in relation to the Property Laws Act 1958, the Administration and Probate Act 1958 and other legislation involving domestic partnerships. [38][39][40] This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ...


In December 2007, Victoria's parliament introduced the Relationships Bill 2007, to allow same-sex couples register their relationships with the Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages. On 12 March 2008, it was passed by the Victorian Legislative Assembly, or lower house, and is expected to pass the Legislative Council, or upper house, by April 2008. All Labor MPs who were present voted in favour, 24 MPs voted against the bill, 54 voted for it.[41] This bill also amends 69 other pieces of legislation to include couples who are in registered relationships. [42] Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... VIC redirects here. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The Legislative Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of Victoria in Australia. ... The Legislative Council, or upper house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of Victoria, Australia. ...

  • Relationships Bill 2007
  • Melbourne Relationship Declaration Register

Western Australia

Western Australia passed The Equal Opportunity Act 1984 [14] which includes "sexual orientation/sexuality/gender idenity", making it illegal to discriminate in clubs, pubs, other establishments, restaurants, housing, memberships to establishments, goods and services, education and training, etc. Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...


The Acts Amendment (Lesbian and Gay Law Reform) Act 2002 removed all remaining legislative discrimination toward sexual orientation by adding the new definition of "de facto partner" into 62 Acts, provisions and statutes. Western Australia allows same-sex couples equal access to adoption procedures and in vitro fertilization treatment. It also gives same-sex couples the same rights as opposite sex couples in areas such as transfer of property, medical treatment, and inheritance upon the death of a partner. A same-sex couple who utilise artificial insemination or 'in vitro' fertilization treatment together (i.e. both parties present as a couple throughout the treatment) are able to have both names on the birth certificate once the child is born. Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... For other uses, see Adoption (disambiguation). ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilized outside the mothers body in cases where conception is difficult or impossible through normal intercourse. ... AIH redirects here. ... Mary Elizabeth Winblad (1895-1987) birth certificate A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. ...


Signs of change

HREOC inquiry

Following a national inquiry into financial and work-related discrimination against same-sex relationships, on 21 June 2007, the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) released its 'Same-Sex: Same Entitlements' report. The Commission identified 58 Commonwealth law statutes and provisions that explicitly discriminate against same-gender couples by using the term 'member of the opposite sex'. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) is a national independent statutory body of the Australian Government. ...


In mid 2006, the Howard Government banned its departments from making submissions to the HREOC inquiry into financial discrimination experienced by same-sex couples.[43] John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ...


In February 2008, Attorney-General Robert McClelland said that his department had gone beyond the HREOC 58, identifying a total of 100 laws that discriminate against same-sex couples and hoped to see some kind of action by the middle of the year. Human Rights Commissioner Graeme Innes had previously stated that he was "very hopeful" that the HREOC 58 would be fixed by the end of 2008 – if the community kept up the public pressure.[44] Robert Bruce McClelland (born 26 January 1958), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Barton, New South Wales. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...

  • HREOC Report

2007 Election

Penny Wong (Labor) was the first lesbian to be made a minister. The Labor Government, led by Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, supports rights for same-sex couples, but not same-sex marriage. Liberal leader Brendon Nelson said he supports equal economic and social rights for gay couples, but not marriage, adoption or IVF.[45] Penny Wong Penelope Ying-yen Penny Wong (born November 5, 1968), Australian politician, has been an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian Senate since 2002, representing South Australia. ... Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ... Dr. Brendan John Nelson (born 19 August 1958), Australian politician, has been a Liberal Party of Australia member of the Australian House of Representatives since March 1996, representing the Division of Bradfield, New South Wales. ...


Prime Minister Kevin Rudd said that the Government wanted to ensure same-sex couples had non-discriminatory access to tax, social security and inheritance entitlements, via nationally consistent laws and registers of relationships.[46] In December 2007, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd stated that the Government would be working on a national relationship register, similar to the one in Tasmania, which would officially record an existing same-sex relationship. Neither Rudd nor the Labor Party endorse the more controversial step of approving same-sex marriage or civil unions.[47] Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ... Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product...


2007 Public opinion poll

In June 2007, the results of a Galaxy poll commissioned by advocacy group GetUp! were released. The poll measured opinions of 1100 Australians aged 16 and over.[48]

  • 71% of respondents agreed that same-sex partners should have the same legal rights as de-facto heterosexual couples.
  • 57% of respondents supported same-sex marriage. The poll suggests a 20-point jump in support since 2004, when Newspoll found 38 per cent in favour and 44 per cent against.[49]

Adoption and laws relating to having children

Family Law in Australia with regards to children is often based on what is considered to be in the best interest of the child. There is a traditional and often used assumption that children need a mother and a father, which plays an important role in divorce and custodial proceedings, and has carried over into adoption and fertility procedures. As laws within Australia have only recently begun to become more tolerant toward same-sex couples, there are very limited areas where same-sex couples have rights with respect to conceiving, adopting, and rearing children. Additionally, women (particularly birth mothers) are generally given more rights over children than men, giving more room for lesbian couples to adopt and have genetic children. Male couples have virtually no legal opportunities to become legally recognized parents aside from adoption. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered people are parents. ...


Same-sex parent adoption

Adoption for same-sex couples is currently available in Australian Capital Territory and Western Australia.[50] In New South Wales, the Adoption Act 2000 (NSW) bans same-sex couples, but allows unmarried people in same-sex relationships to adopt.[51] In Tasmania, The Adoption Act, 1988 (Tas) uses criteria of marriage and gender making same-sex couples ineligible to adopt.[52] In Queensland, same-sex couples cannot legally adopt a child, but can become foster parents.[53] Individuals in Queensland may only adopt a child with special needs or in cases of exceptional circumstances.[54] LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... NSW redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd...


Western Australia became the first Australian state to allow same sex adoptions when its Labor government passed the Acts Amendment (Lesbian and Gay Law Reform) Act, 2002 which in turn amended the Adoption Act, 1994 (WA). This allowed same sex couples to adopt in accordance with criteria that assesses the suitability of couples and individuals to be parents, regardless of sexual orientation.


Australia's first legal gay adoption, by two men, occurred in Western Australia in June 2007. [55][56][57][58] Subsequently, on August 2 2007, the federal government under Prime Minister John Howard announced it would legislate to stop same-sex couples adopting a child from overseas, and would further not recognize adopted children of same-sex couples. The federal Coalition’s proposed Family Law (Same Sex Adoption) Bill would amend the 1975 Family Law Act and override state and territory laws that currently cover international adoptions. The bill was due to be introduced in the spring session of parliament, beginning August 13 2007, but may have been taken off the agenda following the 2007 National elections.[59][60] John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ...

LGBT individual adoption Same-sex couple joint petition Same-sex second parent adoption
ACT - Yes (from 2004) Yes
New South Wales Yes No No
Northern Territory Only in exceptional circumstances[61] No No
Queensland Only in exceptional circumstances[62] No No
South Australia No[63] No No
Tasmania No No Yes (from 2004)
Victoria - No No (Yes expected in 2008)
Western Australia - Yes (from 2002) Yes

Note: Single LGBT people may adopt in most states, but individuals seeking to adopt are considered less of a priority than couples and lengthy waiting lists for adoption make it virtually impossible. Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... NSW redirects here. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... VIC redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...


Same-sex step-parent adoption

In Western Australia and the ACT, lesbian co-mother or gay co-father may use stepparent adoption provisions, although female couples in those states whose children were born through assisted conception may not actually need to adopt them, as the law there presumes the mother's female partner to be a legal parent as long as she consented to the conception.[64] In Tasmania, same-sex stepparent adoption (where one partner is the biological parent of the child) became legal in 2001.[65][66] In the remaining states and territories, only biological parents have a legally-recognised relationship with a child. Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product...


However, even those laws contain a general presumption against making an adoption order because an adoption order severs the legal relationship between the child and one of the child’s birth parents. Due to the serious consequences of an adoption order, all step-parent adoption laws (including those applying to opposite-sex couples) contain a strong preference for dealing with new parenting arrangements through a parenting order rather than an adoption order.


In states and territories where same-sex stepparent adoptions are not allowed, the lesbian co-mother or gay co-father may apply to the Family Court of Australia for a parenting order, as ‘other people significant to the care, welfare and development’ of the child. It provides an important "status quo" if the birth mother were to die, so for example other family members could not come and take the child. But the lesbian co-mother and gay co-father will be treated in the same way as a social parent is treated under the law; they will not be treated in the same way as a birth parent. [67]


The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) issued a report in 2007 entitled National Inquiry into Discrimination against People in Same-Sex Relationships recommended amending or creating laws recognising the relationship between a child and both same-sex parents. In particular, "‘Stepparent adoption’ laws should more readily consider adoption by a lesbian co-mother or gay co-father." This will require amendments to remove the prohibition on same-sex stepparent adoption in all state and territory laws other than in WA, the ACT and Tasmania." The final report of the Same-Sex: Same Entitlements Inquiry was tabled in Parliament on 21 June 2007. [68]


Assisted reproduction

Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) comes under the jurisdiction of states and territories in Australia so national legislation cannot be used to regulate its practice. In Vitro Fertilization technologies, artificial insemination, and other reproductive technologies are legal in most states and territories. After Victoria revises its laws in 2008, South Australia and Western Australia will be the only states that limit access to IVF to those who are infertile or carrying a genetic disorder.[69] In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilized outside the mothers body in cases where conception is difficult or impossible through normal intercourse. ... AIH redirects here. ... VIC redirects here. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...


In November 2006, attorneys-general from all states and territories agreed in principle to uniform surrogacy regulations which meant couples would no longer have to travel to avoid illegal arrangements in their home state after Victorian Senator Stephen Conroy and his wife, Paula Benson, revealed that their daughter Isabella had been born to a surrogate mother in Sydney via the in-vitro fertilisation of a donated egg.[70][71] In April 2007, Federal Attorney-General Philip Ruddock called for national surrogacy laws, so couples in some states no longer have to travel elsewhere to undergo the procedure legally.[72] Surrogacy remains illegal in most states and territories, however it is permitted in New South Wales, ACT and Victoria.[15] Surrogacy is an arrangement whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant for the purpose of gestating and giving birth to a child for others to raise. ... Philip Maxwell Ruddock (born March 12, 1943), is the Attorney-General in the Coalition Government of Australian Prime Minister John Howard. ...


Obtaining legal parental rights for same sex partners of birth parents has only recently been addressed in limited ways. Female partners of birth mothers will be recognized as parents of IVF children in Victoria in 2008. Male couples who arrange surrogacy using one partner's sperm, which may not even be legally possible in Australia, will face legal difficulties terminating the surrogate mother's rights (ideally through a step-parent adoption), which will be required in order to obtain legal recognition for the non-biological male partner. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilized outside the mothers body in cases where conception is difficult or impossible through normal intercourse. ... VIC redirects here. ...

ART/IVF Commercial Surrogacy Altruistic Surrogacy Recognize Non-genetic Parent
ACT Allowed Illegal Legal Yes
New South Wales Allowed Illegal Legal No
Northern Territory Allowed - - No
Queensland Allowed Illegal Illegal No
South Australia Medically infertile Illegal Illegal No
Tasmania Allowed Illegal Illegal Yes
Victoria Allowed Illegal Legal No (Yes in 2008)
Western Australia Married/Infertile - (Illegal in 2008) - (Legal in 2008) Yes

Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... NSW redirects here. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Motto(s): Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Anna Bligh (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product... VIC redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...

ACT

The Substitute Parent Agreements Act 1994 made non-commercial surrogacy legal but the birth mother and her husband were deemed to be the parents unless the genetic parents adopt the child back. In 2000, The ACT became the first state or territory to allow the genetic parents of a child born through surrogacy to become its legal parents. It will allow the genetic parents to easily obtain a parenting order and avoid adoption. [73] It is illegal to advertise for a surrogate and to pay for a surrogate or an ovum donor.


When two women are in a same-sex relationship, and one of them gives birth as a result of ART, her partner is presumed to be a parent of the child. The ACT’s birth registration process allows for a person to be registered as a ‘mother’, ‘father’ or ‘parent’, enabling same-sex couples to be recognised as parents on a child’s birth documents.


New South Wales

The Adoption Act 2000 (NSW) stated that commercial surrogacy was illegal. But altruistic surrogacy was permitted, and the birth mother was required to relinquish the child to be adopted by the sperm donor's wife. The Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2007 declared commercial surrogacy to be illegal and surrogacy contracts to be void.[74] The birth parents are lawfully deemed to be the legal parents.[75] There has been controversy with a clause in the Act that allows donors to nominate classes of people to whom their sperm or eggs may not be given, allowing for discrimination against certain races or gays and lesbians. [16].


Socially-infertile women (lesbians) are permitted access to IVF treatment in New South Wales. Medicare funding, however, requires the couple to be medically infertile, which makes it only available to heterosexual couples because of an assumption that the man is medically infertile. A lesbian couple would not have a medical condition that makes the couple infertile.[76]


Northern Territory

The Northern Territory currently does not provide nor seek legislation, dealing with this issue in a way thats binding for statutes.


Queensland

The Surrogate Parenthood Act 1988, which commenced on 6 October 1988, prohibits all forms of surrogacy, formal and informal, paid and altruistic. All surrogacy contracts are void and entering into an agreement (or offering to do so), as well as giving or receiving payment are prohibited. Any advertising in relation to surrogacy is also prohibited.[77]


Socially-infertile women (lesbians) are permitted access to IVF treatment in Queensland.


South Australia

The Family Relationships Act 1975 made surrogacy illegal and surrogacy contracts void.[78]


The Reproductive Technology (Clinical Practices) Act 1988 (SA) states that artificial fertilisation procedures are only for the benefit of married couples (husband and/or wife) who appear to be infertile. In 1996 the Supreme Court of South Australia found that the restriction of access to treatment on the basis of marital status contravened the Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth). Lesbian women who are single or in a relationship currently have access to IVF treatment, but they must be considered to be "medically infertile".


The Family Relationships Act 1975 (SA) provides that a woman who gives birth to a child is the mother of the child, regardless of genetics. The Act does not include a provision for parentage applying to same-sex couples.


Tasmania

The Surrogacy Contracts Act 1993 made surrogacy illegal and surrogacy contracts void. [79]


Victoria

In May 1988, Victoria became the first State in Australia in which a child was born by use of IVF surrogacy. In July 1988, sections 11, 12, and 13 of the Infertility (Medical Procedures) Act 1984 were commenced to prevent a repetition of IVF surrogacy in Victoria, by prohibiting the use of IVF technology on women who have not been diagnosed as infertile.[80] In addition, only women who were married or in de facto relationships with men were allowed access to treatment.


In July 2000, the Federal Court declared that Victorian law contravened the Commonwealth Sex Discrimination Act, and opened up access for single women and those in lesbian relationships to IVF treatment in Victoria. [81]


In May 2007, the Victorian Law Reform Commission in Victoria released its final report recommending that the laws be modified to allow more people to use assisted reproductive technologies and to allow same-sex couples to adopt and be recognized as parents to their partner's children. [82] VIC redirects here. ...


The proposed changes would also mean drastic reforms to surrogacy which, while technically legal, is practically impossible in Victoria. The changes would mean a woman would no longer have to be clinically infertile to be a surrogate mother. And parents who have children through surrogacy would be able to go to the County Court and apply for a "substitute parenting order" for legal recognition.[83] Birth certificates could use the word parent instead of mother and father.[84] Commercial surrogacy remains illegal. Surrogacy is an arrangement whereby a woman agrees to become pregnant for the purpose of gestating and giving birth to a child for others to raise. ...


As of December 2007, Victoria is expected to adopt almost all of the 130 recommendations of the Victorian Law Reform Commission. This will make IVF legal for all women (except sex offenders)[85], and will give same-sex partners, as well as parents of surrogate children, greater parenting rights. Female partners of birth mothers will be recognized as parents of IVF children. The Government stopped short of allowing same-sex couples full adoption rights. [86] VIC redirects here. ...


Western Australia

The Human Reproductive Technology Act 1991 (WA) establishes that in order to use any ART, a woman must be unable to conceive a child due to medical reasons (clinical infertility) and "persons seeking to be treated as a couple must be married or in a de facto relationship and must be of the opposite sex to each other".[87] Where a woman who is in a de facto relationship with another woman undergoes, with the consent of her de facto partner, an artificial fertilisation procedure, the de facto partner of the pregnant woman is conclusively presumed to be a parent of the unborn child and is a parent of any child born as a result of the pregnancy.[88]


Western Australia’s Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages allows for registration of a parent other than a ‘mother’ and/or ‘father’ on the birth documents of the child. The birth registration form provides same-sex couples with the option of describing themselves as ‘mother’ and ‘parent’; ‘mother’ and ‘mother’; or ‘parent’ and ‘parent’. Provided proper consent has been given by both the woman and her same-sex partner, the partner will conclusively be presumed to be the parent of any resulting child. Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...


Western Australia has no laws relating to surrogacy, however a bill allowing the practice in Western Australia is expected to be considered by its parliament in 2007 or 2008.[89][90]


Other areas of LGBT rights

See also: Australian Red Cross Blood Service#Infectious diseases

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (ARCBS) is a branch of the Australian Red Cross. ... The term state may refer to: a sovereign political entity, see state unitary state nation state a non-sovereign political entity, see state (non-sovereign). ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Australian Red Cross Blood Service (ARCBS) is a branch of the Australian Red Cross. ...

Opposition groups

The Family First Party policies emphasise socially conservative family values. Family First and the Australian Greens are often at odds, and ideologically opposed on many issues. Family First opposes LGBT adoption, IVF treatment for lesbians, and opposes same-sex marriage and civil unions, stating their declaration of marriage as "a union of a man and a woman"[92]. The Family First Party (FFP/F1) is a political party in Australia, with policies that generally mirror socially conservative and family values. ... Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ... This article is about family values as a political concept. ... The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is a Green Australian political party. ... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ... In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilized outside the mothers body in cases where conception is difficult or impossible through normal intercourse. ... This article is about same-sex desire and sexuality among women. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... As unregistered cohabitation Recognised in some regions Recognised prior to legalisation of same-sex marriage Netherlands (nationwide) (1998) Spain (12 of 17 communities) (1998) South Africa (nationwide) (1999) Belgium (nationwide) (2000) Canada (QC, NS and MB) (2001) Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Registered partnership Domestic partnership Common-law...


The Australian Christian Lobby strongly opposes same sex rights such as adoption and marriage. The Australian Christian Lobby, formerly known as the Australian Christian Coalition, was formed in 1995. ...


The Liberal Party of Australia is a conservative party, although it has a minority socially liberal wing. In recent years, under John Howard, it has moved to a more conservative policy agenda. This article is about the modern Australian political party. ... Social conservatism generally refers to a political ideology or personal belief system that advocates the conservation or resurrection of what one, or ones community, considers to be traditional morality and social structure. ... Social liberalism is either a synonym for new liberalism or a label used by progressive liberal parties in order to differentiate themselves from the more conservative liberal parties, especially when there are two or more liberal parties in a country. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ...


Peter Jensen, Archbishop of the Evangelical Anglican Diocese of Sydney, has vigorously opposed homosexuality, stating that accepting homosexuality is "calling holy what God called sin."[93] Leaders of the Anglican Church of Australia have called for the removal of the proposed ACT Civil Union legislation, because "[They] believe this proposal actually threatens and compromises the traditional Christian view of marriage between a man and a woman." and that "We further believe the proposal to apply lesser age requirements for such civil unions is thoroughly unhelpful to young people in their developing years, and is therefore not in their best interests or the ultimate good of society as a whole."[94] For other persons named Peter Jensen, see Peter Jensen (disambiguation). ... The Diocese of Sydney in the Anglican Church of Australia is unusual in Western Anglicanism in that the majority of the diocese is Evangelical and low church in nature, and committed to Reformed and Calvinist theology. ... Arms of the Anglican Church of Australia The Anglican Church of Australia, a member church of the Anglican Communion, was previously officially known as the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania (renamed in 1981). ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


In July 2006, in the lead up to the Tasmanian State Election, Christian organisation Exclusive Brethren ran full page advertisements in various newspapers to criticise Tasmanian Greens's pro-Gay policies[95] such as same-sex marriage (as well as gay adoption and fostering, something already partially recognised by Tasmanian law). Legislative elections for the House of Assembly were held in the Australian state of Tasmania on 18 March 2006. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Exclusive Brethren are a part of the Christian Evangelical movement generally described as the Plymouth Brethren. ... The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is a Green Australian political party. ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ... Legal status of gay adoption in Europe (map needs to be changed; UK, Norway, Iceland see text). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Entsch to hand PM gay rights petition, Wednesday August 8 17:21 AEST. National Nine News. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  2. ^ PM to review same-sex couples' rights, by Patricia Karvelas, March 02, 2007 01:00am. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  3. ^ http://www.petra.ac.id/asc/people/homo/development.html
  4. ^ http://www.petra.ac.id/asc/people/homo/development.html
  5. ^ Kaplan, Gisela (1996). The Meagre Harvest: The Australian Women's Movement 1950s-1990s. St Leonards, pg. 93. 
  6. ^ http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23257207-5016087,00.html
  7. ^ Human Rights (Sexual Conduct) Act 1994 - Sect 4. Commonwealth Consolidated Acts. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  8. ^ http://www.queerradio.org/AgeOfConsent.htm
  9. ^ a b Govt defends block to same sex marriage (January 18, 2006 - 9:29 a.m.). The Age. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  10. ^ Push for equal gay and de facto couples' rights | The Australian
  11. ^ Extension of ADF conditions of service to ADF members in recognised interdependent relationships (bulletin, 2005-10-21). Navy People Online. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  12. ^ Interdependency Visa: Offshore Temporary and Permanent (Subclasses 310 and 110)
  13. ^ http://www.365gay.com/Newscon07/11/113007omar.htm
  14. ^ http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/articles/2007/11/30/1196394626937.html
  15. ^ http://www.generationq.net/articles/Gay-unions-wont-be-blocked-under-Labor-00001.html
  16. ^ Annual Report 2005-2006. ACT Hunam Rights Office. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  17. ^ Jon Stanhope | Chief Minister, Australian Capital Territory | Media Release
  18. ^ http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,23172362-12339,00.html The Australian | Gay unions are OK ... just don't do it in public
  19. ^ Homosexual Discrimination. Anti-Discrimination Board of New South Wales. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  20. ^ Relationships Declaration Program. City of Sydney. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  21. ^ Legal Recognition for Gay Couples. Victorian Gay and Lesbian Rights Lobby and Law Institute of Victoria 2002. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  22. ^ Same Sex Relationships. Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  23. ^ Australian City To Launch Gay Partner Registry. Gay News from 365Gay.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  24. ^ Hooray for Melbourne and gay sex!. ISFAT.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  25. ^ Melbourne City Council - ‘Relationships Declaration Register’. Salt Shakers. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  26. ^ Anti-Discrimination Act. Department of Justice. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  27. ^ Sexuality Discriminiation and Vilification. Anti-Discrimination Commission Queensland. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  28. ^ Statutes Amendment (Equal Superannuation Entitlements for Same Sex Couples) ACT 2003 (NO 13 OF 2003). South Australian Numbered Acts. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  29. ^ GayWired.com - Southern Australia Approves Domestic Partners Legislation; Gay Rights Advocates Celebrate
  30. ^ Statutes Amendment (Domestic Partners) ACT 2006 (NO 43 OF 2006). South Australian Numbered Acts. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  31. ^ Statutes Amendment (Domestic Partners) Act 2006. Government of South Australian Attorney-General's Department. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  32. ^ Southern Australia Approves Domestic Partners Legislation; Gay Rights Advocates Celebrate. gaywired.com. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  33. ^ Votes on Homosexual Issues. South Australia, Australia, House of Assembly. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  34. ^ SA Upper House passes bill for same-sex rights (Thursday, December 7, 2006. 6:49pm (AEDT)). ABC News Online. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  35. ^ South Australia gays get new rights by Tony Grew (7 December 2006). pinknews.com.au. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  36. ^ Employer's Responsibilities. Office of the Anti-Discrimination Commission, Tasmania. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  37. ^ Sexual orientation and lawful sexual activity. Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  38. ^ Victoria's first Relationship Declaration Register launched, Monday, 2 April 2007. City of Melbourne. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  39. ^ VicSame-sex register for Victoria April 24, 2007. News.com.au. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  40. ^ City of Melbourne - News and Media Centre - Story Show Page
  41. ^ Victoria's Next To Get Hitched. samesame.com.au. Retrieved on 2008-03-13.
  42. ^ Relationships Bill 2007. www.legislation.vic.gov.au. Retrieved on 2008-03-13.
  43. ^ http://www.ssonet.com.au/archives/display.asp?articleID=6174
  44. ^ http://www.bnews.net.au/content/view/1251/2/ Feds find 100 laws to fix
  45. ^ http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22856750-601,00.html
  46. ^ http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22934559-5013871,00.html
  47. ^ National register for gay couples, says Kevin Rudd | NEWS.com.au
  48. ^ http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,21942737-5007133,00.html | Majority support same-sex marriage - poll | June 21, 2007
  49. ^ http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/public-backs-gayunionsequality/2007/06/20/1182019204491.html The Age | Public backs gay unions, equality | June 21, 2007
  50. ^ ADOPTION ACT 1994 - SECT 39 Criteria for application
  51. ^ Catholics prepare for fight on gay adoption - National - smh.com.au
  52. ^ http://www.law.utas.edu.au/reform/Publications/adoption/AdoptionEasyPrint.pdf
  53. ^ Same sex couples
  54. ^ http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/CURRENT/A/AdoptChildA64.pdf Adoption of Children Act 1964 | Section 12 Persons in whose favour adoption orders may be made
  55. ^ Gay adoption 'groundbreaking' | PerthNow
  56. ^ First Legal Gay Adoption In Australia on SameSame.com.au
  57. ^ Australia’s First Legal Adoption For Gay Couple
  58. ^ Australia's First Gay Adoption | ProudParenting.com
  59. ^ Green Left - Stop the proposed same-sex adoption ban
  60. ^ Gay couples face overseas adoption ban - Breaking News - National - Breaking News
  61. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nt/consol_act/aoca191/s14.html Adoption of Children Act (NT)
  62. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/qld/consol_act/aoca1964191/s12.html Adoption of Children Act 1964 (Qld)
  63. ^ http://www.legislation.sa.gov.au/LZ/C/A/ADOPTION%20ACT%201988.aspx Adoption Act 1988 (SA)
  64. ^ http://www.glrl.org.au/issues/relationship_qa.htm#Q4_1
  65. ^ PHD BLOG IT: Same-sex parenting
  66. ^ Gay adoption law to stay - National - www.theage.com.au
  67. ^ Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
  68. ^ Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission
  69. ^ GenerationQ.net - News, Entertainment, Lifestyle and Opinion for GLBT Australia, USA, Canada, UK, Europe, Asia and South America
  70. ^ Desperate plea for end to secret trade in human eggs - National - smh.com.au
  71. ^ Surrogacy laws too varied, Ruddock tells states - National - smh.com.au
  72. ^ http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,21516857-2702,00.html
  73. ^ PM - ACT approves surrogacy bill
  74. ^ ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY ACT 2007
  75. ^ Legislation around Australia - Reproductive Technology - Department of Human Services
  76. ^ No Medicare for lesbians' IVF - National - theage.com.au
  77. ^ SURROGATE PARENTHOOD ACT 1988
  78. ^ South Australian Legislation
  79. ^ SURROGACY CONTRACTS ACT 1993
  80. ^ Lawlink NSW: 2. Current State of the Law
  81. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/stories/s157016.htm
  82. ^ http://www.lawreform.vic.gov.au/CA256A25002C7735/All/E98CC6AE987CD2FBCA2572F40009BEDB?OpenDocument&1=30-Current+projects~&2=70-Assisted+Reproduction+and+Adoption~&3=70-Final+Report~
  83. ^ Gays, singles may get more IVF help - National - theage.com.au
  84. ^ Cabinet split looms on IVF | Herald Sun
  85. ^ GenerationQ.net - News, Entertainment, Lifestyle and Opinion for GLBT Australia, USA, Canada, UK, Europe, Asia and South America
  86. ^ Lesbians score IVF treatment victory | Herald Sun
  87. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/wa/consol_act/hrta1991331/s23.html Human Reproductive Technology Act 1991 (WA)
  88. ^ http://www.lawreform.vic.gov.au/CA256902000FE154/Lookup/Assisted_Reproductive_Technology_and_Adoption/$file/ART_Surrogacy_and_Legal_Parentage.pdf
  89. ^ http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,21516857-2702,00.html
  90. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/sinodisp/au/legis/wa/bill_em/sb2007149/sb2007149.html?query=^ivf Explanatory Memorandum Surrogacy Bill 2007
  91. ^ Gays test Red Cross blood ban, by Erin O'Dwyer (October 9, 2005). The Sun Herald. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  92. ^ http://www.familyfirst.org.au/documents/THEFAMILY_000.pdf
  93. ^ Barney Zwartz, The Age, 2006-02-03. Church imperilled by gays: archbishop. Accessed 2007-07-22.
  94. ^ Church call to scrap gay union (April 03, 2006 01:48pm). News.com.au. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  95. ^ Church group challenged over 'negative' ads. News.com.au. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Additional references and sources

  • Living Out Loud: A History of Gay and Lesbian Activism in Australia by Graham Willett, ISBN 1864489499, 2000.
  • Australian Lesbian and Gay Archives
  • Queen City of the South Melbourne Queer History radio series
  • Australia National Laws
  • World conference on LGBT rights
  • Health Matters Library HIV/AIDS
  • NSW Law Reform Commission Report, 1988
  • Gay Dads Australia Surrogacy Guide
  • Female-to-Female Transmission of HIV CDC National AIDS Hotline Training Bulletin#139
  • Australian Red Cross Blood Donor Eligibility
  • Gay marriage comments 'appalling', Sydney Morning Herald web site, 2006-02-23.
  • Sinnes, G.R. Australia Encyclopaedia of Homosexuality. Dynes, Wayne R. (ed.), Garland Publishing, 1990. pp. 93-97
  • Same sex and the city, February 20, 2007 The Age (Retrieved 3 September 2007)
  • Same Sex Couple Adoption: The Situation in Canada and Australia Parliament of Australia

... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

See also

World laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in the US. Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ... Human rights in Australia are generally respected and recognised. ... LGBT adoption refers to the adoption of children by lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered people. ... Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered people are parents. ... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      Neither Same-sex marriage nor Civil unions are recognised under Australian federal law. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 50 KB) Summary World map depicting Australasia; differs from maps for Commonwealth of Australia and Australian continent Map includes Australia (including Tasmania and Torres Strait Islands); New Zealand; and Melanesia: New Guinea (including eastern Aru/Maluku Islands and mainland provinces... map of Melanesia Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) is a subregion of Oceania extending from the western side of the West Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and northeast of Australia. ... Copyright 2004 Affordable Solutions Pty Ltd Aust. ... Image File history File links Micronesia. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Image File history File links Polynesia. ... This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ...

 
 

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