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Encyclopedia > L. Ron Hubbard
Lafayette Ronald Hubbard

L. Ron Hubbard
Born March 13, 1911(1911-03-13)
Tilden, Nebraska
Died January 24, 1986 (aged 74)
San Luis Obispo County, California
Nationality American
Occupation Speculative fiction Author
Founder, Scientology
Salary Unknown
Net worth > $200,000,000 in 1982[1]
Spouse Margaret "Polly" Grubb
Sara Northrup (unlawful)
Mary Sue Whipp
Children 7
Website
lronhubbard.org

Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911January 24, 1986) was the founder of the Church of Scientology, as well as the author of Dianetics and the body of works comprising Scientology doctrine.[2] He was also an author in numerous speculative fiction genres for the pulp magazines[3] and, later in life, returned to science fiction.[4][5][6] L. Ron Hubbard This work is copyrighted. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Tilden is a city located in Nebraska. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... San Luis Obispo County is a county located on the central Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, between Los Angeles and the Bay Area. ... Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Margaret Polly Grubb (b. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Sara Northrup was the second wife of L. Ron Hubbard, from 1946-1951. ... Mary Sue Hubbard (born Mary Sue Whipp) (17 June 1931–25 November 2002 [1]) was the third wife of science fiction writer and Church of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard and often regarded as the first lady of Scientology. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... Speculative fiction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... This article is about inexpensive fiction magazines. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...


Hubbard was a highly controversial public figure during his lifetime. Many details presented by Hubbard of his life and knowledge remain disputed by critics, media[7], scientists, and even governments[8]. Official Scientology biographies present him as "larger than life, attracted to people, liked by people, dynamic, charismatic and immensely capable in two dozen fields".[9][10] In contrast, unofficial biographies (some by former Scientologists) as well as some reports in the press paint a much less flattering picture which often contradicts official Church accounts.[11][12]

Contents

Parents and early life

L. Ron Hubbard was born in 1911 in Tilden, Nebraska to Ledora May Hubbard (née Waterbury) and Harry Ross Hubbard. Harry Hubbard had been born Henry August Wilson in Fayette, Iowa, but had been orphaned as an infant and adopted by the Hubbards, a farming family from Fredericksburg, Iowa; and so the founder of the Roycrofters -- Elbert Hubbard, a Rosicrucian and the author of A Message to Garcia -- would become L. Ron Hubbard's uncle.[13] Harry Hubbard had joined the United States Navy in 1904, leaving the service in 1908. Harry Hubbard re-enlisted in 1917 when the United States declared war on Germany, and served in the Navy until 1946, reaching the rank of Lieutenant Commander in 1934.[14] Ledora was a feminist who had trained to become a high school teacher and married Harry in 1909. Tilden is a city located in Nebraska. ... Fayette is a city located in Fayette County, Iowa. ... For other uses, see Orphan (disambiguation). ... Fredericksburg is a city located in Chickasaw County, Iowa. ... Roycroft was a reformist community of craft workers and artists which formed part of the Arts and Crafts movement in the USA. Elbert Hubbard founded the community in 1895 in the village of East Aurora, Erie County, New York, near Buffalo. ... Elbert Green Hubbard, American philosopher and writer Elbert Hubbard illustrated in the frontispiece of The Mintage Elbert Green Hubbard (June 19, 1856 – May 7, 1915) was an American writer and publisher. ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... A Message to Garcia is an inspirational essay written by Elbert Hubbard that has been made into two motion pictures. ... USN redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...


The Hubbards moved first to Kalispell, Montana and then to Helena, the state capital. Church biographies have stated that during this period L. Ron Hubbard became the protegé of "Old Tom, a Blackfoot Indian medicine man ... [who] passe[d] on much of the tribal lore to his young friend" and that at the age of four, L. Ron Hubbard was "honored with the status of blood brother of the Blackfeet in a ceremony that is still recalled by tribal elders."[15] Hubbard's interest in the Blackfeet took literary form in his 1937 novel, Buckskin Brigades, a "novel of one man's courageous struggle to save the Blackfoot Nation from destruction by the Northwestern fur traders".[16] In 1985, Scientologists claimed that members of Blackfeet Nation, Montana, commemorated "the seventieth anniversary of [L. Ron Hubbard] becoming a blood brother of the Blackfeet Nation. Tree Manyfeathers in a ceremony re-established L. Ron Hubbard as a blood brother to the Blackfeet Tribe."[17] Contemporary records do not record the existence of "Old Tom". The white Blackfeet historian Hugh Dempsey has commented that the act of blood brotherhood was "never done among the Blackfeet", and Blackfeet Nation officials have disavowed attempts to "re-establish" Hubbard as a "blood brother" of the Blackfeet. Former vice president of the tribe's executive committee, John Yellow Kidney has also said of the letter claiming to re-establish Hubbard as a blood brother, "You should not give [the document] very much credibility, I don't."[17] Kalispell is a city in Flathead County, Montana, USA. The population was 14,223 at the 2000 census. ... Nickname: Location in Lewis and Clark County, Montana Coordinates: , Country State County Lewis and Clark Founded October 30, 1864 Government  - Mayor James E. Smith Area  - Total 14. ... For other uses, see Blackfoot (disambiguation). ... The Norwegian warrior Orvar-Odd bids a last farewell to his blood brother, the Swedish warrior Hjalmar, by MÃ¥rten Eskil Winge (1866). ...


Harry's naval career led to the family moving several more times, first to San Diego, then to Oakland, California followed by Puget Sound, Washington, and finally to Washington, D.C.. During this period L. Ron Hubbard joined the Boy Scouts of America and eventually became an Eagle Scout. Church biographies routinely state that he was "the nation's youngest Eagle Scout[18], a statement that is based on a March 25, 1930 article appearing in the Washington Evening Star.[19] and Hubbard's Boy Scout Diary of March 25, 1924.[14] According to the Boy Scouts of America, their documents at the time were only kept in alphabetical order with no reference to their ages and thus there was no way of telling who was the youngest.[14] Flag Seal Nickname: Americas Finest City Location Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates , Government County San Diego Mayor City Attorney         City Council District One District Two District Three District Four District Five District Six District Seven District Eight Jerry Sanders (R) Michael Aguirre Scott Peters Kevin... Oakland redirects here. ... Puget Sound For the university in this region, see University of Puget Sound. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ... An Eagle Scout is a Scout with the highest rank attainable in the Boy Scouting program of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Star was a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was first published by Captain Joseph Borrows Tate as The Daily Evening Star on December 16, 1852. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ...


Between 1927 and 1929, Hubbard traveled twice to the Far East to visit his parents during his father's posting to the United States Navy base on Guam. Church biographies published from the 1950s to the 1970s stated that with "the financial support of his wealthy grandfather" Hubbard journeyed throughout Asia, "studying with holy men" in northern China, India, and Tibet.[20][21] Hubbard said that on several occasions he visited India.[22] However, the Church of Scientology's current official account makes no mention of India or Tibet,[23] and according to Jon Atack "a flight change at Calcutta airport in 1959 seems to have been his only direct contact with the land of Vedantic philosophy."[12] This article is about the Asian regions. ... USN redirects here. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Jonathan Caven-Atack, generally known as Jon Atack, is a British artist and writer. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... The Vedas are part of the Hindu Shruti; these religious scriptures form part of the core of the Brahminical and Vedic traditions within Hinduism and are the inspirational, metaphysical and mythological foundation for later Vedanta, Yoga, Tantra and even Bhakti forms of Hinduism. ...


Hubbard sometimes displayed attitudes that were at odds with the picture his followers try to present of him. For instance, during his visit to China at the age of seventeen, he made diary entries such as: "As a Chinaman can not live up to a thing, he always drags it down."[14] and "They smell of all the baths they didnt [sic] take. The trouble with China is, there are too many chinks here."[14][24] Similarly, Hubbard described the Tibetan Buddhist temples as "miserably cold and very shabby . . . The people worshiping have voices like bull-frogs and beat a drum and play a brass horn to accompany their singing (?)"[14] and called them "very odd and heathenish".[7] He also wrote about colored people in Scientology: Fundamentals of Thought : "Unlike the yellow and brown people, the white does not usually believe he can get attention from matter or objects. The yellow and brown believe for the most part ... that rocks, trees, walls, etc., can give them attention"[25] and "...so we see the African tribesman, with his complete contempt for the truth, and his emphasis on brutality and savagery... ."[26] In the 2007 edition of the book, "African" is replaced by "primitive" in the above passage. Hubbard expressed support for creating townships in South Africa: "Having viewed slum clearance projects in most major cities of the world may I state that you have conceived and created in the Johannesburg townships what is probably the most impressive and adequate resettlement activity in existence."[27] A wrist spin ball bowled by a left handed bowler in cricket. ... For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word meaning thus, so, as such, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized—[sic]—to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been reproduced... Look up chink in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the term used for people of African descent in North America. ... Children in a township near Cape Town in 1989 In South Africa, the term township usually refers to the (often underdeveloped) urban residential areas that, under Apartheid, were reserved for non-whites (principally black Africans and Coloureds, who were put into separate townships or locations) who lived near or worked...


While such attitudes might not be especially surprising for a white teenager born in 1911, they are vastly at odds with the stories he would later tell and his followers would repeat:

Among other wonders, Ron told of watching monks meditate for weeks on end, contemplating higher truths ... he took advantage of this unique opportunity to study Far Eastern culture. ... he befriended and learned ... a thoroughly insightful Beijing magician who represented the last of the line of Chinese magicians from the court of Kublai Khan. ... Old Mayo was also well versed in China’s ancient wisdom that had been handed down from generation to generation. Ron passed many evenings in the company of such wise men, eagerly absorbing their words ... he closely examined the surrounding culture. In addition to the local Tartar tribes, he spent time with nomadic bandits originally from Mongolia ... [t]hese sojourns in Asia and the Pacific islands had a profound effect, giving Ron a subjective understanding of Eastern philosophy ... the world itself was his classroom, and he studied in it voraciously, recording what he saw and learned in his ever-present diaries, which he carefully preserved for future reference.[28][29]

Hubbard said that he was made a lama priest himself by Old Mayo the Beijing magician.[7] Hubbard's "ever-present diaries" were evidence in the Armstrong trial; they make no mention of Old Mayo or nomad bandits and no reflection on Eastern philosophy.[12] For other uses, see Kublai Khan (disambiguation). ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... , (specific case citations below), is the name of a lengthy series of law suits and other legal actions, primarily in the California state courts, arising from Gerald Armstrongs departure from the Church of Scientology (the COS). The COS argued that Armstrong, a former COS employee, improperly took private papers...


While in Guam,[30] Hubbard was befriended by Commander Joseph "Snake" Thompson (1874-1943), who had recently returned from Vienna and studies with Sigmund Freud, and was stationed as a member of the Naval Medical Corps.[30] Through the course of their friendship, the commander spent many afternoons teaching Ron about the human mind.[18] Thompson is an important figure in official Church accounts of Hubbard's life and was referred to in many of Hubbard's works in support of Hubbard's assertions of possessing expertise in Freudian psychoanalysis.[31] Joseph Cressman Snake Thompson, M. D., (1874-1943) was a career medical officer in the United States Navy and attained the rank of commander before retirement in 1929. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ...


Education

After studies at Swavely Preparatory School in Manassas, Virginia, and graduating from Woodward School for Boys in 1930, Hubbard enrolled at The George Washington University in September of 1930, where he began studying a major in civil engineering. There he became one of eight assistant editors of the University newspaper "The University Hatchet"[32][33] and was a member of several of the university's clubs and societies, including the Twentieth Marine Corps Reserve and the George Washington College Company.[34] His grades were poor, and university records show that he attended for only two semesters after which he was placed on academic probation "for deficiency in scholarship" in September of 1931, leaving the university without a degree and "entitled to a statement of honorable dismissal." Manassas redirects here. ... The George Washington University (GW) is a private, coeducational university located in Washington, D.C., United States. ... The Petronas Twin Towers, designed by Thornton-Tomasetti and Ranhill Bersekutu Sdn Bhd engineers, and Cesar Pelli, were the worlds tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004. ... Academic probation is a condition in school, usually at a college or university, where a student will be monitored closely for changes in grades. ...


Observers have questioned assertions that Hubbard and the Church of Scientology later made about his study at The George Washington University. In the preface for his 1951 book Science of Survival, Hubbard thanks "my instructors in atomic and molecular phenomena, mathematics and the humanities at George Washington University and at Princeton" (Hubbard attended a four-month course in military government at the Naval Training School, located at Princeton during the Second World War).[14] According to the Church's official account, It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dianetics. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...

Here he studies engineering and atomic and molecular physics and embarks upon a personal search for answers to the human dilemma. His first experiment concerning the structure and function of the mind is carried out while at the university.[35]

One of his classes was indeed among the nation's first schools offering curriculum in molecular and atomic physics, however he failed the course. Critics[36] and government reports[37] cite his poor performance when evaluating claims to have been a "nuclear physicist". The Church denies that he ever made that claim,[38][7] however Hubbard asserted expertise in dealing with the problems posed by the effects of radiation exposure on the human body in the book "All About Radiation" (co-authored by Hubbard in 1957).[39] The radiation warning symbol (trifolium). ... Physical Features of the Human Body The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ...


After leaving George Washington University, Hubbard worked as a writer and aviator.[40][41] In June 1932 Hubbard headed the "Caribbean Motion Picture Expedition", a two-and-a-half-month, 5,000-mile (8,000 km) voyage aboard a chartered 200-foot (61 m), four-masted schooner called "Doris Hamlin" with over fifty fellow college students. Its purpose was to collect floral and reptilian specimens for the University of Michigan and to film recreations of pirate activity and haunts. The voyage was a disappointment, with only three of the sixteen planned ports of call visited. Hubbard later called it "a two-bit expedition and a financial bust".[12][35]


Hubbard's first wife was Margaret "Polly" Grubb whom he married in 1933, and fathered two children; L. Ron, Jr., known as Ronald DeWolf, (1934 – 1991) and Katherine May (born in 1936). They lived in Los Angeles, California and, during the late 1930s, in Bremerton, Washington. In a 1983 interview for Penthouse magazine that he later retracted, DeWolf said, "according to him and my mother", he was the result of a failed abortion and recalls at six years old seeing his father performing an abortion on his mother with a coat hanger. In the same interview, he said "Scientology is a power-and-money-and-intelligence-gathering game" and described his father as "only interested in money, sex, booze, and drugs."[42] Later, in a sworn affidavit, DeWolf stated that he had "weaved" stories about his father's harassment of others, that the charge he had made about drugs was false, and that the Penthouse story was an example of statements that he deeply regretted and that had caused his father and himself much pain.[43] Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Margaret Polly Grubb (b. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Ronald Edward DeWolf (May 7, 1934 - September 16, 1991), born Lafayette Ron Hubbard, Jr. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Sinclair Inlet and Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (left), Dyes Inlet (middle distance) and Manette and Warren Avenue Bridges (left to right) across Port Washington Narrows Bremerton is a city in Kitsap County, Washington, USA. The population was 37,259 at the 2000 census. ... Penthouse, a mens magazine founded by Bob Guccione, combines urban lifestyle articles and soft-core pornographic pictorials that, in the 1990s, evolved into hardcore. ...


Hubbard was accepted as a member of the Explorers Club on 19 February 1940.[44] In December of that year Hubbard was licensed by the United States Department of Commerce to legally operate steam and motor vessels. The Explorers Club is international organzation formed by the survivors of Frederick Cooks 1894 Arctic expedition. ... The United States Department of Commerce is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. ...


In 1961 Hubbard carried the Explorers Club flag for his 'Ocean Archaeological Expedition' and in 1966 was awarded custody of the Explorers Club flag for the 'Hubbard Geological Survey Expedition'.[45]


Early fiction career

Hubbard published stories, novellas in aviation, sports, pulp magazines and even a screenplay "The Secret of Treasure Island".[34][46][3] Literature critics have cited Final Blackout, set in a war-ravaged future Europe, and Fear, a psychological horror story, as the best examples of Hubbard's pulp fiction.[47] Among his published stories were Sea Fangs, The Carnival of Death, Man-Killers of the Air, and The Squad that Never Came Back; using pseudonyms like Rene Lafayette, Legionnaire 148, Lieutenant Scott Morgan, Morgan de Wolf, Michael de Wolf, Michael Keith, Kurt von Rachen, Captain Charles Gordon, Legionnaire 14830, Elron, Bernard Hubbel, Captain B.A. Northrup, Joe Blitz and Winchester Remington Colt.[12] He became a well-known author in the science fiction and fantasy genres; he also published westerns and adventure stories. His agent was well known science fiction agent and guru Forrest Ackerman. This article is about inexpensive fiction magazines. ... The Secret of Treasure Island (1938) is a Columbia movie serial based on the novel Murder at Pirate Castle. ... Winchester Model 1894 The Winchester rifle has become synonymous with the word repeating rifle (multishot rifle) which was manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company and was commonly used in the United States during the latter half of the 19th century. ... Remington Arms is a major American manufacturer of rifles, shotguns, other firearms, revolvers and ammunition. ... For other uses, see CMC. Colts Manufacturing Company (CMC--formerly Colts Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company) is a United States firearms manufacturer founded in 1847. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other definitions of fantasy see fantasy (psychology). ... Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... Forrest J Ackerman (born November 24, 1916 in Los Angeles, California) is a legendary science fiction fan and collector of science fiction-related memorabilia. ...


Hubbard's metafiction novel Typewriter in the Sky, published in 1940 in two installments in John W. Campbell's Unknown magazine, provides an amusing insight into the New York writing scene within which Hubbard worked. The novel is centered around a character named Horace Hackett, who is a hyper-productive, multi-genre hack writer desperately trying to finish his latest potboiler to an ever-approaching deadline while (unknown to him) his friend Mike de Wolf is trapped inside the potboiler's action. Two of Horace's author friends, in Hubbard's novel, are named Winchester Remington Colt and Rene Lafayette after Hubbard's own pseudonyms. Look up metafiction in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Sinister Barrier by Eric Frank Russell Unknown (also known as Unknown Worlds) was a pulp fantasy magazine, edited by John W. Campbell, that was published from 1939 to 1943. ... Hack writer is a colloquial, usually pejorative, term used to refer to a writer who is paid to write low-quality, quickly put-together articles or books to order, often with a short deadline. ... A potboiler is an artistic work (writing, picture, musical composition, play, film, but usually something written), created only to make money quickly or to maintain a steady income for the artist, thus implying that artistic values were subordinate to saleability. ...


World War II

Main article: L. Ron Hubbard and the military

From the summer of 1941 to late 1945, during World War II, Hubbard served in the United States Navy. Based on the representations of his experience overseas and as a writer,[48] he was able to skip the initial officer rank of Ensign and was commissioned a Lieutenant, Junior Grade for service in the Office of Naval Intelligence. He was unsuccessful there, and after some difficulty with other assignments found himself in charge of a 173-foot (53 m) submarine chaser.[49] In May 1943, while taking the USS PC-815 on her shakedown cruise to San Diego, Hubbard attacked what he believed to be two enemy submarines, ten miles (16 km) off the coast of Oregon. The "battle" took two days and involved at least four other US vessels plus two blimps, summoned for reinforcements and resupply.[14] After reviewing instrument data, battle reports, interviews with the various captains and taking into account the fact that Japanese submarines didn't regularly operate there, Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, Commander Northwest Sea Frontier concluded; "An analysis of all reports convinces me that there was no submarine in the area. ... The Commanding Officers of all ships except the PC-815 state they had no evidence of a submarine and do not think a submarine was in the area."[50][14] In June 1943, Hubbard was relieved of command after anchoring PC-815 off the Coronado Islands, which is Mexican territory. He further erred by conducting gunnery practice there. An official complaint from Mexican authorities, coupled with his failure to return to base as ordered, led to a Board of Investigation. It determined that Hubbard had disregarded orders, admonished him by letter to include in his records and transferred him to other duties. Having been the third leadership position lost in his tenure, the following assignment was one where he was not given command authority.[14] His service ended with an honorable discharge after resigning his commission in 1950. In all he had one promotion and six decorations to show for his service, however he would claim to have accomplished much more than that in the decades which followed. It would also come out that he was relieved of command twice, and was also the subject of negative reports from his superiors on several occasions.[14][12][7] L. Ron Hubbard, creator of Dianetics and founder of Scientology, served in at least two branches of the United States Armed Forces. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ensign is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. ... LTJG insignia. ... The Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) was established in the United States Navy in 1882. ... USS PC-815 was a PC-416 class subchaser assigned to the United States Navys Pacific Fleet during World War II. Commissioned in Portland, Oregon on April 20, 1943, Lieutenant (J.G.) Lafayette Ronald Hubbard in command, she served as a shore patrol vessel off the west coast of... Shakedown cruise is a nautical term in which the performance of a ship is tested. ... Vice Admiral Frank Jack Fletcher, USN Photographed on board ship, 17 September 1942. ... Islas Coronado. The Coronado Islands are a group of four islands off the northwest coast of the Mexican state of Baja California. ...


Post war activities

Hubbard's post war writing career: Cover of October, 1950 edition of Fantastic Adventures featuring Hubbard's "The Masters of Sleep".
Hubbard's post war writing career: Cover of October, 1950 edition of Fantastic Adventures featuring Hubbard's "The Masters of Sleep".

After the war, Hubbard met Jack Parsons, an aeronautics professor at Caltech and an associate of the British occultist Aleister Crowley.[51] Hubbard and Parsons were allegedly engaged in the practice of ritual magick in 1946, including an extended set of sex magic rituals called the Babalon Working, intended to summon a goddess or "moonchild." The Church says Hubbard was working as an ONI agent on a mission to end Parsons' supposed magical activities and to "rescue" a girl Parsons was "using" for supposedly magical purposes. In a 1952 lecture series, Hubbard recommended a book of Crowley's and referred to him as "Mad Old Boy"[52][53] and as "my very good friend".[54] Hubbard later married the girl he said that he rescued from Parsons, Sara Northrup.[55] Hubbard also described Parsons as his friend in his Scientology lectures rather than a person he was investigating. Crowley recorded in his notes that he considered Hubbard a "lout" who made off with Parsons' money and girlfriend in an "ordinary confidence trick."[14][12] Image File history File links MastersOfSleep. ... Image File history File links MastersOfSleep. ... Fantastic Adventures was a fantasy and science fiction magazine published in the United States from 1939 to 1953. ... Jack Parsons on the cover of his book Freedom is a two-edged sword John Jack Whiteside Parsons (October 2, 1914 – June 17, 1952), (born Marvel Whiteside Parsons), was an American rocket propulsion researcher at the California Institute of Technology and co-founder of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and... California Institute of Technology The California Institute of Technology (commonly known as Caltech) is a private, coeducational university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... For other uses of this term, see occult (disambiguation). ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947, pronounced ) was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, philosopher, poet, and yogi. ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ... The Babalon Working was a series of magickal ceremonies or rituals commenced on March 2, 1946 by Jack Parsons, essentially designed to manifest an individual incarnation of the archetypal divine feminine called Babalon , as well as to catalyze the reification of that force as it exists latently in every man... Oni may refer to: Oni (Japanese folklore) (鬼) are the demons and ogres of Japanese folklore. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Sara Northrup was the second wife of L. Ron Hubbard, from 1946-1951. ...


Sara Northrup became Hubbard's second wife in August 1946.[56] It was an act of bigamy, as Hubbard had abandoned, but not divorced, his first wife and children as soon as he left the Navy (he divorced his first wife more than a year after he had remarried).[12] Both women allege Hubbard physically abused them. He is also alleged to have once kidnapped Sara's infant, Alexis, taking her to Cuba. Later, he disowned Alexis, claiming he was not her father and that she was actually Jack Parsons' child.[57] Sara filed for divorce in late 1950, citing that Hubbard was, unknown to her, still legally bound to his first wife at the time of their marriage. Her divorce papers also accused Hubbard of kidnapping their baby daughter Alexis, and of conducting "systematic torture, beatings, strangulations and scientific torture experiments."[58][59] Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Sara Northrup was the second wife of L. Ron Hubbard, from 1946-1951. ... Polygamy, literally many marriages in ancient Greek, is a marital practice in which a person has more than one spouse simultaneously (as opposed to monogamy where each person has a maximum of one spouse at any one time). ... Domestic disturbance redirects here. ... Jack Parsons on the cover of his book Freedom is a two-edged sword John Jack Whiteside Parsons (October 2, 1914 – June 17, 1952), (born Marvel Whiteside Parsons), was an American rocket propulsion researcher at the California Institute of Technology and co-founder of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and...


Hubbard returned to writing fiction briefly for a few years, his best-remembered work from this period being the Ole Doc Methuselah series for Campbell's Astounding Science Fiction magazine. It was in the pages of this magazine that the first article on Dianetics appeared; while some fiction works appeared after that (including "Masters of Sleep," which promotes Dianetics and features as a villain "a mad psychiatrist, Doctor Dyhard, who persists in rejecting Dianetics after all his abler colleagues have accepted it [and] believes in prefrontal lobotomies for everyone")[60][61] most of Hubbard's output thereafter was related to Dianetics or Scientology. During Hubbard's transition from science fiction to Dianetics, his story The Professor was a Thief was adapted and aired on the Dimension X radio show, whose writers form a sort of who's-who of luminaries in the golden age of science fiction: Isaac Asimov, Ray Bradbury, Clifford D. Simak, Robert A. Heinlein and Fletcher Pratt, but also newer lights such as Kurt Vonnegut and Robert Bloch. Several of Hubbard's associates during this period have recalled that he made comments about starting a religion to make money rather than writing fiction.[62] Hubbard did not make a major return to non-Dianetics fiction until the 1980s. Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... Dimension X was an old-time radio program broadcast April 1950 to September 1951 on NBC. Dimension X was the first notable adult science fiction series on radio, preceded only by the short-lived Two Thousand Plus, scattered episodes of anthology dramas, and juvenile fare, such as Flash Gordon. ... The Golden Age of Science Fiction, often recognized as a period from the late 1930s or early 1940s through the 1950s, was an era during which the science fiction genre gained wide public attention and many classic science fiction stories were published. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ... Clifford Donald Simak ( August 3, 1904 - April 25, 1988) was an American science fiction author. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... Murray Fletcher Pratt (1897–1956) was a science fiction and fantasy writer; he was also well-known as a writer on naval history and on the American Civil War. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Robert Albert Bloch (April 5, 1917, Chicago-September 23, 1994, Los Angeles) was a prolific American writer. ...


Dianetics

Introducing Dianetics: Cover of May, 1950 edition of Astounding Science Fiction featuring "Dianetics: a new science of the mind".
Introducing Dianetics: Cover of May, 1950 edition of Astounding Science Fiction featuring "Dianetics: a new science of the mind".
Main article: Dianetics

Beginning in late 1949, Hubbard sought to publicize Dianetics, the self-improvement technique. Unable to elicit interest from mainstream publishers or medical professionals,[63] Hubbard turned to the legendary science fiction editor John W. Campbell, who had for years published Hubbard's science fiction. The first article on Dianetics was published in Astounding Science Fiction. The science fiction community was divided about the merits of Hubbard's offering. Campbell's star author Isaac Asimov criticized Dianetics' unscientific aspects, and veteran author Jack Williamson described Dianetics as "a lunatic revision of Freudian psychology" that "had the look of a wonderfully rewarding scam." But Campbell and novelist A. E. van Vogt enthusiastically embraced Dianetics: Campbell became Hubbard's treasurer, and van Vogt—convinced his wife's health had been transformed for the better by auditing—interrupted his writing career to run the first Los Angeles Dianetics center.[14] Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... Though the term self-help can refer to any case whereby an individual or a group betters themselves economically, intellectually or emotionally, the connotations of the phrase have come to apply particularly to psychological or psychotherapeutic nostrums, often purveyed through the popular genre of the self-help book. ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Astounding Stories was a seminal science fiction magazine founded in 1930. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... John Stewart Williamson (April 29, 1908 – November 10, 2006), who wrote as Jack Williamson (and occasionally under the pseudonym Will Stewart) was a U.S. writer considered by many the Dean of Science Fiction. [1] // Williamson spent his early childhood in western Texas. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26, 1912 – January 26, 2000) was a Canadian-born science fiction author who was one of the most prolific, yet complex, writers of the mid-twentieth century Golden Age of the genre. ... Auditing is a procedure that was originated by author L. Ron Hubbard as the central practice of Dianetics and further refined by him as he developed Scientology. ...


In April 1950, Hubbard and several others established the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in Elizabeth, New Jersey to coordinate work related for the forthcoming publication of a book on Dianetics. The book, entitled Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, was published in May 1950 by Hermitage House, whose head was also on the Board of Directors of the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation.[12] With Dianetics, Hubbard introduced the concept of "auditing," a two-person question-and-answer therapy that focused on painful memories. According to Hubbard, dianetic auditing could eliminate emotional problems, cure physical illnesses, and increase intelligence. In his introduction to Dianetics, Hubbard declared that "the creation of dianetics is a milestone for man comparable to his discovery of fire and superior to his inventions of the wheel and arch." Union County Court House Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. ... Auditing is a procedure that was originated by author L. Ron Hubbard as the central practice of Dianetics and further refined by him as he developed Scientology. ...


Dianetics sold 150,000 copies within a year of publication.[12] Upon becoming more widely available, Dianetics became an object of critical scrutiny by the press and the medical establishment. In September 1950, The New York Times published a cautionary statement on the topic by the American Psychological Association that read in part, "the association calls attention to the fact that these claims are not supported by empirical evidence," and went on to recommend against use of "the techniques peculiar to Dianetics" until such time it had been validated by scientific testing. Consumer Reports, in an August 1951 assessment of Dianetics,[64] dryly noted "one looks in vain in Dianetics for the modesty usually associated with announcement of a medical or scientific discovery," and stated that the book had become "the basis for a new cult." The article observed "in a study of L. Ron Hubbard's text, one is impressed from the very beginning by a tendency to generalization and authoritative declarations unsupported by evidence or facts." Consumer Reports warned its readers against the "possibility of serious harm resulting from the abuse of intimacies and confidences associated with the relationship between auditor and patient," an especially serious risk, they concluded, "in a cult without professional traditions." The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. It has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. ... Consumer Reports is an American magazine published monthly by Consumers Union. ...


The Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation was incorporated in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Branch offices were opened in five other US cities before the end of 1950 (though most folded within a year). Hubbard soon abandoned the Foundation, denouncing a number of his former associates as communists to the FBI.[65][66] Union County Court House Elizabeth is a city in Union County, New Jersey, in the United States. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ...


Scientology

Main article: Scientology

In March of 1952, Hubbard moved to Phoenix, Arizona. Hubbard started the Scientology religion while he was living in Phoenix.[67] Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ...


In mid-1952, Hubbard expanded Dianetics into an "applied religious philosophy" which he called Scientology. That year, Hubbard also married his third wife, Mary Sue Whipp, to whom he remained married until his death (though separated by the early 70s, when Mary Sue was incarcerated for her involvement in Operation Snow White). With Mary Sue, Hubbard fathered four more children—Diana, Quentin, Suzette and Arthur—over the next six years. Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... Mary Sue Hubbard (born Mary Sue Whipp) (17 June 1931–25 November 2002 [1]) was the third wife of American pulp fiction author [1][2] and Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard. ... Grand Jury Charges, Introduction, United States of America v. ... Geoffrey Quentin McCaully Hubbard was the son of L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of the Church of Scientology. ...


Quentin Hubbard, born in 1954, was groomed to one day replace him as head of the Scientology organization.[12] Quentin was uninterested in his father's plans and had preferred to become a pilot. He was also deeply depressed, allegedly because he was homosexual.[68] Quentin attempted suicide in 1974, then in 1976 died under circumstances that might have been suicide or murder.[69][70][71] Geoffrey Quentin McCaully Hubbard was the son of L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of the Church of Scientology. ...


On February 10, 1953 Hubbard was awarded an honorary Ph.D. by Sequoia University, California, "in recognition of his outstanding work and contributions in the fields of Dianetics and Scientology."[72] (This non-accredited body was closed by the California state courts 30 years later[73] after it was investigated by California authorities on the grounds of being a mail-order "degree mill."[74]) In December of that year, Hubbard declared Scientology a religion and the first Church of Scientology was founded in Camden, New Jersey. He moved to England at about the same time, and during the remainder of the 1950s he supervised the growing organization from an office in London. In 1959, he bought Saint Hill Manor near the Sussex town of East Grinstead, a Georgian manor house owned by the Maharajah of Jaipur. This became the world headquarters of Scientology. Hubbard says he conducted years of intensive research into the nature of human existence; to describe his findings, he developed an elaborate vocabulary with many newly coined terms.[75] He codified a set of Scientology axioms and an "applied religious philosophy" that promised to improve the condition of the human spirit, which he called the "Thetan."[76] The bulk of Scientology focuses on the "rehabilitation" of the thetan. Honoris causa (plural: Causae) is a Latin term meaning for the sake of honor, abbreviated as . ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... Sequoia University is perhaps best known as the University which L. Ron Hubbards official Church of Scientology biographies list as his alma mater for his Ph. ... A diploma mill (also known as a degree mill) is an organization which awards academic degrees and diplomas with little or no academic study, and without recognition by official bodies. ... The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. ... The City of Camden is the county seat of Camden County, New Jersey in the United States. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Saint Hill, near East Grinstead, Sussex, was for many years the head office of the Church of Scientology and remains the head office for the United Kingdom. ... Sussex as a traditional county. ... , East Grinstead (archaically spelt Grimstead[1]) is a town and civil parish in the northeastern corner of Mid Sussex, West Sussex in England near the East Sussex, Surrey, and Kent borders. ... 1. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर), also popularly known as the pink city, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy In Scientology, the concept of thetan (pronounced THAY-tan) is similar to the concept of spirit or soul found in other belief systems. ...


Hubbard's followers believed his "technology" gave them access to their past lives, the traumas of which led to failures in the present unless they were audited. By this time, Hubbard had introduced a biofeedback device to the auditing process, which he called a "Hubbard Electropsychometer" or "E-meter." It was invented in the 1940s by a chiropractor and Dianetics enthusiast named Volney Mathison. This machine is used by Scientologists in auditing to evaluate "mental masses" surrounding the thetan. These "masses" are said to impede the thetan from realizing its full potential. Mark Super VII Quantum E-meter An E-meter is an electronic device manufactured by the Church of Scientology at their Gold Base production facility. ... Chiropractic treatment uses manipulative therapy to correct subluxation, which has been shown to have some efficacy in treating back and neck pain, headache, and other symptoms of spinal-related conditions. ... Volney Mathisons Secret Power of the Crystal Pendulum, published in 1954. ...


Hubbard also said a good deal of physical disease was psychosomatic, and one who, like himself, had attained the enlightened state of "clear" and become an "Operating Thetan" would be relatively disease free. It is widely believed[citation needed] that achieving an Operating Thetan Level of III or higher enables the person to utilize a limited form of flight, although this has never been confirmed by Hubbard or anyone who has achieved that level. According to biographers, Hubbard went to great lengths to suppress his recourse to modern medicine, attributing symptoms to attacks by malicious forces, both spiritual and earthly. Hubbard insisted humanity was imperiled by such forces, which were the result of negative memories (or "engrams") stored in the unconscious or "reactive" mind, some carried by the immortal thetans for billions of years. Thus, Hubbard asserts, the only possibility for spiritual salvation was a concerted effort to "clear the planet," that is, to bring the benefits of Scientology to all people everywhere, and attack all forces, social and spiritual, hostile to the interests of the movement. A psychosomatic illness is one with physical manifestations and supposed psychological cause, often diagnosed when any known or identifiable physical cause was excluded by medical examination. ... In Scientology, the state of Operating Thetan (OT) is a spiritual state above Clear. ...


Church members were expected to pay fixed donation rates for courses, auditing, books and E-meters, all of which proved very lucrative for the Church, which paid emoluments directly to Hubbard and his family.[12] In a case fought by the Founding Church of Scientology of Washington, D.C. over its tax-exempt status (revoked in 1958 because of these emoluments) the findings of fact in the case included that Hubbard had personally received over $108,000 from the Church and affiliates over a four-year period, over and above the percentage of gross income (usually 10%) he received from Church-affiliated organizations.[77] However, Hubbard denied such emoluments many times in writing, proclaiming he never received any money from the Church.[12] Gross income is commonly defined as the amount of a companys or a persons income before all deductions or any taxpayer’s income, except that which is specifically excluded by the Internal Revenue Code, before taking deductions or taxes into account. ...


L. Ron Hubbard's philosophy, Scientology, and the Church of Scientology that he founded are controversial. Some documents written by Hubbard himself suggest he regarded Scientology as a business, not a religion. In one letter dated April 10, 1953, he says calling Scientology a religion solves "a problem of practical business," and status as a religion achieves something "more equitable...with what we've got to sell." In a 1962 official policy letter, he said "Scientology 1970 is being planned on a religious organization basis throughout the world. This will not upset in any way the usual activities of any organization. It is entirely a matter for accountants and solicitors."[78] The allegation from his 1940s colleagues that he saw religion as a way to become rich has cast further doubt on his motives.[62]


According to The Visual Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, ed. Brian Ash, Harmony Books, 1977: "... [Hubbard] began making statements to the effect that any writer who really wished to make money should stop writing and develop [a] religion, or devise a new psychiatric method. Harlan Ellison's version (Time Out, UK, No 332) is that Hubbard is reputed to have told John W. Campbell, 'I'm going to invent a religion that's going to make me a fortune. I'm tired of writing for a penny a word.' Sam Moskowitz, a chronicler of science fiction, has reported that he himself heard Hubbard make a similar statement, but there is no first-hand evidence." Hubbard himself was also quoted as driving his people toward financial results. For example, in one of his bulletins to officials Hubbard implored: Harlan Jay Ellison (born May 27, 1934) is a prolific American writer of short stories, novellas, teleplays, essays, and criticism. ... Time-out can mean: sport time-out, a break in play that may be called by a side to formulate strategy or respond to an players injury. ... The cover of , volume 1, with a picture of Campbell drawn by Frank Kelly Freas John Wood Campbell, Jr. ... Sam Moskowitz (1920-1997) was an early fan and organizer of interest in science fiction and, later, a writer. ...

"Make money. Make more money. Make others produce so as to make money . . . However you get them in or why, just do it." and "Make sure that lots of bodies move through the shop,"

L. Ron Hubbard[79]

See also: Scientology controversy

This article examines controversial issues involving Scientology and its affiliated organizations. ...

Legal difficulties and life on the high seas

Scientology became a focus of controversy across the English-speaking world during the mid-1960s, with the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, the Australian state of Victoria and the Canadian province of Ontario all holding public inquiries into Scientology's activities.[80] Hubbard left this unwanted attention behind in 1966, when he moved to Rhodesia, following Ian Smith's Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Attempting to ingratiate himself with the white minority government, he offered to invest large sums in Rhodesia's economy, then hit by UN sanctions, but was asked to leave the country. In 1967, L. Ron Hubbard further distanced himself from the controversy attached to Scientology by resigning as executive director of the church and appointing himself "Commodore" of a small fleet of Scientologist-crewed ships that spent the next eight years cruising the Mediterranean Sea. Here, Hubbard formed the religious order known as the "Sea Organization" or "Sea Org," with titles and uniforms. The Sea Org subsequently became the management group within Hubbard's Scientology empire. This article examines controversial issues involving Scientology and its affiliated organizations. ... VIC redirects here. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... For other persons named Ian Smith, see Ian Smith (disambiguation). ... The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) of Rhodesia from the United Kingdom was signed on November 11, 1965 by the Smith administration, whose Rhodesian Front party[1] opposed black majority rule in the then British colony. ... Commodore is a military rank used in some navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a Captain, but is less than that of a Flag Officer. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The Sea Organization or Sea Org is an association of Scientologists established in 1968 by L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology. ...


He was attended by "Commodore's Messengers," teenage girls dressed in white hot pants who waited on him hand and foot, fixing his shower and dressing him and even catching the ash from his cigarettes.[12] He had frequent screaming tantrums and instituted brutal punishments such as incarceration in the ship's filthy chain-locker for days or weeks at a time and "overboarding," in which errant crew members were blindfolded, bound and thrown overboard, dropping up to 40 ft (12 m) into the cold sea,[12] hoping not to hit the side of the ship with its sharp barnacles on the way down.[12][81] Some of these punishments, such as imprisonment in the chain-locker, were applied to children as well as to adults.[12] A letter Hubbard wrote to his third wife, Mary Sue, when he was in Las Palmas around 1967: "I’m drinking lots of rum and popping pinks and greys..."[82] The author of an unauthorized Hubbard biography also says that "John McMasters told me that on the flagship Apollo in the late sixties he witnessed Hubbard's drug supply. 'It was the largest drug chest I had ever seen. He had everything!'".[82] This was confirmed by Gerry Armstrong through Virginia Downsborough who said in 1967 Hubbard returned to Las Palmas totally debilitated from drugs.[83] Shorts are a garment worn by both men and women over their pelvic area and the upper part of the upper legs or more, but not the entire length of the leg. ... Orders Ascothoracica Acrothoracica Thoracica Rhizocephala A barnacle is a type of arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea and is hence distantly related to crabs and lobsters. ...

We found him a hotel in Las Palmas and the next day I went back to see if he was all right, because he did not seem to be too well. When I went in to his room, there were drugs of all kinds everywhere. He seemed to be taking about sixty thousand different pills. I was appalled, particularly after listening to all his tirades against drugs and the medical profession. There was something very wrong with him... My main concern was to try and get him off all the pills he was on and persuade him that there was still plenty for him to do.

"He was existing almost totally on a diet of drugs. For three weeks Hubbard was bedridden, while she weaned him off his habit."[12] His drug use appears to pre-date the 1967 accounts.[84] A letter written by Hubbard to his ex-wife was given special attention in the Church of Scientology v. Armstrong case,

I do love you, even if I used to be an opium addict.

L. Ron Hubbard

In March of 1969, the Greek Government branded L. Ron Hubbard and his group of 200 disciples "undesirables". The group had been living aboard the 3,300 ton Panamanian ship Apollo and had been docked in the harbor of Corfu island since August. On March 18th, local authorities issued a 24-hour ultimatum to the scientologists, but Hubbard was granted an extension due to engine problems. The expulsion order was the result of mounting pressure from American, British, and Australian diplomats to examine the activities of the Apollo occupants. Most of the occupants were American, some were British, Australian, and South African.[85] This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ...


In 1977, Scientology offices on both coasts of the United States were raided by FBI agents seeking evidence of Operation Snow White, a church-run espionage network. Hubbard's wife Mary Sue and a dozen other senior Scientology officials were convicted in 1979 of conspiracy against the United States federal government, while Hubbard himself was named by federal prosecutors as an "unindicted co-conspirator."[86] At this time the IRS also had evidence that he had skimmed millions of dollars from church accounts and secreted the funds to destinations overseas.[87] Facing intense media interest and many subpoenas, he secretly retired to a ranch in tiny Creston, California, north of San Luis Obispo. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Grand Jury Charges, Introduction, United States of America v. ... Mary Sue Hubbard (born Mary Sue Whipp) (17 June 1931–25 November 2002 [1]) was the third wife of science fiction writer and Church of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard and often regarded as the first lady of Scientology. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... IRS is short for U.S. Internal Revenue Service short for Indian Revenue Service short for Independent rear suspension, used in automobiles. ... San Luis Obispo, San Luis, or SLO (Spanish for ) is a city in California. ...


In 1978, as part of a case against three French Scientologists, Hubbard was convicted of "making fraudulent promises" and given a four year prison sentence and a 35,000₣ fine by a French court.[88] Hubbard was not in the country at the time of the trial, and didn't retain legal assistance. The case was subsequently appealed by one of the other convicts in 1980. During this appeal, the court indicated that all those who had been convicted could be pardoned, if they filed their own appeals against the original ruling. A second defendant did in 1981, and the fraud charges were canceled by judgment on November 9, 1981. Hubbard himself never took any action, and the fine was never enforced.[89][90]


Hubbard's refusal to speak with British immigration officials about this conviction is said to have later caused the British Home Office to re-affirm an earlier decision to bar him from the UK.[91] In 1989 however the then Home Office Minister of State, Tim Renton, confirmed in writing that from 1980 until the date of his death, Hubbard had been free to apply for entry to the United Kingdom under the ordinary immigration rules and that any ban had been lifted on July 16, 1980.[92][93] The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... Ronald Timothy Renton, Baron Renton of Mount Harry, PC (b. ...


The accuracy of Hubbard's self-representations were challenged in court during a 1984 custody case of a Scientologist and his former wife about two of their children. The judgment of the High court of London (Family Division) quotes the single judge, Latey, that Scientology is "dangerous, immoral, sinister and corrupt" and "has its real objective money and power for Mr. Hubbard."[12] Her Majestys High Court of Justice (usually known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales (which under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, is to be known as the...


The 1965 Anderson Report, an inquiry on Hubbard and Scientology held in Australia, presented Hubbard as a man who made "pretentious and completely misleading pronouncements on scientific matters of which he is ignorant" based on knowledge that was "fragmentary and inaccurate and sometimes positively incorrect." In 1959, L. Ron Hubbard set up Scientologys headquarters at Saint Hill, England, a few miles from East Grinstead. ...

All that he writes and says is either accepted by his followers or, at the very least, it is not rejected. They are taught that they are entitled to question his pronouncements, but they are conditioned to the belief that whatever he says is right.[94]

A later finding in the report addresses his assertion of medical knowledge and ability by saying:

Hubbard's claims to have found the only known cure for atomic radiation effects is not only unsubstantiated, but, in view of its obvious military value, hardly likely to have been left uninvestigated by military authorities if it was of any value whatever.[8]

"Fair Game" was introduced by Hubbard as a policy against people or groups that "actively seeks to suppress or damage Scientology or a Scientologist by Suppressive Acts." He defined it as: ENEMY — SP Order. Fair game. May be deprived of property or injured by any means by any Scientologist without any discipline of the Scientologist. May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed.[95] Fair Game is a status assigned to those whom the Church of Scientology has officially declared to be Suppressive Persons or Suppressive Persons are those whose actions are deemed to suppress or damage Scientology or a Scientologist. ...


In July 1968, Hubbard revised this definition to a somewhat milder wording: ENEMY — Suppressive Person order. May not be communicated with by anyone except an Ethics Officer, Master at Arms, a Hearing Officer or a Board or Committee. May be restrained or imprisoned. May not be protected by any rules or laws of the group he sought to injure as he sought to destroy or bar fair practices for others. May not be trained or processed or admitted to any org.[96] The use of the expression "Fair Game" was canceled altogether in October 1968, with Hubbard stating that In Scientology, a formally condemned and shunned heretic or wrongdoer is labelled a Suppressive Person, often abbreviated SP. L. Ron Hubbard coined the term to refer to enemies of the Church of Scientology, whose suppressive acts are said to impede the progress of Scientology. ...

The practice of declaring people FAIR GAME will cease. FAIR GAME may not appear on any Ethics Order. It causes bad public relations. This P/L does not cancel any policy on the treatment or handling of an SP.

L. Ron Hubbard[97]

Hubbard later explained that:

There was never any attempt or intent on my part by the writing of these policies (or any others for that fact), to authorize illegal or harassment type acts against anyone. As soon as it became apparent to me that the concept of 'Fair Game' as described above was being misinterpreted by the uninformed, to mean the granting of a license to Scientologists for acts in violation of the law and/or other standards of decency, these policies were canceled."

L. Ron Hubbard[98]

While the number of incidents involving so-called dirty tricks or unethical actions dropped in the years that followed,[99] several judges and juries have through their decisions or comments asserted that the tactics continued beyond Hubbard's order canceling use of the term Fair Game in 1968.[100]


In the mid-1970s Hubbard decided to end his life at sea and covertly returned to the United States, living for a while in Florida.[12] This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Later life

During the 1980s Hubbard returned to science fiction, publishing Battlefield Earth and Mission Earth, both of which were very long works, the latter being published as a ten volume series. He also wrote an unpublished screenplay called Revolt in the Stars in 1977, which dramatizes Scientology's OT III teachings.[101] Hubbard's later science fiction sold well and received mixed reviews, but some press reports describe how sales of Hubbard's books were inflated by Scientologists purchasing large numbers of copies in order to manipulate the bestseller charts.[102][103] While claiming to be entirely divorced from the Scientology management, Hubbard continued to draw income from the Scientology enterprises; Forbes magazine estimated "at least $200 million gathered in Hubbard's name through 1982".[1] For the film of the same name, see Battlefield Earth (film). ... Cover of Mission Earth volume 1: The Invaders Plan Mission Earth is a ten-volume science fiction novel by L. Ron Hubbard, more famous as the founder of the Church of Scientology. ... Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ... For the website-checking software, see Xenus Link Sleuth. ... The year 1977 in film involved some significant events. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see Forbes (disambiguation). ...


Hubbard died at his ranch on January 24, 1986, aged 74, reportedly from a stroke.[104] Scientology attorneys arrived to claim his body, which they sought to have cremated immediately per his will. They were blocked by the San Luis Obispo County medical examiner, who ordered a drug toxicology test of a blood sample from Hubbard's corpse. The examination revealed a trace amount of the drug hydroxyzine (brand name Vistaril).[105][106][107] Vistaril is an antihistamine and mild sedative sometimes used for symptomatic treatment of anxiety, neurosis or as an adjunct in non-related diseases in which anxiety is apparent. It is also useful as an anti-emetic (to prevent nausea), and in treating allergic pruritus such as chronic urticaria and atopic and contact dermatoses.[108] After the blood was taken, Hubbard's remains were cremated. is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... San Luis Obispo County is a county located on the central Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, between Los Angeles and the Bay Area. ... A coroner is the presiding officer of a special court to investigate deaths that occur under unusual circumstances where conventional criminal proceedings are not immediately called for. ... Hydroxyzine (pronounced ) is a first-generation antihistamine, of the piperazine class that is an H1 receptor antagonist. ... We dont have an article called Vistaril Start this article Search for Vistaril in. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... Neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a catch all term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but, unlike a psychosis or some personality disorders, does not prevent or affect rational thought. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Itch (disambiguation). ... Eczema-a typical atopic manifestation Atopy (Greek ατοπία - placelessness) or atopic syndrome is an allergic hypersensitivity affecting parts of the body not in direct contact with the allergen. ... In medicine, a dermatosis is a generic term for disease of the skin. ...


The Church of Scientology announced Hubbard had deliberately discarded his body to do "higher level spiritual research," unencumbered by mortal confines, and was now living "on a planet a galaxy away."[109] In May 1987, David Miscavige, one of Hubbard's former personal assistants, assumed the position of Chairman of the Religious Technology Center (RTC), a corporation that owns the trademarked names and symbols of Dianetics and Scientology ("L. Ron Hubbard" is now a trademark of the RTC [110] [111] [112] [113] [114]). Although Religious Technology Center is a separate corporation from the Church of Scientology International, Miscavige is also the ecclesiastical leader of the religion.[115] Heber Jentzsch is the President of Church of Scientology International.[116] Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Scientology views and practices regarding sex are based on Church of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbards written works which make up the Standard Tech or core doctrine of the Church. ... David Miscavige (born April 30, 1960 in Philadelphia) is Chairman of the Board of Religious Technology Center (RTC), a corporation that controls the trademarked names and symbols of Dianetics and Scientology, and is the ultimate ecclesiastical authority regarding the standard and pure application of L. Ron Hubbard’s religious technologies. ... The Religious Technology Center (RTC) is a non-profit corporation established in 1982 by the Church of Scientology to control and oversee the uses of all of the trademarks, symbols and texts of Scientology and Dianetics, including the copyrighted works of the religions founder, L. Ron Hubbard. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Heber Carl Jentzsch (born 1935 to Carl Jentzsch and his third wife Pauline), has served as president of the Church of Scientology International since 1982. ...


Personality

Publicly, Hubbard was sociable and charming.[117] Privately, he wrote entries in his notebook like "All men are your slaves," and "You can be merciless whenever your will is crossed and you have the right to be merciless."[7] After a 1940 sailing trip that ended with engine trouble on his yacht, he began a three-month stay in Ketchikan, Alaska. Hubbard worked as the host of a popular maritime radio show where he was known as a "charismatic storyteller". He also incurred a debt from First National Bank in the amount of $350 which was not repaid.[118]. Hubbard was also apparently interested in and talented at hypnosis.[7][118] In a 1948 demonstration for a gathering of science fiction buffs in Los Angeles, Hubbard successfully convinced one person he was cradling a baby kangaroo.[7] Ketchikan (IPA: ) is the fifth most populous city in the U.S. state of Alaska and the southeasternnmost sizable city in that state. ... For other uses, see Hypnotized (song). ...


But during this same period, Hubbard was financially destitute,[7] and suffered from feelings of depression as well as suicidal thoughts, according to a letter he wrote in 1947 requesting assistance from Veterans Affairs.[119] The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a government-run military veteran benefit system with Cabinet-level status. ...

Toward the end of my (military) service, I avoided out of pride any mental examinations, hoping that time would balance a mind which I had every reason to suppose was seriously affected....I cannot account for nor rise above long periods of moroseness and suicidal inclinations, and have newly come to realize that I must first triumph above this before I can hope to rehabilitate myself at all.

L. Ron Hubbard[7]

Hubbard was prone to self-aggrandizement and exaggeration,[118] and in 1938, he wrote a letter to then-wife Margaret "Polly" Grubb reading, "I have high hopes of smashing my name into history so violently that it will take a legendary form, even if all the books are destroyed. That goal is the real goal as far as I am concerned."[7] In 1984, during the Church of Scientology's lawsuit against Gerry Armstrong, Judge Paul G. Breckenridge Jr. described Hubbard as "charismatic and highly capable of motivating, organizing, controlling, manipulating and inspiring his adherents." However, the judge ruled against the Church, and in so doing said, "The evidence portrays a man who has been virtually a pathological liar when it comes to his history, background and achievements."[7]


Hubbard was regarded as abusive by some family members and former associates. He married his second wife, Sara Northrup, on August 10, 1946, without revealing his existing marriage and children.[7][58] This was one reason for her later divorce from Hubbard. During those legal proceedings, Northrup alleged abuse by Hubbard, and produced a letter she received from Margaret "Polly" Grubb during the proceedings recounting her treatment by him.[7] It reads, in part,

Ron is not normal... I had hoped you could straighten him out. Your charges probably sound fantastic to the average person – but I've been through it – the beatings, threats on my life, all the sadistic traits which you charge – 12 years of it.[7]

And several of those trusted to be near him say Hubbard was prone to emotional fits when he became upset, using insults and obscenities. Former Scientologist Adelle Hartwell once described such an outburst: "I actually saw him take his hat off one day and stomp on it and cry like a baby."[7]


But the financial windfall that came with the success of Scientology allowed Hubbard to hide this and other aspects of his personality that contrasted with the image of himself currently celebrated by Scientologists,[7] who regard Hubbard as "mankind's greatest friend".[120] The few who worked at his side saw personality flaws and quirks not reflected in the staged photographs or in Hubbard's church-produced biographies.[7]


Writing career

Hubbard was an unusually prolific author and lecturer. Because the majority of Hubbard's writings of the 1950s through to the 1970s were aimed exclusively at Scientologists, the Church of Scientology founded its own companies to publish his works - Bridge Publications for the US and Canadian market and New Era Publications, based in Denmark, for the rest of the world. New volumes of his transcribed lectures continue to be produced; that series alone will ultimately total a projected 110 large volumes. Hubbard also wrote a number of works of fiction during the 1930s and 1980s, which are published by the Scientology-owned Galaxy Press. All three of these publishing companies are subordinate to Author Services Inc., another Scientology corporation. This is an incomplete bibliography of Scientology and Scientology-related books produced within the Church of Scientology and its related organizations. ... Bridge Publications, Inc. ... New Era Publications, Copenhagen Bridge Publications, Inc. ... Galaxy Press is a company set up to publish and promote the fiction works of L. Ron Hubbard, and the anthologies of the L. Ron Hubbard Writers of the Future contest. ... Author Services Inc. ...


Hubbard was awarded the 1994 Ig Nobel Prize in Literature (a parody of the Nobel -- the name derives from the word "ignoble") for "his crackling Good Book, Dianetics, which is highly profitable to mankind—or to a portion thereof."[121] Flying frog. ...


In 2006, Guinness World Records declared Hubbard the world's most published and most translated author, having published 1,084 fiction and non-fiction works that have been translated into 71 languages.[122][123] Guinness World Records 2008 edition. ...


A selection of Hubbard's best-known titles are below; a bibliography of Hubbard's more popular work is available in a separate article.


Fiction

  • Buckskin Brigades (1937), ISBN 0-88404-280-4
  • Final Blackout (1940), ISBN 0-88404-340-1
  • Fear (1951), ISBN 0-88404-599-4
  • Typewriter in the Sky (1951), ISBN 0-88404-933-7
  • Ole Doc Methuselah (1953), ISBN 0-88404-653-2
  • Battlefield Earth (1982), ISBN 0-312-06978-2
  • Mission Earth (1985-87), 10 vols.

Fear is a Horror novel by L. Ron Hubbard. ... For the film of the same name, see Battlefield Earth (film). ... Cover of Mission Earth volume 1: The Invaders Plan Mission Earth is a ten-volume science fiction novel by L. Ron Hubbard, more famous as the founder of the Church of Scientology. ...

Scientology and Dianetics

  • Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health, New York 1950, ISBN 0-88404-416-5
  • Child Dianetics. Dianetic Processing for Children, Wichita, Kansas 1951, ISBN 0-88404-421-1
  • Notes on the Lectures Parts of transcripts and notes from a series of lectures given in Los Angeles, California in November 1950, ISBN 088404-422-X
  • Scientology 8-8008, Phoenix, Arizona 1952, ISBN 0-88404-428-9
  • Dianetics 55!, Phoenix, Arizona 1954, ISBN 0-88404-417-3
  • Dianetics: The Evolution of a Science Phoenix, Arizona 1955, ISBN 1-4031-0538-3
  • Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought Washington, DC 1956, ISBN 0-88404-503-X
  • The Problems of Work Washington, DC 1956, ISBN 0-88404-377-0
  • Have You Lived Before This Life East Grinstead, Sussex 1960, ISBN 0-88404-447-5
  • Scientology: A New Slant on Life, East Grinstead, Sussex 1965, ISBN 1-57318-037-8
  • The Volunteer Minister's Handbook Los Angeles 1976, ISBN 0-88404-039-9
  • Research and Discovery Series, a chronological series collecting Hubbard's lectures. Vol 1, Copenhagen 1980, ISBN 0-88404-073-9
  • The Way to Happiness, Los Angeles 1981, ISBN 0-88404-411-4

Dianetics: The Evolution of a Science by L. Ron Hubbard is the original article published in Astounding Science Fiction (May 1950) that introduced Dianetics to the world. ... Have You Lived Before This Life is a Scientology / Dianetics book published by L. Ron Hubbard in 1960. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Way to Happiness is a 1980 booklet written by Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard listing 21 moral precepts, and distributed by The Way to Happiness Foundation International, a Scientology-related non-profit organization founded in 1984. ...

Fictionalized depictions in media

  • Hubbard turns up in a fellow pulp author's fiction as early as Anthony Boucher's 1942 murder mystery Rocket to the Morgue which features cameos by members and friends of the "Mañana Literary Society of Southern California" in which Hubbard makes a dual appearance as D. Vance Wimpole and Rene Lafayette (a pen name of Hubbard).[51]

Fictional versions of L. Ron Hubbard have appeared in countless novels, motion pictures, television cartoons, video games and other media, particularly in the form of parodies. (See Scientology in popular culture.) Anthony Boucher (August 21, 1911 - April 29, 1968) [1] was an American science fiction editor and writer of mystery novels and short stories. ... Sherlock Holmes, pipe-puffing hero of crime fiction, confers with his colleague Dr. Watson; together these characters popularized the genre. ... Del Close (March 9, 1934–March 4, 1999), along with Keith Johnstone and Viola Spolin, is considered one of the premier influences on modern improvisational theater. ... Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... Autobiographical comics (often referred to in the comics field as simply autobio) are autobiography in the form of comic books or comic strips. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hypnotized (song). ... Past Lives redirects here. ... Have You Lived Before This Life is a Scientology / Dianetics book published by L. Ron Hubbard in 1960. ... This article is about the TV series. ... “Trapped in the Closet” is the twelfth episode of the ninth season of the Comedy Central series South Park. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The following lists specific Scientology references in popular culture. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Behar, Richard. "The prophet and profits of Scientology", Forbes 400, Forbes, 1986-10-27. "Altogether, FORBES can total up at least $200 million gathered in Hubbard's name through 1982. There may well have been much more." 
  2. ^ Hubbard Bibliography, University of Marburg, Germany
  3. ^ a b Twilight of the pulps. Church of Scientology International. Retrieved on 2006-07-26.
  4. ^ Battlefield Earth L. Ron Hubbard science-fiction book, home page
  5. ^ L. Ron Hubbard Fiction books
  6. ^ Summary Bibliography on fiction books
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Sappell, Joel; Welkos, Robert W.. "The Mind Behind The Religion", Los Angeles Times, 1990-06-24, p. A1:1. Retrieved on 2006-07-30. 
  8. ^ a b [1] 1965 Anderson Report evaluation of Hubbard as a physician
  9. ^ He was larger than life, attracted to people, liked by people, dynamic, charismatic and immensely capable in two dozen fields. from www.scientology.org biography.
  10. ^ L. Ron Hubbard Site (accessed 4/15/06)
  11. ^ Corydon, Bent L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman (free online version) also by Barricade Books; revised edition (25 July, 1992) ISBN 0-942637-57-7
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Atack, Jon (1990). A Piece of Blue Sky. New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8184-0499-X. 
  13. ^ Lewis, H. Spencer Rosicrucian Manual, p. 133, The Rosicrucian Press Ltd. 1978 ISBN 10: 0912057009
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Miller, Russell. Bare-faced messiah: The true story of L. Ron Hubbard (1987) ISBN 0-7181-2764-1
  15. ^ L. Ron Hubbard - A Chronicle - 1911-1917. Church of Scientology. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  16. ^ L. Ron Hubbard, Buckskin Brigades, 1937 republished 1977, ISBN 0-91797201-5
  17. ^ a b Joel Sappell; Robert W. Welkos (1990-06-24). Staking a Claim to Blood Brotherhood. The Scientology Story A38:5. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  18. ^ a b L. Ron Hubbard - A Chronicle - 1918-1921. Church of Scientology. Retrieved on 2007-05-12.
  19. ^ "Oratory Contest Winners in six schools chosen - Victor at Woodward is Ronald Hubbard", Washington Evening Star, March 25, 1930. . Excerpt: "Ronald Hubbard, 19 years old, at one time the youngest Eagle Scout in America, was the winner of the contest at the Woodward School for Boys..."
  20. ^ "L. Ron Hubbard," Certainty, vol. 3 no. 2, Hubbard Association of Scientologists International, 1956
  21. ^ "L. Ron Hubbard - Explorer of Two Realms", in Hubbard, Mission into Time, Advanced Organization Saint Hill Denmark, 1973
  22. ^ See inter alia Hubbard, "Case Analysis - Rock Hunting - Q&A Period", lecture of 4 August 1958: "I got over to Asia and India..."; Hubbard, "Universes," lecture of 6 April 1954: "But in the interim [as a boy] I was in India..."; Hubbard, "Mechanics of the Mind," lecture of 10 January 1953: "I struggled along in north China, India and was back in the States and then back out there again."
  23. ^ L. Ron Hubbard - A Chronicle - 1926-1929. Accessed 28 Jan 2007
  24. ^ The problem with Chinamen, 17-year old L. Ron Hubbard, Journal entries in 1928
  25. ^ Hubbard, L. Ron, Scientology: Fundamentals of Thought. Copenhagen: New Era Publications, 1997. ISBN 1900944979, p. 24
  26. ^ Hubbard, L. Ron, Scientology: Fundamentals of Thought. Copenhagen: New Era Publications, 1997. ISBN 1900944979, p. 77
  27. ^ L. Ron Hubbard in a letter to Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd dated November 7, 1960, in reference to the "Promotion of Black Self-Government Act" of (1958), reprinted in K.T.C. Kotzé, Inquiry Into the Effects and Practices of Scientology, p. 59, Pretoria 1973; online copy of the Kotzé report available as html and PDF
  28. ^ Compiled by staff of the Church of Scientology International (1998). What is Scientology?, 1998, Los Angeles, California: Bridge Publications, Inc.. ISBN 1-57318-122-6. 
  29. ^ 1923-1929: On the road to discovery. L. Ron Hubbard: Shaping the 21st Century with Solutions for a Better World 1-2. Church of Scientology International. Retrieved on 2006-06-18.
  30. ^ a b The American Academy of Psychoanalysis, The Psychoanalytic Roots of Scientology by Silas L. Warner, M.D. Lightly edited by Ann-Louise S. Silver, M.D. The American Academy of Psychoanalysis, Presented at the winter meeting, New York City December 12, 1993
  31. ^ See inter alia Hubbard, "Special Effect Cases, Anatomy Of - Q&A period", lecture of 23 July 1958: "I have made people feel better by using straight Freudian analysis the way I got it from Commander Thompson who imported it to the US Navy"; Hubbard, "Universes," lecture of 6 April 1954: "I was fortunate enough to be trained to some degree by Commander Thompson, who had himself studied with Sigmund Freud"; Hubbard, "The Story of Dianetics and Scientology," lecture of 18 October 1958: "When I was about twelve years old ... I met one of the great men of Freudian analysis - a Commander Thompson ... he started shoving my nose into an education in the field of the mind."
  32. ^ "The University Hatchet" of George Washington University, Vol. 28 , No. 33, May 24, 1932, lists L. Ron Hubbard as "Assistant Editor"
  33. ^ "The Hatchet"
  34. ^ a b SO ED 879 INT, "LRH Biography", 7 April 1977 by Liz Gablehouse, Church of Scientology
  35. ^ a b "L. Ron Hubbard: A Chronicle 1930-1933", Church of Scientology International. Accessed 18 April 2007
  36. ^ The Scandal of Scientology by Paulette Cooper: Actually his grades were appallingly low.{16} Although he did do well in his engineering and English courses, the man who frequently calls himself a nuclear physicist got a D in one physics course, an E in another, and in the atomic and molecular physics courses that he most often emphasizes (to the degree of thanking his instructors for it), he received an F.{17} With those grades, along with similar ones in mathematics, it is not surprising that Hubbard was placed on probation after his first year in college and didn't return for his second -- and of course never received the degrees that he claims he has.{18}
  37. ^ Hubbard as a Nuclear Physicist BOARD OF INQUIRY INTO SCIENTOLOGY, The Anderson Report, 1963. One of the many claims made by Hubbard about himself, and oft repeated by his followers, is that he is a nuclear physicist, and his boast is that he was even one of the first nuclear physicists who, in 1932, were studying on lines which finally led to the atomic bomb.
  38. ^ SO ED 879 INT Hubbard's Scientology Biography, circa 1977 Page 3 "Altogether he spent nearly a year at Oak Knoll, during which time he synthesized what he had learned of Eastern philosophy, his understanding of nuclear physics and his experiences among men. He says, 'I set out to find from nuclear physics and a knowledge of the physical universe, things entirely lacking in Asian philosophy.'"
  39. ^ Hubbard, All About Radiation. Bridge Publications, 1990. ISBN 0884040623
  40. ^ The Pilot, July 1934 issue, about Hubbard
  41. ^ The Sportsman Pilot, articles of L. Ron Hubbard, Issue January 1932, Issue May 1933, Issue October 1933
  42. ^ "Inside The Church of Scientology: An Exclusive Interview with L. Ron Hubbard, Jr." (June 1983). Penthouse. 
  43. ^ United States District Court, District of New Jersey, page 4 and 5 of affidavit of Ronald E. DeWolf of July 1, 1987, submitted in: Ronald E. DeWolf v. Lyle Stuart Inc.
  44. ^ Official Explorers Club Member list, "Deceased Members of The Explorers Club, 1904 to 23 May 2007"
  45. ^ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/l-ron-hubbard/chronicle/pg014.html Official Biography, Church of Scientology International
  46. ^ [2] Internet Movie Database
  47. ^ N G Christakos, "Three By Thirteen: The Karl Edward Wagner Lists" in Black Prometheus: A Critical Study of Karl Edward Wagner, ed. Benjamin Szumskyj, Gothic Press 2007
  48. ^ Recommendation of interviewing officer that Hubbard be commissioned a Lt. Jg.
  49. ^ 173' subchasers from Navsource
  50. ^ "Battle Report - Submission of.", A16-3(3)/PC815, Vice Adm. Frank Jack Fletcher, Commander NW Sea Frontier, 8 June 1943; Image of document
  51. ^ a b Pendle, George (2005). Strange Angel: The Otherworldly Life of Rocket Scientist John Whiteside Parsons. Harcourt, pg.253. ISBN 978-0-15-100997-8. 
  52. ^ Philadelphia Doctorate Lectures, Lecture #40 titled "Games/Goals", 12 December 1952: About "Limitations on self and others"
  53. ^ Lecture #45 titled "Development of Scientology: Characteristics of a Living Science", 13 December 1952: About "Life Science"
  54. ^ L. Ron Hubbard, "Conditions of Space/Time/Energy" Philadelphia Doctorate Course cassette tape #18 5212C05
  55. ^ Scientology: A new light on Crowley, Sunday Times, December 28, 1969 (Article starts with "Scientology has sent us the following information:")
  56. ^ L.A. Times Article, 2 May 1951
  57. ^ Miller, Russell (1987). "18. Messengers of God", Bare-faced Messiah, The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard, First American Edition, New York: Henry Holt & Co, 305-306. ISBN 0-8050-0654-0. 
  58. ^ a b Lattin, Don. "Scientology Founder's Family Life Far From What He Preached", San Francisco Chronicle, February 12, 2001
  59. ^ A Ringing In The Ears. TIME Magazine (1951-05-07). Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
  60. ^ Frenschkowski, Marco (July 1999). "L. Ron Hubbard and Scientology: An annotated bibliographical survey of primary and selected secondary literature". Marburg Journal of Religion 4 (1). 
  61. ^ de Camp, L. Sprague. "El-Ron Of The City Of Brass".
  62. ^ a b Leiby, Richard. "The Church's War Against Its Critics — and Truth", Washington Post, 1994-12-25, p. C1. 
  63. ^ The Birth Of Dianetics - Ron (L. Ron Hubbard) The Philosopher: Rediscovery of the Human Soul
  64. ^ Dianetics Review
  65. ^ Doward, Jamie (2004-05-16). Lure of the celebrity sect. Special reports. The Observer. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  66. ^ Miller, Russell (1987). "10. Commies, Kidnaps and Chaos", Bare-faced Messiah, The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard, First American Edition, New York: Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 0-8050-0654-0. 
  67. ^ L. Ron Hubbard's House at Camelback, Phoenix, Arizona
  68. ^ "Secret Lives: L. Ron Hubbard", Channel 4 (England), 1997-11-19. Retrieved on 2007-02-22. 
  69. ^ Quentin Hubbard Coroners Report
  70. ^ Life and death of Quentin Hubbard
  71. ^ My Nine Lives in Scientology, by Monica Pignotti
  72. ^ Malko, George [1970] (October 1971). Scientology: The Now Religion, First Delta printing, New York: Dell Publishing. 
  73. ^ "Some Questionable Creationist Credentials", talkorigins.org, May 31, 2002. Retrieved January 7, 2007. Sequoia University was issued a permanent injunction in 1984 by a Los Angeles judge and ordered to "cease operation until the school could comply with state education laws." The school offered degrees in osteopathic medicine, religious studies, hydrotherapy and physical sciences
  74. ^ ) John B. Bear and Mariah P. Bear, Bears' Guide to Earning College Degrees Nontraditionally, p.331. Ten Speed Press, 2003.
  75. ^ The Official Scientology and Dianetics Glossary
  76. ^ Scientology Axioms
  77. ^ Enquiry into the Practice and Effects of Scientology, Report by Sir John Foster, K.B.E., Q.C., M.P., Published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London December 1971. Cited at http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Cowen/audit/fosthome.html .
  78. ^ Hubbard Communications Office Policy Letter, HCOPL, 29 October, 1962, as cited in Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin (September 2003). "Scientology: Religion or racket?". Marburg Journal of Religion 8 (1). 
  79. ^ The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power 1991 Page 3, Time Magazine. Psychiatrists say these sessions can produce a drugged-like, mind-controlled euphoria that keeps customers coming back for more. To pay their fees, newcomers can earn commissions by recruiting new members, become auditors themselves (Miscavige did so at age 12), or join the church staff and receive free counseling in exchange for what their written contracts describe as a "billion years" of labor. "Make sure that lots of bodies move through the shop," implored Hubbard in one of his bulletins to officials. "Make money. Make more money. Make others produce so as to make money . . . However you get them in or why, just do it."
  80. ^ Official Papers on Scientology
  81. ^ Wakefield, Margery. Understanding Scientology, Chapter 9. Reproduced at David S. Touretzky's Carnegie Mellon site.
  82. ^ a b In L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman? Corydon, expanded 1992 paperback edition, page 59
  83. ^ in "Bare-Faced Messiah" copyright (c) 1987 by Russell Miller, p. 266
  84. ^ "Messiah or Madman" copyright (c) 1987, 1992 by Bent Corydon p. 59
  85. ^ New York Times, Mar 19, 1969;pg.33
  86. ^ Robert W. Welkos; Joel Sappell. "Burglaries and Lies Paved a Path to Prison", Los Angeles Times, 24 June, 1990. Retrieved on 2006-05-22. 
  87. ^ The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power 1991 Page 3, Time Magazine. During the early 1970s, the IRS conducted its own auditing sessions and proved that Hubbard was skimming millions of dollars from the church, laundering the money through dummy corporations in Panama and stashing it in Swiss bank accounts.
  88. ^ Morgan, Lucy (1999-03-29). Abroad: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology. St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved on 2007-10-30.
  89. ^ Reuters wire service, printed in Sunday Star (Toronto), 2 March 1980, also in International Herald Tribune, 3 March 1980:"The Paris Court of Appeal has recognized the U.S.-based Church of Scientology as a religion and cleared a former leader of the movement's French branch of fraud. ... The court's president indicated that the three others, who were sentenced in their absence, might be acquitted if they appealed."
  90. ^ Judgment of 9 Nov 1981, 13eme Chambre Correctionnelle du TGI de Paris, p. 171, "...l'intention de tromper pour obtenir la remise n'etant alors pas etablie. Auusi bien sa relaxe s'impose." - ".. the intention to deceive being not then established. Therefore her discharge is imperative." (typo in original French)
  91. ^ "Scientology leader is ordered: Stay away", Daily Mail, 1984-07-29. 
  92. ^ Home Office, Letter of Tim Renton, 24 Feb 1989: "I can indeed confirm that the ban on Scientologists entering this country ... was removed on 16 July 1980."
  93. ^ The Sunday Times, 13 July 1980 "Ministers to lift ban on Scientology," by Michael Jones and John Whale
  94. ^ [3] 1965 Anderson Report biography of Hubbard
  95. ^ HCO POLICY LETTER OF 18 OCTOBER 1967, Issue IV (canceled)
  96. ^ HCO POLICY LETTER OF 21 JULY 1968, quoted in the Foster Report, cancels the earlier HCO POLICY LETTER OF 18 OCTOBER 1967, Issue IV
  97. ^ Hubbard, HCOPL 21 October 1968, Cancellation of Fair Game
  98. ^ Hubbard, affidavit of 22 March 1976, quoted in David V Barrett, The New Believers: A Survey of Sects, Cults and Alternative Religions, p. 464 (Octopus Publishing Group, 2003)
  99. ^ J. Gordon Melton, The Church of Scientology, Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City 2000, p. 36
  100. ^ the Offensive Against an Array of Suspected Foes The Los Angeles Times, June 29 1990 by By JOEL SAPPELL and ROBERT W. WELKOS, Times Staff Writers Page 5 Church spokesmen maintain that Hubbard rescinded the policy three years after it was written...But various judges and juries have concluded that while the actual labeling of persons as "fair game" was abandoned, the harassment continued unabated.
  101. ^ [Bare-Faced-Messiah, "Making Movies" http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/atack/bs6-1.htm]
  102. ^ Welkos, Robert W.; Sappell, Joel (1990-06-28). Costly Strategy Continues to Turn Out Bestsellers. The Scientology Story. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 2007-07-30.
  103. ^ McIntyre, Mike (April 15, 1990). Hubbard Hot-Author Status Called Illusion. San Diego Union, p. 1.
  104. ^ L. Ron Hubbard, Church of Scientology founder, dies. Seattle Post-Intelligencer (1986-01-28). Retrieved on 2007-12-27.
  105. ^ [4] Image of Hubbard's toxicology report
  106. ^ Supplementary Coroner Report, 30 Jan 1986
  107. ^ Letter of Sheriff-Coroner E. Williams, 4 Nov 1987
  108. ^ http://www.pfizer.com/pfizer/download/uspi_vistaril.pdf; VISTARIL® (hydroxyzine pamoate) Capsules and Oral Suspension; Pfizer; accessed 2007-04-11
  109. ^ "The Making of L. Ron Hubbard," Los Angeles Times, June 24, 1990, pg. A40
  110. ^ Trademark Electronic Search System
  111. ^ Hubbard College of Administration - Copyrighted Trademarks
  112. ^ Scientology claims copyright and trademark infringement
  113. ^ Re: Unauthorized Use of 'Registered Trademark'
  114. ^ CST Legal Papers 12 Mitchell Affidavit
  115. ^ Religious Technology Center David Miscavige Biography (accessed 2007-05-08)
  116. ^ Heber C. Jentzsch
  117. ^ World in Action. The Shrinking World of L. Ron Hubbard [Television Interview]. North Africa: Granada Television (England).
  118. ^ a b c L. Ron Hubbard's Alaska Adventure. Stories in the News. Retrieved on 2007-11-07.
  119. ^ The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power Page 2, Time Magazine. The founder of this enterprise was part storyteller, part flimflam man. Born in Nebraska in 1911, Hubbard served in the Navy during World War II and soon afterward complained to the Veterans Administration about his "suicidal inclinations" and his "seriously affected" mind.
  120. ^ "L. Ron Hubbard, A Profile" - Church of Scientology-produced profile of Hubbard
  121. ^ Winners of the Ig Nobel Prize. Improbable Research. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  122. ^ http://www.voxmagazine.com/stories/2006/12/07/guinness-gracious/ Guinness Gracious; Vox - Columbia Missourian; Sean Ludwig; December 7, 2006; accessed 2007-02-11
  123. ^ Maul, Kimberly (2005-11-09). Guinness World Records: L. Ron Hubbard Is the Most Translated Author. The Book Standard. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.

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External links

Scientology Portal
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
L. Ron Hubbard
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L. Ron Hubbard

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x1152, 199 KB) A blue e-meter, a ritual device used by the Church of Scientology. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Official biographical sites

Unofficial biographies (online)

Jonathan Caven-Atack, generally known as Jon Atack, is a British artist and writer. ... Russell Miller is an award-winning British journalist and author of numerous books. ...

Further mention of Hubbard

  • Operation Clambake site. (critical material on Hubbard and Scientology)
  • U.S. Government FBI Files for Hubbard via The Smoking Gun
  • "L. Ron Hubbard, Scientology's esteemed founder," by Michael Crowley (Slate magazine, July 15, 2005)
  • Frenschkowski, Marco, L. Ron Hubbard and Scientology: An annotated bibliographical survey of primary and selected secondary literature, Marburg Journal of Religion, Vol. 1. No. 1. July 1999, ISSN 1612-2941
  • L. Ron Hubbard at the Internet Movie Database
  • L. Ron Hubbard at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
  • Guinness World Records: L. Ron Hubbard Is the Most Translated Author
  • L. Ron Hubbard at the Internet Book List [5]
Operation Clambake Operation Clambake (xenu. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... The Internet Speculative Fiction Database is a database of bibliographic information on science fiction and related genres such as fantasy fiction and horror fiction. ... The Internet Book List (IBList) is an online database with information about books, authors, short stories, etc. ... L. Ron Hubbard, creator of Dianetics and founder of Scientology, served in at least two branches of the United States Armed Forces. ... USS PC-815 was a PC-416 class subchaser assigned to the United States Navys Pacific Fleet during World War II. Commissioned in Portland, Oregon on April 20, 1943, Lieutenant (J.G.) Lafayette Ronald Hubbard in command, she served as a shore patrol vessel off the west coast of... USS YP-422 - The USS YP-422 was a Navy Yard Patrol (YP) boat that was created by converting the existing fishing trawler Mist. The conversion was completed in July, 1942 at the Navy Yard located in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Margaret Polly Grubb (b. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Sara Northrup was the second wife of L. Ron Hubbard, from 1946-1951. ... Mary Sue Hubbard (born Mary Sue Whipp) (17 June 1931–25 November 2002 [1]) was the third wife of science fiction writer and Church of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard and often regarded as the first lady of Scientology. ... Jamie DeWolf is an American slam poet and spoken word comedian. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Ronald Edward DeWolf (May 7, 1934 - September 16, 1991), born Lafayette Ron Hubbard, Jr. ... Geoffrey Quentin McCaully Hubbard was the son of L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of the Church of Scientology. ... For the film of the same name, see Battlefield Earth (film). ... Fear is a Horror novel by L. Ron Hubbard. ... For the website-checking software, see Xenus Link Sleuth. ... The Secret of Treasure Island (1938) is a Columbia movie serial based on the novel Murder at Pirate Castle. ... Mission Earth is an album with words and music written by Church of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard. ... The Road to Freedom is a 1986 record album by L. Ron Hubbard & Friends. ... The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. ... This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The doctrine of Scientology beliefs and practices centers around the concept that all people are immortal spiritual beings called thetans. ... This article examines controversial issues involving Scientology and its affiliated organizations. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The doctrine of Scientology beliefs and practices centers around the concept that all people are immortal spiritual beings called thetans. ... In Scientology, the Assist is described as a process which is done to alleviate a present time discomfort. [1] Despite the use of assists to treat pain and injuries, the Scientology Handbook (1994 edition) states: An assist in no way intrudes upon the role of medicine. ... Auditing is a procedure that was originated by author L. Ron Hubbard as the central practice of Dianetics and further refined by him as he developed Scientology. ... The Scientology Justice system is a means for a Scientology organization to take action against a member whose conduct or actions are viewed as highly desctructive or offensive by an executive within the organization. ... Disconnection is a practice in Scientology, in which a Scientologist severs all ties between themselves and friends, colleagues, or family members who criticize Scientology practices. ... In Scientology, the Doctrine of Exchange dictates that services must never be given away but must be paid for. ... Mark Super VII Quantum E-meter An E-meter is an electronic device manufactured by the Church of Scientology at their Gold Base production facility. ... There are many holidays, commemorations and observances in the Church of Scientology, including but not limited to: January 25: Criminon Day This commemorates the 1970 founding of Criminon, a program which seeks to rehabilitate prisoners by disseminating free copies of Scientology-related materials such as The Way to Happiness. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology and marriage, within the Church of Scientology, are discussed in the book The Background, Ministry, Ceremonies & Sermons of the Scientology Religion. ... In Church of Scientology doctrine, there have been a number of controversial medical claims made, usually centered around their auditing process, which uses a device called an E-meter to analyze and treat a persons so-called Reactive mind and Body Thetans. These claims range from the 1950 publication... R2-45 is one of the Auditing Processes used by the Church of Scientology. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... In Scientology, a rundown is a procedure set out as a series of steps to produce a particular end result, or phenomena. ... Silent birth, sometimes known as quiet birth, is a birthing procedure advised by L. Ron Hubbard and advocated by Scientologists in which everyone attending the birth should refrain from spoken words as much as possible and where ... chatty doctors and nurses, shouts to PUSH, PUSH and loud or laughing remarks... Hubbard said that the galactic ruler Xenu transported his victims to Earth in interstellar space planes which looked exactly like Douglas DC-8s. ... In Church of Scientology doctrine, the subjects of supernatural or superhuman powers and abilities are ones that recur often. ... Study tech, or study technology, is a method of study, devised and spelled out by L. Ron Hubbard, founder of the Church of Scientology. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy In Scientology, the concept of thetan (pronounced THAY-tan) is similar to the concept of spirit or soul found in other belief systems. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy In the Church of Scientology, variant texts exist of the numerous written and transcribed works on Dianetics and Scientology (or Standard Tech) of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard, due in part to their being written and published over the span of four... In the Scientology religion, MEST is an acronym for Matter, Energy, Space and Time, considered by Scientologists to be the four component parts of the physical universe. ... In Dianetics and Scientology, the reactive mind is a concept created by L. Ron Hubbard, referring to a hypothetical portion of the human mind which Hubbard blamed for most mental and physical ailments. ... In Scientology, the tone scale or emotional tone scale is a characterization of human behavior and bodily appearance. ... Fair Game is a status assigned to those whom the Church of Scientology has officially declared to be Suppressive Persons or Suppressive Persons are those whose actions are deemed to suppress or damage Scientology or a Scientologist. ... The Fishman Affidavit is a set of court documents submitted by ex-Scientologist Steven Fishman in 1994 containing criticisms of the Church of Scientology and, controversially, substantial portions of the Operating Thetan course materials. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Gabe Cazares (1920-2006) was the former mayor of Clearwater, Florida, a civil rights advocate, and a critic of the Church of Scientology. ... Philip Chandler Gale (1978, Los Angeles, California – March 13, 1998, Cambridge, Massachusetts) was a pioneering internet software developer and computer prodigy, an avid musician, born and raised a Scientologist but rejecting that upbringing and turning to drugs and the Church of the SubGenius. ... Howard Keith Henson (b. ... The Church of Scientology has been involved in a number of court disputes throughout the world. ... Noah Antrim Lottick (March 8, 1966 – May 11, 1990) was an American student of Russian studies and a Scientologist. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Lisa McPherson (born Lisa Skonetski, February 10, 1959–December 5, 1995) was a Scientologist who died of a pulmonary embolism while under the care of the Flag Service Organization (FSO), a branch of the Church of Scientology. ... Operation Clambake Operation Clambake (xenu. ... Grand Jury Charges, Introduction, United States of America v. ... Operation PC Freakout was the name given by the Church of Scientology to a covert plan undertaken by the Church in 1976, with the goal of harassing Paulette Cooper, author of a book critical of Scientology titled The Scandal of Scientology. The plan came to light when the FBI seized... Patter drills are a drilling method used in courses in the Church of Scientology which were added to many Church courses in mid-1995, by David Miscavige. ... Elli Perkins (1949–March 13, 2003) was a mother of two, professional glass artist, and Scientologist who lived in Western New York. ... Scientology has often come into conflict with psychiatry since the foundation of Scientology in 1952. ... Scientology pays members commissions on new recruits they bring in, so Scientology members routinely try to sell Scientology to others. ... In Scientology, a formally condemned and shunned heretic or wrongdoer is labelled a Suppressive Person, often abbreviated SP. L. Ron Hubbard coined the term to refer to enemies of the Church of Scientology, whose suppressive acts are said to impede the progress of Scientology. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology and the Internet have been involved in a number of disputes related to what the Church of Scientology cites as Intellectual property matters. ... Scientology and Me is the name of a controversial television documentary conducted by reporter John Sweeney, which aired on the BBC programme, Panorama on 14 May 2007. ... The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power, Time Magazine, Richard Behar, 1991. ... Lawrence A. Wollersheim is an ex-Scientologist. ... For other uses, see Xenu (disambiguation). ... On 5th April 2007 the European Court of Human Rights issued a unanimous decision in favor of the Church of Scientology of Moscow, upholding the religious freedom of Scientologists and their religious associations throughout the forty-six nations that have signed and ratified the European Convention for the Protection of... This article is about the theory and practice termed Dianetics. ... In Dianetics and Scientology, an engram is defined as an unconscious, painful memory. ... In Dianetics and Scientology, Clear is defined as a state in which a person is free of unwanted influences of past memories, unwanted emotions, and mental and physical pain not existing in present time. ... The Church of Scientology is the largest organization devoted to the practice and the promotion of the Scientology belief system. ... A Scientology Center on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, California. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The Sea Organization or Sea Org is an association of Scientologists established in 1968 by L. Ron Hubbard, the founder of Scientology. ... The Rehabilitation Project Force, or RPF, is a system of work camps[1] set up by the Church of Scientology Sea Organization, intended to rehabilitate members who have not lived up to the Church expectations or have violated certain policies. ... Celebrity Centres are Church of Scientology centers that are open to the public but serve mostly artists and celebrities and other professionals, leaders and promising new-comers in the fields of the arts, sports, management and government, and for those are the people who are sculpting the present into the... The Church of Scientology (CST) maintains a large base on the outskirts of Trementina, New Mexico. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Office of Special Affairs (OSA) is a department of the Church of Scientology responsible for directing legal affairs, publicizing the Churchs social betterment works, and oversee[ing its] social reform programs. Observers outside the Church have characterized the department as an intelligence agency, comparing it variously to the... , Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The Gold Base is a 500 acre parcel and the headquarters of Golden Era Productions, the media division of the Church of Scientology, located at 19625 Highway 79, Gilman Hot Springs, California 92583, near Hemet. ... The International Association of Scientologists (IAS) was formed in October 1984 by a group of selected Scientologists, who assembled at Saint Hill Manor in East Grinstead, Sussex, England. ... The Religious Technology Center (RTC) is a non-profit corporation established in 1982 by the Church of Scientology to control and oversee the uses of all of the trademarks, symbols and texts of Scientology and Dianetics, including the copyrighted works of the religions founder, L. Ron Hubbard. ... Tom Cruise (born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV on July 3, 1962) is an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe Award-winning American actor and film producer. ... Mary Sue Hubbard (born Mary Sue Whipp) (17 June 1931–25 November 2002 [1]) was the third wife of science fiction writer and Church of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard and often regarded as the first lady of Scientology. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Heber Carl Jentzsch (born 1935 to Carl Jentzsch and his third wife Pauline), has served as president of the Church of Scientology International since 1982. ... David Miscavige (born April 30, 1960 in Philadelphia) is Chairman of the Board of Religious Technology Center (RTC), a corporation that controls the trademarked names and symbols of Dianetics and Scientology, and is the ultimate ecclesiastical authority regarding the standard and pure application of L. Ron Hubbard’s religious technologies. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy Mike Rinder is the commanding officer of the Office of Special Affairs International, a division of the Church of Scientology. ... John Joseph Travolta (born February 18, 1954) is an Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor, dancer, and singer, best known for his leading roles in films such as Saturday Night Fever, Grease and Pulp Fiction. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy The following lists specific Scientology references in popular culture. ... The book by William S. Burroughs entitled Alis Smile/Naked Scientology was published i 1978 by Expanded Media Editions, Herwarthstr. ... A Token of My Extreme, by Frank Zappa, is a song on the 1979 concept album Joes Garage [Part II]. The main character from this triple-album rock-opera has his mind messed-up by Lucille then finally does something right and pays a lot of money to L... A Very Merry Unauthorized Childrens Scientology Pageant is a satirical musical about Scientology and L. Ron Hubbard, written by Kyle Jarrow from a concept by Alex Timbers, the shows original director. ... For other uses, see The Bridge. ... The Profit is a 2001 film directed by Peter N. Alexander. ... For the website-checking software, see Xenus Link Sleuth. ... “Trapped in the Closet” is the twelfth episode of the ninth season of the Comedy Central series South Park. ... The Association for Better Living and Education (A.B.L.E.) is a secular branch of the Church of Scientology. ... Founded in 1983, the Concerned Businessmens Association of America (CBAA) is an element of the Scientology movement directed at promoting moral education and enhanced well-being through the use of Hubbards The Way to Happiness booklet in their Set A Good Example (SAGE) program, which holds childrens... Recruitment and endorsements by Scientologist celebrities have always been very important to the Church of Scientology. ... Criminon is a secular non proft 501 C3 working with government departments and inmates to reduce recidivism and restore self respect to the inmate. ... Downtown Medical is a controversial Scientology clinic on 139 Fulton Street in New York City, founded in 2003 with the purpose of treating people for toxins inhaled from the smoke of the 9/11 attacks. ... The Citizens Commission on Human Rights (CCHR; also sometimes known as the Citizens Committee on Human Rights) is an advocacy group established in 1969 by the Church of Scientology and libertarian psychiatrist Thomas Szasz. ... Narconon is not associated with Narcotics Anonymous, which is sometimes abbreviated Narcanon. Scientologys Narconon is an in-patient rehabilitation program for drug abusers in several dozen treatment centers worldwide, chiefly in the United States and western Europe. ... The Oxford Capacity Analysis (OCA), also known as the American Personality Analysis, is a personality test that is given for free by the Church of Scientology. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy The Way to Happiness is a 1980 booklet written by Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard listing 21 moral precepts, and distributed by The Way to Happiness Foundation International, a Scientology-related non-profit organization founded in 1984. ... The Volunteer Minister program is a worldwide effort founded by the Church of Scientology International. ... World Institute of Scientology Enterprises (WISE) is an organization that educates and assists businesses in the use of Scientology management techniques. ... This is a timeline of Scientology, particularly its foundation and development by author L. Ron Hubbard. ... The following are trademarks, service marks, and/or collective membership marks that the Church of Scientology and affiliated organizations claim to own, some of which are registered in some nations. ... This is an incomplete bibliography of Scientology and Scientology-related books produced within the Church of Scientology and its related organizations. ... This is an incomplete filmography of Scientology and Scientology-related films, videos, and audiovisual materials produced within the Church of Scientology and its related organizations. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public groups Organization Controversy This is an incomplete discography of Scientology and Scientology-related recordings produced within the Church of Scientology and its related organizations. ...

 
 

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