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Encyclopedia > LGBT rights
LGBT rights
 Around the world · By country 
History · Groups · Activists
Same-sex relationships
Opposition · Persecution
Violence

LGBT social movements is a collective term for a number of movements that share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality and/or gender variance. LGBT refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people, and their movements include the Gay and Lesbian Rights Movement, Gay Liberation, lesbian feminism, the queer movement and transgender activism. A commonly stated goal is social equality for LGBT people; some currents within these movements have also focused on building LGBT communities, or worked towards liberation for the broader society from sexual oppression. LGBT movements today are made up of a wide range of political activism and cultural activity, such as lobbying and street marches; social groups, support groups and community events; magazines, films and literature; academic research and writing; and even business activity. LGBT movements is a collective term for a number of social movements that share related goals of social acceptance of homosexuality and/or gender variance. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... World laws on homosexuality Same-sex unions in North America. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Death of Orpheus In Albrecht Dürers 1494 drawing, the banner hung in the tree reads: Orfeus der erst puseran (Orpheus, the first sodomite). The word puseran(t) derives from the Latin bulgarus from which come also the terms bugger in English and bougre in French. ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... The word homosexuality has acquired multiple meanings over time. ... Transgender is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth. ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an abbreviation used as a collective term to refer to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... A lesbian is a woman who is aesthetically, sexually, romantically and/or emotionally attracted to other women. ... In modern society, gay is a word which can be used as either a noun or adjective. ... Bisexual redirects here. ... Transgender is an overarching term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at birth. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Lesbian feminism is a feminist ideology, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s, that advocates the view that lesbianism is the logical result of feminism. ... Queer has traditionally meant ‘strange’ or ‘unusual’, but is currently often used in reference to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex communities. ... // International FTM International - based in the US Transexual Menace International homepage International Foundation for Gender Education (IFGE) homepage Transgender Community of Police and Sherrifs - in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Social equality is a social state of affairs in which certain different people have the same status in a certain respect, minimally at least in voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, and property rights. ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an abbreviation used as a collective term to refer to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... Look up Liberation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sexual norm can be an individual norm or a social norm. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... Lobbying is the professional practice of public affairs advocacy, with the goal of influencing a governing body by promoting a point of view. ... A man holds up a street puppet designed to resemble George W. Bush at a demonstration against the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005 in Washington, D.C.. American Civil Rights March on Washington, leaders marching from the Washington Monument to the Lincoln Memorial, August 28...

Contents


Opposition and internal tensions

LGBT movements are opposed by a variety of individuals and organizations. Studies have shown that people with negative attitudes towards lesbians and gays are more likely to be older, religious, less well educated, politically conservative, have little close personal contact with out gay men and lesbians, and support traditional gender roles. [citation needed] They may have a deep personal, moral or religious objection to homosexuality. As with other social movements, there is also conflict within and between LGBT movements, especially about strategies for change and debates over exactly who comprises the constituency that these movements represent — for instance, to what extent do lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transpeople, intersexed people, and others share common interests and a need to work together? Societal attitudes towards homosexuality vary greatly in different cultures and different historical periods, as do attitudes toward sexual desire, activity and relationships in general. ... Conservatism is a philosophy defined by Edmund Burke as a disposition to preserve, and an ability to improve.[1] The term derives from conserve; from Latin conservare, to keep, guard, observe. ... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or (less commonly) paraphilia. ...


Social change

Significant social, legal and political gains have been made by LGBT communities, especially in the Western world since the 1960s. Homosexual sex is no longer illegal in much of the world, although several countries still impose the death penalty for such acts. Some countries have anti-discrimination legislation in place, and in recent years, a few states have begun to recognise same sex relationships. Many prominent medical authorities no longer treat homosexuality as a mental illness [citation needed], although transsexuality is still viewed as such. Opponents of gay rights (such as NARTH), however, say that these mainstream institutions have succumbed to political pressure rather than relying on a rational examination of the facts. An example that is often cited is the controversy over the removal of homosexuality from the DSM. In 1973, homosexuality was removed and replaced with "Sexual Orientation Disturbance" in the DSM-II; this was changed to "Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality" in the DSM-III and was removed entirely from the DSM-IV. The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... A same-sex couple is a pair of people of the same sex, who pursue a relationship similar to that of a heterosexual married couple. ... The National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH) is a non-profit organization dedicated to affirming a complementary, male-female model of gender and sexuality. NARTH is a proponent of the controversial idea that it is possible to alter ones sexual preferences or sexual orientation, that homosexuality... It has been suggested that DSM cautionary statement be merged into this article or section. ...


Goals

Although there is a wide range of opinions within the various LGBT movements, most agree that all people deserve equal rights, equal respect and parity in law, regardless of their sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression, and that prejudice (homophobia, biphobia and transphobia) is dangerous, not just to gay, lesbian, bisexual or transgender people, but to all members of society. It is also commonly argued that sexual orientation and gender identity are innate and cannot be consciously changed, and attempts to alter sexual orientation are generally opposed in principle. Sexual orientation describes the direction of an individuals sexuality, often in relation to their own sex or gender. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The word homophobia means irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... Biphobia is the fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals. ... Transphobia (by analogy with homophobia) refers to various kinds of phobic attitudes towards transsexual and transgender people. ... Sexual orientation describes the direction of an individuals sexuality, often in relation to their own sex or gender. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Reparative therapy, or conversion, reorientation or differentiation therapy, is any of several techniques that are aimed at changing a persons sexual orientation from homosexuality to heterosexuality (or ex-gay). ...


History

Before 1860

In eighteenth and nineteenth century Europe, same-sex sexual behaviour and cross-dressing were widely considered to be socially unacceptable, and were serious crimes under sodomy and sumptuary laws. Any organized community or social life was underground and secret. Social reformer Jeremy Bentham wrote the first known argument for homosexual law reform in England around 1785, at a time when the legal penalty for "buggery" was death by hanging.[1] However, he feared reprisal, and his powerful essay was not published until 1978. The emerging currents of secular humanist thought which had inspired Bentham also informed the French Revolution, and when the newly-formed National Constituent Assembly began drafting the policies and laws of the new republic in 1790, groups of militant 'sodomite-citizens' in Paris petitioned the Assemblée nationale, the governing body of the French Revolution, for freedom and recognition.[2] In 1791 France became the first nation to decriminalise homosexuality, probably thanks in part to the homosexual Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès who was one of the authors of the Napoleonic code. The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies, that spans the time between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution that has created modern society. ... This article discusses the history of the continent of Europe. ... This articles is about cross-dressing in general, that is the act of wearing the clothing of another gender for any reason. ... Sodomy is a term of religious origin used to characterize certain sexual acts. ... Sumptuary laws (from the Latin sumtuariae leges) are laws which dictated, amongst other things, what color and type of clothing individuals were allowed to own and wear. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (February 15, 1748 – June 6, 1832) was an English gentleman, jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice and specifically rejects rituals and ceremonies as a means to affirm their life stance. ... Liberty Leading the People, a painting by Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830 but which has come to be generally accepted as symbolic of French popular uprisings against the monarchy in general and the French Revolution in particular. ... The National Constituent Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on July 9, 1789, during the first stages of the French Revolution. ... The Palais Bourbon, front The French National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) is one of the two houses of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. ... Liberty Leading the People, a painting by Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830 but which has come to be generally accepted as symbolic of French popular uprisings against the monarchy in general and the French Revolution in particular. ... Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, Duke of Parma, (18 October 1753 - 8 March 1824), French lawyer and statesman, is best remembered as the author of the Code Napoléon, which still forms the basis of French law. ... First page of the 1804 original edition The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des français, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon I. It entered into force on March 21, 1804. ...


In 1833, an anonymous English-language writer wrote a poetic defence of Captain Nicholas Nicholls, who had been sentenced to death in London for sodomy: Sodomy is a term of religious origin used to characterize certain sexual acts. ...

Whence spring these inclinations, rank and strong?
And harming no one, wherefore call them wrong?[3]

Three years later in Switzerland, Heinrich Hoessli published the first volume of Eros: Die Mannerliebe der Griechen ("Eros: The Male-love of the Greeks"), another defence of same-sex love.[4]


1860 - 1944

Modern historians usually look to German activist Karl Heinrich Ulrichs as the pioneer of the LGBT rights movement. Ulrichs came out publicly and began publishing books about same-sex love and gender variance in the 1860s, a few years before the term "homosexual" was first published in 1869. Ulrichs' Uranians were people with a range of gender expressions and same-sex desires; he considered himself "a female psyche in a male body". Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... -1... -1... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or (less commonly) paraphilia. ... // Events and trends Technology The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States is built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... From John Addington Symonds 1891 book A Problem in Modern Ethics. ...


From the 1870s, social reformers in other countries had began to take up the Uranian cause, but their identites were kept secret for fear of reprisal. A secret British society called the "Order of Chaeronea" campaigned for the legalisation of homosexuality, and counted playwright Oscar Wilde among its members in the last decades of the 19th century.[5] In the 1890s, English socialist poet Edward Carpenter and Scottish anarchist John Henry Mackay wrote in defense of same-sex love and androgyny; Carpenter and British homosexual rights advocate John Addington Symonds contributed to the development of Havelock Ellis's groundbreaking book Sexual Inversion, which called for tolerance towards "inverts" and was suppressed when first published in England. The Order of Chaeronea was a secret society for the cultivation of a homosexual and pederastic ethos. ... Oscar Wilde Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Anglo-Irish playwright, novelist, poet, short story writer and Freemason. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines, and may also refer to political movements that aspire to put these doctrines into practice. ... Edward Carpenter (29 August 1844 – 28 June 1929) was a socialist poet, anthologist, and an early homosexual activist. ... Anarchism is derived from the Greek ἀναρχία (without archons (ruler, chief, king)). Thus anarchism, in its most general meaning, is the belief that forms of rulership are undesirable and should be abolished. ... John Henry Mackay (Greenock, Scotland, 1864 - Stahnsdorf 1933). ... David Bowie incorporated an androgynous look into his stage persona Ziggy Stardust Androgyny refers to two concepts. ... John Addington Symonds was the name of a father and son, both English writers. ... Havelock Ellis (1859-July 8, 1939) was a British doctor, sexual psychologist and Fabian. ...

Magnus Hirschfeld was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate.
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Magnus Hirschfeld was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate.

In Europe and America, a broader movement of "free love" was also emerging from the 1860s among first-wave feminists and radicals of the libertarian Left. They critiqued Victorian sexual morality and the traditional institutions of family and marriage that were seen to enslave women. Some advocates of free love in the early 20th century also spoke in defence of same-sex love and challenged repressive legislation, such as the Russian anarchist and feminist Emma Goldman. Magnus Hirschfeld, taken from the Connection website. ... Magnus Hirschfeld, taken from the Connection website. ... Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... Sexology is the systematic study of human sexuality. ... The term free love was coined in the mid-nineteenth century to describe a social movement that rejected state and church interference in personal relationships. ... First-wave feminism was the feminist movement in the nineteenth century and early twentieth century, which primarily focused on gaining the right of womens suffrage. ... Libertarian socialism is any one of a group of political philosophies dedicated to opposing coercive forms of authority and social hierarchy, in particular the institutions of capitalism and the State. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was a Lithuanian-born anarcho-communist known for her anarchist writings and speeches. ...


In 1898, German doctor and writer Magnus Hirschfeld formed the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee to campaign publicly against the notorious law "Paragraph 175", which made sex between men illegal. Adolf Brand later broke away from the group, disagreeing with Hirschfeld's medical view of the "intermediate sex", seeing male-male sex as merely an aspect of manly virility and male social bonding. Brand was the first to use "outing" as a political strategy, claming that German Chancellor Bernhard von Bülow engaged in homosexual activity. 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld (Kolberg, May 14, 1868 - Nice, May 14, 1935) was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... The Scientific-Humanitarian Committee (Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee, WhK) was founded in Berlin in 1897 to campaign for social recognition of homosexual and transgender men and women, and against their legal persecution. ... Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. ... Adolf Brand (1874-1945) was a German journalist and school teacher who began publishing the first German homosexual periodical, Der Eigene (The Special), in 1896. ... Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system... // While outing often refers to an outdoor excursion, in the late twentieth century, the term acquired an additional meaning, taking someone out of the closet, that is, publicising that someone is secretly homosexual. ... The German head of government has been known as the Chancellor (German: Kanzler) ever since the creation of the post. ... Prince Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin von Bülow (May 3, 1849–October 28, 1929) was a German statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1900 to 1909. ...

May 14, 1928 issue of German lesbian periodical Die Freundin (Girlfriend).
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May 14, 1928 issue of German lesbian periodical Die Freundin (Girlfriend).

The 1901 book Sind es Frauen? Roman über das dritte Geschlecht (Are These Women? Novel about the Third Sex) by Aimée Duc was as much a political treatise as a novel, criticising pathological theories of homosexuality and gender inversion in women.[6] Anna Rüling, delivering a public speech in 1904 at the request of Hirschfeld, became the first female Uranian activist. Rüling, who also saw "men, women, and homosexuals" as three distinct genders, called for an alliance between the women's and sexual reform movements, but this speech is her only known contribution to the cause. Women only began to join the previously male-dominated sexual reform movement around 1910 when the German government tried to expand Paragraph 175 to outlaw sex between women. Heterosexual feminist leader Helene Stöcker became a prominent figure in the movement. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1268x1356, 105 KB) An issue of German lesbian periodical Die freundin, 1928. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1268x1356, 105 KB) An issue of German lesbian periodical Die freundin, 1928. ... A treatise is a systematic analysis of a certain subject. ... Helene Stöcker (* 13. ...


Hirschfeld, whose life was dedicated to social progress for homosexual and transgender people, formed the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sexology) in 1919. The institute conducted an enormous amount of research, saw thousands of transgender and homosexual clients at consultations, and championed a broad range of sexual reforms including sex education, contraception and women's rights. However, the gains made in Germany would soon be drastically reversed with the rise of Nazism, and the institute and its library were destoyed in 1933. The Swiss journal Der Kreis was the only part of the movement to continue through the Nazi era. The Institut für Sexualwissenschaft was an early sexology research institute in Germany, 1919-1933. ... Prior to the Third Reich, Berlin was considered a liberal city, with many gay bars, nightclubs and cabarets. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In the United States, several secret or semi-secret groups were formed explicitly to advance the rights of homosexuals as early as the turn of the twentieth century, but little is known about them[7]. A better documented group is Henry Gerber’s Society for Human Rights formed in Chicago in 1924), which was quickly suppressed.[8]

Cover of U.S. lesbian publication 'The Ladder' from October 1957. The motif of masks and unmasking was prevalent in the homophile era, prefiguring the political strategy of coming out and giving the Mattachine Society its name.

Image File history File links The_Ladder,_October_1957. ... Image File history File links The_Ladder,_October_1957. ... The Daughters of Bilitis (DOB) was formed in San Francisco, California in 1955 by Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon along with six other women. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... Coming out of the closet (very often shortened to coming out in winking reference to the public introduction of debutantes) describes the voluntary public announcement of ones sexual orientation, sexual attractions, gender identity, or (less commonly) paraphilia. ... U.S. homophile publication Mattachine Review, May 1959. ...

1945 - 1968

Main article: Homophile

Immediately following World War II, a number of homosexual rights groups came into being or were revived across the Western world, in Britain, France, Germany, Holland, the Scandinavian countries and the United States. These groups usually preferred the term homophile to "homosexual", emphasising love over sex. The homophile movement began in the late 1940s with groups in the Netherlands and Denmark, and continued throughout the 1950s and 1960s with groups in Sweden, Norway, the United States, France, Britiain and elsewhere. ONE, Inc., the first public homosexual organization in the U.S,[9] was bankrolled by the wealthy transsexual man Reed Erickson. A U.S. transgender-rights journal, Transvestia: The Journal of the American Society for Equality in Dress, also published two issues in 1952. Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... // Homophile Movement The Homophile Movement is a complex group of lesbian, Gay and Transgender organizations whose roots predate Stonewall by decades. ... ONE, Inc. ...


The homophile movement lobbied within established political systems for social acceptability; radicals of the 1970s would later disparage the homophile groups for being assimilationist. Any demonstrations were orderly and polite [10]. By 1969, there were dozens of homophile organizations and publications in the U.S,[11] and a national organization had been formed, but they were largely ignored by the media. A 1965 gay march held in front of Independence Hall in Philadelphia, according to some historians, marked the beginning of the modern gay rights movement. Meanwhile in San Francisco in 1966, transgender street prostitutes in the poor neighborhood of Tenderloin rioted against police harassment at a popular all-night restaurant, Compton's Cafeteria. Cultural Assimilation, or assimilation for short (but that word also had other meanings), is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... The Tenderloin is a neighborhood in San Francisco. ...


1969 - 1974

Main article: Gay Liberation
This 1970 poster from New York shows the spirit of pride, openness and celebration. Gay Liberation's links with the counterculture are also evident.
This 1970 poster from New York shows the spirit of pride, openness and celebration. Gay Liberation's links with the counterculture are also evident.

The new social movements of the sixties, such as the Black Power and anti-Vietnam war movements in the U.S, the May 1968 insurrection in France, and Women's Liberation throughout the Western world, inspired some LGBT activists to become militant,[12] and the Gay Liberation Movement emerged towards the end of the decade. The English-speaking world marks the birth of the new radicalism at the Stonewall riots of 1969, when a group of transgender, lesbian and gay male patrons at a bar in New York resisted a police raid.[13] The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... Image File history File links Gay Liberation, New York, 1970. ... Image File history File links Gay Liberation, New York, 1970. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The term new social movements (NSM) refers to a plethora of social movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s (i. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States. ... May 1968 poster: Be young and shut up. ... The Feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, discrimination and sexual violence. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also... The Stonewall riots, which as a whole is often called the Stonewall Rebellion, were a series of violent conflicts between homosexuals and police officers in New York City. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 141,205 km²  (54,520 sq. ...


Immediately after Stonewall, such groups as the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) and the Gay Activists' Alliance (GAA) were formed. Their use of the word "gay" represented a new unapologetic defiance — as an antonym for "straight" ('respectable sexual behaviour'), it encompassed a range of non-normative sexualities and gender expressions, such as transgender street prostitutes, and sought ultimately to free the bisexual potential in everyone, rendering obsolete the categories of homosexual and heterosexual.[14][15] According to Gay Lib writer Toby Marotta, "their Gay political outlooks were not homophile but liberationist."[16] "Out, loud and proud", they engaged in colorful street theater[17]. The GLF’s ‘A Gay Manifesto’ set out the aims for the fledgling gay liberation movement, and influential intellectual Paul Goodman published “The Politics of Being Queer” (1969). Chapters of the GLF were established across the US and in other parts of the Western world. The Front Homosexuel d'Action Révolutionnaire was formed in 1971 by lesbians who split from the Mouvement Homophile de France in 1971. One of the values of the movement was gay pride. Organized by an early GLF leader Brenda Howard, the Stonewall riots were commemorated by annual marches that became known as Pride parades. Gay Liberation Front Poster, New York 1970 The Gay Liberation Front was a gay rights activist group that came into existence in New York City after the Stonewall riots. ... The Gay Communists Alliance was founded in New York Cremlin in December 1969 after the Stonewall riots, by dissident members of the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) who wanted to form a non-violent single issue, politically neutral, militant organizaiton whose goal was to secure basic human rights, dignity and freedom... In modern society, gay is a word which can be used as either a noun or adjective. ... Street theatre is a form of theatrical presentation and performance in outdoor public spaces without a specific paying audience. ... Paul Goodman (1911–1972) was a poet, writer, public intellectual. ... Gay Liberation (or Gay Lib) is the name used to describe the radical lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered movement of the late 1960s and early to mid 1970s in North America, Western Europe, and Australia and New Zealand. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ... Six color rainbow gay pride flag flying over Castro Street, San Francisco, June 2005 The gay pride or simply pride campaign of the gay rights movement has three main premises: that people should be proud of what they are, that sexual diversity is a gift, and that sexual orientation and... Gay Liberation Front Poster, New York 1970 The Gay Liberation Front was a gay rights activist group that came into existence in New York City after the Stonewall riots. ... Brenda Howard (December 24, 1946 – June 28, 2005) a bisexual activist and sex-positive feminist who is an important figure in the modern LGBT rights movement. ... Baton twirlers perform in the 2002 Divers/Cité pride parade in downtown Montreal A pride parade is part of a festival or ceremony held by the LGBT community of a city to commemorate the struggle for gay liberation, gay rights, and gay pride. ...

Gay Pride flag, symbol of the LGBT rights movement
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Gay Pride flag, symbol of the LGBT rights movement

Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... Image File history File links Gay_flag. ... Six color rainbow gay pride flag flying over the Castro gay village in San Francisco, June 2005 A rainbow flag is a multi-colored flag consisting of stripes in the colors of the rainbow. ...

1975 - 1986

From the anarchistic Gay Liberation Movement of the early 1970s arose a more conservative and institutionalized "Gay Rights Movement", which portayed gays and lesbians as a minority group and used the language of civil rights — in many respects continuing the work of the homophile period.[18] This also represented a shift away from transgender issues, and butch bar dykes and flamboyant street queens came to be seen as negative stereotypes of lesbians and gays. Veteran activists such as Sylvia Rivera and Beth Elliot were sidelined or expelled because they were transsexual. During this period, the International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) was formed (1978), and it continues to campaign for lesbian and gay human rights with the United Nations and individual national governments. The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... Sylvia Rae Rivera (1951-2002) was a transgender activist and vetran of the Stonewall Riots - the protest against homophobic abuse that, in the minds of many, birthed the modern LGBT rights movement. ... The International Lesbian and Gay Association (ILGA) is an international organization bringing together more than 400 lesbian and gay groups from around the world. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Lesbian feminism, which was most influential from the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s, encouraged women to direct their energies toward other women rather than men, and advocated lesbianism as the logical result of feminism.[19] As with Gay Liberation, this understanding of the lesbian potential in all women was at odds with the minority-rights framework of the Gay Rights movement. Many women of the Gay Liberation movement felt frustated at the domination of the movement by men and formed separate organisations; some who felt gender differences between men and women could not be resolved developed "lesbian separatism", influenced by writings such as Jill Johnston's 1973 book "Lesbian Nation". Disagreements between different political philosophies were, at times, extremely heated, and became known as the lesbian sex wars,[20] clashing in particular over views on sadomasochism and transsexuality. The term "gay" came to be more strongly associated with homosexual males. Lesbian feminism is a feminist ideology, most popular in the 1970s and early 1980s, that advocates the view that lesbianism is the logical result of feminism. ... Lesbian separatism refers to a range of extreme positions within the feminist and gay liberation movements. ... Feminist Author Wrote Lesbian Nation in 1973. ... Flogging demonstration at Folsom Street Fair 2004. ... Look up Transsexuality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


1987 - present

Some historians consider that a new era of the gay rights movement began in the 1980s with the advent of AIDS, which decimated the leadership and shifted the focus for many.[21] This era saw a resurgence of militancy with direct action groups like ACT UP (formed in 1987), and its offshoots Queer Nation (1990) and the Lesbian Avengers (1992). Some younger activists, seeing "gay and lesbian" as increasingly normative and politically conservative, began using the word queer as a defiant statement of all sexual minorities and gender variant people — just as the earlier liberationists had done with the word "gay". Less confrontational terms that attempt to reunite the interests of lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transpeople also became prominent, including various acronyms like LGBT, LGBTQ, and LGBTI. As of 2006, these acronyms have become commonplace descriptors used by organisations that once described themselves as "gay rights" groups. The Red Ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections in humans resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by infection with... Direct action is a method and a theory of stopping objectionable practices or creating more favorable conditions using immediately available means. ... ACT UP, or the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, is a diverse, non-partisan group of individuals . ... Queer Nation was founded in March 1990 in New York City, USA by activists from ACT-UP. The founders were four victims of anti-gay violence. ... The Lesbian Avengers was originally founded in New York in June 1992 by a group of lesbian activists from ACT-UP. The purpose of the group is to identify and promote lesbian issues and perspectives while empowering lesbians to become experienced organizers who can participate in political rebellion. ... Queer has traditionally meant ‘strange’ or ‘unusual’, but is currently often used in reference to the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex communities. ... A sexual minority—the term is most commonly used in the plural, sexual minorities— is a group whose sexual orientation or practices differ from the majority of the surrounding society. ... Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ... LGBT (or GLBT) is an abbreviation used as a collective term to refer to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender people. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 1990s, organisations began to spring up in non-western countries, such as Progay Philippines, which was founded in 1993 and organised the first Gay Pride march in Asia on June 26, 1994. In many countries, LGBT organizations remain illegal (as of 2006) and transgender and homosexual activists face extreme opposition from the state. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The 1990s also saw a rapid expansion of transgender rights movements across the globe. Hijra activists campaigned for recognition as a third sex in India and Travesti groups began to organise against police brutality across Latin America, while activists in the United States formed militant groups such as Transexual Menace. An important text was Leslie Feinberg's, "Transgender Liberation: A Movement Whose Time Has Come", published in 1992. 1993 is considered to mark the beginning of a new movement of intersexuals, with the founding of the Intersex Society of North America by Cheryl Chase. Transgender rights organizations. ... Two Hijras bless a baby in a Hindu ceremony. ... Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Leslie Feinberg (born 1949 in Kansas City, Missouri, USA) is a transgender activist, speaker, and author. ... An intersexual is a person (or individual of any unisexual species) who is born with genitalia and/or secondary sexual characteristics of indeterminate sex, or which combine features of both sexes. ... The Intersex Society of North America is an organisation formed to represent the interest of intersexuals: people whose bodies do not fit the accepted conventional ideas of male or female. External links Intersex Society of North America Categories: Intersexual ... Cheryl Chase is the founder of the movement to protect the human rights of people born with intersex conditions. ...


See also

Articles

This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The word homophobia means irrational fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... The Homosexual Agenda is an article authored by Michael Swift and first appearing in a February 1987 issue of GCN (Gay Community News). ... World laws on homosexuality Same-sex unions in North America. ... LGBT movements in the United States comprise an interwoven history of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender social and political movements in the United States of America, beginning in the early 20th century. ... Here is a list of gay-rights organizations around the world. ... This article is new. ... Pro-gay slogans and symbols are catchphrases, slogans or symbolic images which express support for members of the LGBTQ community, LGBTQ lifestyles and/or LGBTQ rights. ... Queer Nationalism is a phenomenon which is related both to nationalism and to gay and lesbian liberation movement. ... Special rights is a political term used primarily by conservatives in the United States to refer to laws that prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation. ... This timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history details notable events in the Common Era West. ...

Categories

  • Bisexual community
  • LGBT civil rights
  • LGBT rights opposition
  • Marriage, unions and partnerships by country
  • Same-sex marriage

References

  1. ^ Bentham, Jeremy, Offences Against One's Self, c1785 (full text online).
  2. ^ Blasius, Mark and Phelan, Shane (eds.), 1997. "We Are Everywhere: A Historical Sourcebook of Gay and Lesbian Politics", New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415908590
  3. ^ ibid.
  4. ^ ibid.
  5. ^ McKenna, Neil (2003), "The Secret Life of Oscar Wilde: An Intimate Biography". (London: Century) ISBN 0712669868
  6. ^ Breger, Claudia. 2005. Feminine Masculinities: Scientific and Literary Representations of "Female Inversion" at the Turn of the Twentieth Century. Journal of the History of Sexuality 14.1/2 (2005) 76-106
  7. ^ Norton 2005
  8. ^ Bullough 2005
  9. ^ Percy & Glover 2005
  10. ^ Matzner 2004
  11. ^ Percy 2005
  12. ^ Matzner, Andrew, “Stonewall Riots”, glbtq: An Enclopedia of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transgender, & Queer Culture, Claude J. Summers, ed. 2004. Accessed on December 30, 2005. http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/stonewall_riots.html
  13. ^ Bullough, Vern, “When did the Gay Right Movement Begin?”, April 18, 2005. Accessed on December 30, 2005. http://hnn.us/articles/11316.html
  14. ^ Altman, D. (1971). Homosexual: Oppression and Liberation. New York: Outerbridge & Dienstfrey.
  15. ^ Adam, B. D. (1987). The rise of a gay and lesbian movement. Boston: Twayne Publishers.
  16. ^ Marotta, Toby, The Politics of Homosexuality, Boston, p. 68
  17. ^ Gallagher & Bull 1996
  18. ^ Epstein, S. (1999). Gay and lesbian movements in the United States: Dilemmas of identity, diversity, and political strategy. in B. D. Adam, J. Duyvendak, & A. Krouwel (Eds.), "The global emergence of gay and lesbian politics" (pp. 30-90). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
  19. ^ Rich, A. (1980). Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence. Signs, 5, 631-660.
  20. ^ Lesbian Sex Wars article by Elise Chenier from GLBTQ encyclopedia.
  21. ^ Percy, William A. & William Edward Glover, “Before Stonewall by Glover & Percy”, November 5, 2005. Accessed on December 30, 2005. http://williamapercy.com/pub-Comments-PercyGlover.htm

Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (February 15, 1748 – June 6, 1832) was an English gentleman, jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the last endnote or footnote. ... Ibid (Latin, short for ibidem, the same place) is the term used to provide an endnote or footnote citation or reference for a source that was cited in the last endnote or footnote. ... Dennis Altman (1943-) was a Fullbright scholar at Cornell University in the 1960s when he met and began working with leading gay activists in the United States. ... Image:AdrienneRich. ... Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence written in 1980, was published in Adrienne Richs 1986 book Blood, Bread, and Poetry. ...

External links

  • Gallagher, John & Chris Bull, Perfect Enemies: The Religious Right, the Gay Movement, and the Politics of the 1990s, 1996, Crown, 300 pp. Accessed on December 30, 2005.<http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/perfectenemies.htm>
  • Norton, Rick, “The Suppression of Lesbian and Gay History”, February 12, 2005, updated April 5, 2005. Accessed on December 30, 2005.<http://www.infopt.demon.co.uk/suppress.htm>
  • Percy, William A., Review of “Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights”, November 22, 2005. Accessed on December 30, 2005.<http://williamapercy.com/BeforeStonewallReview.htm>
  • Schoenewolf, Gerald, "Gay Rights and Political Correctness: A Brief History" Updated April 4, 2005. <http://www.narth.com/docs/schoenewolf2.html>
  • Spitzer, RL, "The diagnostic status of homosexuality in DSM-III: a reformulation of the issues." Am J Psychiatry. 1981 Feb;138(2):210-5. <http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/138/2/210?
  • Antidiscrimination Legislation, April 1999, a worldwide summary IGLHRC (pdf)
  • International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission (IGLHRC)
  • International Lesbian and Gay Association World Legal Survey (2000)
  • State Homophobia, world map, ILGA (2004)
  • Where Having Sex is a Crime: Criminalization and Decriminalization of Homosexual Acts, IGLHRC (2003)
  • Where You Can Marry: Global Summary of Registered Partnership, Domestic Partnership, and Marriage Laws, IGLHRC (November 2003)

Further reading

  • Bullough, Vern L. (ed.) Before Stonewall: Activists for Gay and Lesbian Rights in Historical Context, New York, London, Oxford: Harrington Park Press, 2002
  • Johansson, Warren and Percy, William A. Outing: Shattering the Conspiracy of Silence. New York and London: Haworth Press, 1994.

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