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Encyclopedia > L'viv
Image:Lviv coat big.gif

Lviv coat of arms

Motto: Semper fidelis
Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада)
Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak
Area 171,01 km²
Population
   total 2000
   density

808,900
4786/km²
Founded
city rights
13th century
1353
Area code + 0322
Latitude
Longitude
49°51′ N 24°01′ E (http://kvaleberg.com/extensions/mapsources/index.php?params=49_51_N_24_01_E_)
Twin towns Corning, Freiburg, Kraków, Novi Sad, Przemyśl, Whitstable, Winnipeg
Municipal Website (http://www.city-adm.lviv.ua/index_e.html)

L'viv ( Image:Ltspkr.png Львів in Ukrainian; Львов, Lvov in Russian; Image:Ltspkr.png Lwów in Polish; Leopolis in Latin; see also cities' alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine with 830,000 inhabitants (an additional 200,000 commute daily from suburbs). It is the capital city of the L'viv region and is a main cultural centre of Ukraine. A motto is a phrase or collection of words intended to describe the motivation or intention of a sociological grouping or organization. ... Arms of Exeter, showing motto Semper Fidelis is a Latin motto translating to always faithful. It is the motto of: Plymouth Argyle, and the song is played as the team enters the pitch before the start of the game. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ... A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ... This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ... Corning is a city located in Steuben County, New York, United States. ... This article is about Freiburg in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Motto: none Executive government Mayor (Gradonačelnik) City council (Skupština Grada) Mayor Maja Gojković Area 235. ... For alternative meanings of Przemysl see: Przemysl (disambiguation page). ... Whitstable is a town in Kent, England with a population of 30,000. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) City of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Location. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. ... Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... Polish (polski, język polski) is the official language of Poland. ... Latin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ...


The city is home to many industries, higher learning institutons (University of Lviv, Lviv Polytechnic), a philharmonic orchestra, and the Lviv Opera and Ballet Theatre. The historic city centre is on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Lviv Polytechnic (full name Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukrainian Національний університет Львівська політехніка, Polish Politechnika Lwowska) is the biggest scientifical university in Lviv. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ...

Contents

Geography

Enlarge
Panorama of Lviv

Location

L'viv is located at geographical co-ordinates 49° 50′ 45″ N 24° 01′ 38″ E (http://kvaleberg.com/extensions/mapsources/index.php?params=49_50_45_N_24_01_38_E_type:city(800000)_scale:300000_region:ua), on the verge of the Roztocze Upland, approximately 70 kilometres from the Polish border. Lviv's altitude averages 289 metres above sea level although there are many hills located within the confines of the city. The highest point inside the city is Vysokyy Zamok (High Castle), a hill 409 metres above sea level. The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and...


The historical city was located at the Peltew River, but in the 19th century the river was converted into the main city sewer (currently under the Prospekt Shevchenka street). Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Climate

L'viv's climate is moderate continental. The average temperatures are −4 °C (27 °F) in January and +18 °C (65 °F) in June. Average annual rainfall is 660 mm (26 in), with notable water deficit in the summer months. Average of 66 cloudy days per year.


History

Old Town Market

Old town market in Lwow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Old town market in Lwow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Early history

Recent archaeological excavations show that the area of L'viv has been populated since at least the 5th century. At the dawn of history, the area became incorporated into the Empire of Great Moravia, then became an area of contention between two emerging states: Poland (during the reign of Mieszko I, ruler of the Polans) and the Kyivan Rus'. Mieszko is thought to have controlled the area from 960 to 980. According to Nestor's chronicle, in 981 this area was conquered by Volodymyr the Great, ruler of Kyivan Rus'. ( 4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Great Moravia (Czech Velká Morava, Slovak Veľká Morava, Latin Magna Moravia) was a Slav state existing on the territory of present-day Moravia and Slovakia between 833 and the early 10th century. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Reign From c. ... Polans (also Polanes, Polish Polanie) were a Slavic tribe inhabitating the shores of the Warta river in the 8th century. ... Events Edgar the Peaceable crowned King of England. ... Events Births Emperor Ichijo of Japan Humbert I of Savoy Avicenna Godiva, Countess of Mercia Deaths Categories: 980 ... The word may have one of the following meanings. ... Events Births Princess Theodora, later Empress of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ...


However, the city itself was founded in the 13th century by King Danylo of the Ruthenian duchy of Halych-Volynia, and named in honor of his son, Lev. Other sources mention that it was his son himself who founded the city. Thus the toponym might best be translated into English as Leo's lands or Leo's City (hence the Latin name Leopolis). (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Danylo King of Rus or Danylo of Galicia (properly Danylo Romanovich or Даниил Романович), (1201-1264) Knyaz of Halych (1205–1206, 1211–1212, 1229–1231, 1233–1235, 1238–1255), Peremyshl (1211, todays Przemyśl, Poland), Vladimir and Volhyn (1212–1231), King of Galicia (1253–1264). ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Latin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

Ossolineum Institute

The first mention of Lviv in early chronicles is from 1256. It soon displaced the town of Halych as the capital of the duchy. In 1323, the Romanovich dynasty (local branch of the Rurik Dynasty) died out. The city was inherited by the heir of the Romanovich dynasty (on his mother's side) - Boleslaus of Masovia (also from the Piast dynasty on his father's side). He took the name of Yuriy and converted to Eastern Orthodoxy, but failed to gain the support of the local nobles and was soon poisoned. Ossolineum in Lwow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ossolineum in Lwow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Events Hanseatic League formed. ... Events Canonization of Saint Lithuania: Vilnius becomes capital August 12 - The Sweden and Novgorod (Russia) is signed, regulating the border for the first time Births Deaths Categories: 1323 ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Russia from 862 to 1598. ... Bolesław Jerzy II Mazowiecki (Boleslaus George II of Masovia, also known as Yuriy II of Halicz and Bolesław Trojdenowicz) (1308-1340) was a ruler of the Piast dynasty. ... The Piast dynasty is a line of Kings and dukes that ruled Poland from its beginnings as an independent state up to 1370. ... ...


City development

After his death in 1340, the rights to Lviv were claimed by his cousin Casimir III of Poland, who successfully invaded the duchy and occupied it by 1349. In 1356 he granted the city with Magdeburg rights which implied that all city issues were to be solved by a city council, elected by the wealthy citizens. This started a period of fast development: among other facilities the Latin Cathedral was built. Also, new self-government attracted a big Armenian community that built its Armenian Cathedral in 1363. Events January 26 - King France June 24 - The Battle of Sluys is fought between the naval fleets of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France. ... Casimir the Great Casimir III or the Great (Kazimierz Wielki), (1310-1370), King of Poland , son of Władyslaw I Łokietek (Wladyslaw the Elbow High), 1305-1333 and Jadwiga. ... -1... Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England September 19 - Battle of Poitiers The English defeat the French in the Hundred Years War, capturing the King John II of France in the process. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... Armenian may refer to: The Armenian people. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 - 1363 - 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 See also: 1363 state leaders Events Magnus II, King of Sweden, is deposed by Albert of Mecklenburg. ...


In 1386, this area was directly included into the Polish Crown by Jadwiga of Poland. The city later served as the coronation site of some of the Kings of Poland. Events Battle of Sempach: Swiss safeguard independence from Hapsburg rule End of reign of Poland by Lithuania and Poland. ... Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. ... Hedwig, from Gallery of Polish Kings by Jan Matejko (1838-1893) Hedwig (ca. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ...

Museum of Industry (now National Gallery)

Museum of Industry in Lwow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Museum of Industry in Lwow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

As a part of Poland (and later Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) Lwów became the capital of the Ruthenian Voivodship, which included five regions: Lwów, Chełm (Ukrainian Kholm), Sanok, town of Halych and Przemyśl (Ukrainian Peremyshl). City was granted with the right of transit and started to gain significant profit from the goods transported between the Black Sea and the Baltic. In the following centuries, the city's population grew rapidly and soon Lwów became a multi-ethnic and muli-religious city and an important centre of culture, science and trade. The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Ruthenian Voivodship (Polish: Województwo Ruskie) (1366-1772) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland. ... Chełm is a town in eastern Poland with 68,595 inhabitants (2004). ... Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. ... Sanok (in full The Royal Free City of Sanok, Polish: Królewskie Wolne Miasto Sanok) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 41,400 inhabitants (1995). ... Halych (Галич in Ukrainian or Russian [pronounced Halych and Galich]; Halicz in Polish; העליטש [Helitsh or Heylitsh] in Yiddish) is a town in Ukraine. ... For alternative meanings of Przemysl see: Przemysl (disambiguation page). ... Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. ... Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS Cities of the Black Sea The Black Sea (known as the Euxine Sea in the antiquity) is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Asia Minor. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of east and central Europe, and the Danish islands. ...


The city's fortifications were strengthened and Lwów became one of the most important fortresses guarding the Commonwealth from the south-east. Three archbishoprics were once located in the city: Roman Catholic (est. 1375), Greek Catholic and Armenian Catholic. The city was also settled by numerous populations from other foreign lands, including Germans, Jews, Italians, Englishmen, Scotsmen and many others. Since the 16th century, the religious mosaic of the city also included strong Protestant communities. Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Events October 24 - Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by his grandson Olaf III of Denmark. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Italians are a Latin ethnic group primarily associated with Italy and the Italian language. ... The English are people descended for a wide variety of roots, and who are associated, either by birth or by choice, with the culture of England (Latin: Anglia). ... The Scots tribe originated from Ireland, from the now-called counties Antrim and Down. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...

Lviv University of Technology (now Lviv Polytechnic National University)

By the first half of the 17th century, the city had approximately 25-30 thousand inhabitants. About 30 craft organizations were active by that time, involving well over a hundred different specialities. Lwow School of Technology File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Lwow School of Technology File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...


Decline of the Commonwealth

In 17th century Lwów was besieged several times yet to no effect. Constant struggle against the invading armies gave it the motto Semper fidelis. In 1649, the city was besieged by the Cossacks under Bohdan Chmielnicki, who seized and destroyed the local castle. However, the Cossacks did not retain the city and withdrew after receiving a ransom. In 1655 the Swedish armies invaded Poland and soon took most of it and laid siege to the city, yet were forced to retreat before capturing it. The following year saw Lwów invaded by the armies of the Transylvanian Duke George I Rákóczy, but the city was not captured. In 1672 Lwów was again besieged by the Turkish army of Mehmed IV, however the Treaty of Buczacz ended the war before the city was taken. In 1675 the city was attacked by the Ottomans and the Tatars, but king John III Sobieski defeated them on August 24 in what is called the Battle of Lwów. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Arms of Exeter, showing motto Semper Fidelis is a Latin motto translating to always faithful. It is the motto of: Plymouth Argyle, and the song is played as the team enters the pitch before the start of the game. ... Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Bogdan Khmelnitsky) ( 1595 – August 6, 1657) was a Ruthenian (arguably) noble, leader of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate, hetman of Ukraine, noted for his revolt against Poland (1648 – 1654) and the Treaty... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... The Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. ... Transylvania ( Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko or Transylvania, Polish: Siedmiogród) is a historic region that forms the western and the central parts of Romania. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (January 2, 1642—1693), also known as Dördüncü(fourth) and Avci(hunter), was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... Events January 5 - The Battle of Turckeim August 10 - Building of the Royal Greenwich Observatory began November 11 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. ... Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. ... Reign From May 21, 1674, until June 17, 1696 Elected On May 21, 1674 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On February 2, 1676 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Nobel Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jakub Sobieski Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz Consorts Marie Casimire Louise Children... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ...


In 1704, during the Great Northern War, the city was captured and pillaged for the first time in its history - by the armies of Charles XII of Sweden. Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Not to be confused with the Northern Wars (1655–1661) The Swedish Victory at Narva, 1700 by Gustaf Cederström, painted 1910 Battle of Poltava fragment of mosaic, by Mikhail Lomonosov, 1717 The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Saxony-Poland (from... Charles XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 - November 30, Sweden (1697 - 1718). ...


Partitions

In 1772, following the First Partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the Austrian province, the so-called Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. The official language was changed to German and most of the posts in city's administration were taken by Germans and Czechs, yet the city remained an important centre of both Polish and Ukrainian cultures. Initially the Austrian rule was somewhat liberal. In 1784, the Emperor Joseph II reopened the University. Lectures were held in Latin, German, Polish and (from 1786) also in Ukrainian. Wojciech Bogusławski opened the first public theatre in 1794 and in 1817 the Ossolineum scientifical institute was founded. Early in the 19th century, the city became the new seat of the primate of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, the Archbishop of Kyiv, Halych and Rus, the Metropolite of Lviv. Events February 17 - First partition of Russia and Prussia, later including Austria May - Watauga Association formed in East Tennessee as the first independent Anglo-American government. ... The Partitions of Poland ( Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... Events January 6 - the Turks agree to Russias annexation of the Crimea in the Treaty of Constantinople January 14 - The US Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris with England to end the American Revolutionary War February 27 – Count of St Germain dies of pneumonia in Schleswig-Holstein February 28... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 - February 20, 1790) was a Holy Roman Emperor (1765 - 1790). ... Latin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Polish (polski, język polski) is the official language of Poland. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. ... Events February 11 - 1st session of the United States Senate is open to the public. ... Events March 4 - James Monroe succeeds James Madison as the President of the United States of America April – Earthquake in Palermo, Italy April 3 – Princess Caraboo appears in Almondsbury in Gloucestershire, England May - The General Convention of the Episcopal Church founded General Theological Seminary while meeting in New York City. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church is a successor church to the acceptance of Christianity by Prince Volodymyr (also Vladimir) in Kyiv (Kiev), in 988. ...


However, in the beginning of the 19th century the Austrian authorities started a campaign of Germanization. The University was closed in 1805 and re-opened in 1817 as a purely German academy, without much influence over the city's life. Most of other social and cultural organizations were banned as well. The harsh laws imposed by the Habsburg dynasty led to an outbreak of public dissent in 1848. A petition was sent to the Emperor asking him to re-introduce local self-government, education in Polish and Ukrainian and granting Polish with a status of official language. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... Germanisation as a verb means to expand the German language and culture. ... Events January 11 - Michigan Territory is created. ... Events March 4 - James Monroe succeeds James Madison as the President of the United States of America April – Earthquake in Palermo, Italy April 3 – Princess Caraboo appears in Almondsbury in Gloucestershire, England May - The General Convention of the Episcopal Church founded General Theological Seminary while meeting in New York City. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Galician Parliament (now University of Lviv)

Most of these pleas were accepted twenty years later: in 1861 a Galician parliament (Sejm Krajowy) was opened and in 1867 Galicia was granted vast autonomy, both cultural and economical. The University was allowed to start lectures in Polish. The province of Galicia became the only part of the former Polish state with some cultural and political freedom, and Lwów then served as a major Polish political and cultural centre. Similarly, the city also served as an important centre of the Ukrainian patriotic movement and culture. Other parts of Ukraine were at that time occupied by Russia, and all publications in Ukrainian were strictly prohibited there. Galician Parliament in Lwow The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... Galician Parliament in Lwow The copyright status of this vintage image is undetermined; it may still be copyrighted. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. ... Polish (polski, język polski) is the official language of Poland. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. ...


The city was also granted with a right to delegate MPs to the parliament in Vienna, which made many prominent cultural and political leaders move to the city, which served as a meeting place of Ukrainian, Polish, Jewish and German cultures. This article is about the city and federal state in Austria. ...


20th century

Population of Lwów, 1931

Roman Catholics 198,212 (63.5%)
Jews 75,316 (24.1%)
Greek Catholics 35,137 (11.3%)
Other denominations 3,566 (1.1%)
Total 312,231

Source: 1931 Polish census 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...

During the World War I the city was captured by the Russian army in September 1914, but was retaken the following year (in June) by Austria-Hungary. With the collapse of the Habsburg Empire at the end of World War I, the local Ukrainian population proclaimed Lviv as the capital of the Western Ukrainian Republic on the November 1st, 1918. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Western Ukraine (Західно-українська Народна Республіка, West-Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyja, and Stanislav. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Polish-Ukrainian conflict

Main article: Polish-Ukrainian War Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ...

The withdrawing Austro-Hungarian and German armies agreed to hand over the city to Ukrainian authorities. However, the same day the Polish population of Lviv started an armed uprising and soon took control over most of the city centre; unable to break into the central areas, Ukrainian forces besieged the city, defended by Polish irregular forces including the Lwów Eagles. After the Inter-Allied Commission in Paris agreed to leave the city under Polish administration until its future was resolved by a post-war treaty or a referendum, the regular Polish forces reached the city on November 19. However, the heavy fights in the city's vicinity, with several minor cease-fire periods, did not end until July 1919. Both Polish and Ukrainian victims of this conflict are buried at the Lychakivskiy Cemetery. Ashes of one of the unknown soldiers killed in the fighting are buried in the Unknown Soldier Monument in Warsaw. The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Lychakivskiy Cemetery (Polish Cmentarz Łyczakowski) is a famous cemetery in Lviv. ... Warsaw ( Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ...

Art Nouveau architecture

In the following months, other territories of Galicia controlled by the government of the Western Ukrainian Republic were captured, either by Polish Army advancing from the west, or by the Red Army advancing from the east. Following the agreement with Semen Petlura, the government of the Ukrainian Peoples' Republic decided to enter into a military alliance with Poland and recognized Poland's right to the city and agreed for a border at the Zbruch river in exchange for Polish military assistance against the bolsheviks. A house facade in Lwow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A house facade in Lwow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, or simply Galicia, was the largest and northernmost province of Austria from 1772 until 1918, with Lemberg (Lwów, Lviv) as its capital city. ... Western Ukraine (Західно-українська Народна Республіка, West-Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyja, and Stanislav. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelt Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 – May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Polish-Soviet War

Main article: Polish-Soviet War Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919– 1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic and Second Polish Republic. ...

During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city was attacked by the forces of Aleksandr Yegorov. Since mid-June 1920 the 1st Cavalry Army of Semyon Budyonny was trying to reach the city from the north and east. At the same time Lwów was preparing the defence. The inhabitants raised and fully equipped three regiments of infantry and two regiments of cavalry as well as constructed defensive lines. The city was defended by an equivalent of three Polish divisions aided by one Ukrainian infantry division. Finally after almost a month of heavy fighting on August 16 the Red Army crossed the Bug river and, reinforced by additional 8 divisions of the so called Red Cossacks, started an assault on the city. The fighting occurred with heavy cassualties on both sides, but after three days the assault was halted and the Red Army retreated. For the heroic defence the city was awarded with the Virtuti Militari medal. Polish-Bolshevik War Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date 1919– 1921 Place Central and Eastern Europe Result Polish victory The Polish-Soviet War was the war (February 1919 – March 1921) that determined the borders between the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic and Second Polish Republic. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Russian: Александр Ильич Егоров) (October 13, 1883–February 22, 1939), Soviet military commander, was a prominent victim of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973), Soviet military commander, was a favourite of Soviet ruler Joseph Stalin, a fact which led to one of modern historys greatest military catastrophes. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західний Буг, Zakhidnyi Buh), flows from central Ukraine to the west, forming part of the boundary between that nation and Poland, passes along the Polish-Belarusian... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Order of Virtuti Militari The Order of Virtuti Militari (Military Virtue) is Polands highest military decoration for valour in the face of the enemy, equivalent to the British Victoria Cross or the US Congressional Medal of Honor. ...


Interbellum

Following the Peace of Riga the city remained in Poland as the capital of the Lwów Voivodship. The city became one of the most important centres of science and culture of Poland. The Peace of Riga (also known as the Treaty of Riga, Polish: Traktat Ryski) signed on 18th March 1921 between Poland and Soviet Russia ended the Polish-Bolshevik War in Riga. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ...


World War II

Nazi forces invaded Poland on September 1, 1939 and the German 1st Mountain Division reached the suburbs of Lwów on September 12 and began a siege. The city's garrison was ordered to hold out at all cost since the strategic position prevented the enemy from crossing into the Romanian Bridgehead. Also, a number of Polish troops from Central Poland were trying to reach the city and organise the defence there. Thus a 10 days long defence of the city started and later became known as yet another Battle of Lwów. On September 19 a Polish diversionary attack under General Władysław Langner was launched and was unsuccessful. Soviet troops (part of the forces which had invaded on September 17 under the Nazi-Soviet pact) replaced the Germans around the city. On the 23rd Langner formally surrendered to Soviet troops under Marshal Timoshenko. September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... The Romanian Bridgehead (Polish Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in South-Eastern Poland, nowadays located in Ukraine. ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ...


The Soviet and Nazi forces divided Poland between themselves and a forged plebiscite absorbed the Soviet half of Poland, including Lwow, into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Depolonisation tactics began immediately, with huge numbers of Poles deported eastwards into the Soviet Union. When the Nazis turned on their Soviet ally and invaded on June 22, 1941, the NKVD spent a week executing prisoners held in the Brygidki and Zamarstynów prisons. Many thousand were killed. State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Since the beginning of the German occupation of the city, the situation of the city's inhabitants became tragic. The Jewish inhabitants of the area were rushed into a newly-created ghetto and then mostly sent to various German concentration camps. Also the Polish population of the city was subject to harsh policies, which resulted in a number of mass executions both in the city and in the Janów camp. Among the first to be murdered were the professors of the city's universities and other members of Polish inteligentsia. The name ghetto refers to an area where people from a given ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... See also the related article on Nazi concentration camps The following is a list of German concentration camps during World War II. are marked with pink, while major concentration camps of are marked with blue. ... The murder of Lwów professors was the mass execution of approximately 45 Polish professors of the University of Lwów, their families and guests, committed in July 1941 in Lwów. ... The intelligentsia is a social class of intellectuals and social groups close to them (e. ...


As the Red Army wasnearing the city in 1944, on July 23 the local commander of the Home Army ordered all his forces to commence the Operation Tempest. An armed uprising was started and after 4 days of city fights the city was captured by the Poles. After that the civil and military authorities were summoned for a meeting with Red Army commanders and arrested by the NKVD. The remaining forces of Colonel Władysław Filipkowski were either forcibly conscripted to the Red Army, sent to Gulag or returned to the underground. Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Operation Tempest (Polish Plan Burza, sometimes also translated as Operation Storm) was a series of planned local uprisings prepared by the Polish Home Army during World War II. The main aim of the operation was to seize control of the cities and areas where the German forces were preparing their... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Black Ravens by Boris Vladimirski, a depiction of the cars used by NKVD agents. ... Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps) was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps...


Soviet Lviv

The city, and the surrounding area, were then incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic after World War II. Most of the remaining Polish population was expelled (especially to present day Wrocław, Poland, where the German population had been expelled) or left the city in fear of Soviet repression. The city became a major centre of Ukrainian national resistance to Russification. Large demonstrations then presaged the advent of Ukrainian independence in the 1990s. State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the political term. ... Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM...


Independent Ukraine

Today Lviv is still considered to be one of the main centres of Ukrainian culture and much of the political class in Kyiv originates from Lviv. Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ...


Historical population

Famous Leopolitans

Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (born on December 12, 1890 in Tarnopol, Galicia (now Ternopil, Ukraine) - April 12, 1963 in Warsaw, Poland) was a Polish philosopher, mathematician and logician. ... . Stanisław Józef Albinowski (20 July 1923,Lviv – died 25 January 2005,Warsaw) was a Polish economist, columnist and journalist on economics. ... Szymon Askenazy (1866?-1935) was a Polish historian, diplomat and politician, founder of the Askenazy school. ... Stefan Banach Stefan Banach (March 30, 1892 in Kraków, Poland–August 31, 1945 in Lviv, Ukraine), was a Polish mathematician, one of the moving spirits of the Lwów School of Mathematics in pre-war Poland. ... Kazimierz Bartel ( 1882- 1941), was a Polish mathematician and politician; Prime Minister of Poland,1926-1930. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | 1794 births | 1850 deaths | Polish generals ... Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski General Count Tadeusz Komorowski ( June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór) was a Polish military leader. ... For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Martin Buber (8 February 1878 - 13 June 1965) was a renowned Jewish philosopher, story-teller, and pedagogue. ... Jan Czekanowski (1882 - 1965), Polish anthropologist, statistician and linguist He worked at the University of Lviv and University of Poznan. ... Anna Czekanowska-Kuklińska (b. ... Ivan Franko Ivan Franko (Іван Франко) (August 15, 1856 – May 28, 1916) was a Ukrainian poet and writer, social and literary critic, journalist, economist, and political activist. ... Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. ... Aleksander Fredro (1793–1876) was a Polish poet and writer, author of social comedies about Polish nobility lifestyle. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Kazimierz Górski Kazimierz Klaudiusz Górski (born 2 March 1921 in Lwów, now Ukraine) is the legendary Polish football player, coach of Poland national football team and honorary president of Polish Football Union (Polski Związek Piłki Nożnej, PZPN). ... Zbigniew Herbert (29 October 1924 in Lwów - 28 July 1998 in Warsaw) was an influential Polish poet, essayist and moralist. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church is a successor church to the acceptance of Christianity by Prince Volodymyr (also Vladimir) in Kyiv (Kiev), in 988. ... From left, a white king, black rook and queen, white pawn, black knight, and white bishop. ... Grigory Alexeyevich Yavlinsky (born 1952) is a Russian economist, political figure, and reformer. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | 1908 births | 1948 deaths | Polish Army officers | Recipients of Virtuti Militari | Polish resistance fighters ... Wojciech Kilar (b. ... Works Poetic works: Linie i dźwięki (1897) Śpiewnik historyczny (1904) Głosy ciszy (1906) Z liryk i obrazków (1909) Novels: Cztery nowele (1888) Moi znajomi (1890) Na drodze (1893) Ludzie i rzeczy (1898) For children: Śpiewnik dla dzieci O Janku Wędrowniczku O krasnoludkach i sierotce Marysi Na jagody Poems: Rota (1908... Count Jan Stefan Krukowiecki (1772-1850) was a Polish general and chairman of the Polish National Government (prezes Rządu Narodowego) during the November Uprising and general during Napoleonic Wars fighting in the troops of Napoleon. ... Jacek Kuroń (March 3, 1934-June 17, 2004) was a Polish historian, dissident and opposition leader with the Solidarity movement. ... Solidarity (Polish Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980, originally led by Lech Wałęsa. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Stanisław Leśniewski (March 30, 1886–May 13, 1939) was a Polish mathematician, philosopher and logician. ... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Jan Józef Ignacy Łukasiewicz (born March 8, 1822 - January 7, 1882) was the founder of the world petroleum industry. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Gen. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... Polish 1st Armoured Div Patch The Polish 1st Armoured Division (Polish 1 Dywizja Pancerna) was an Allied military unit during World War II, created in February 1942 in Scotland. ... Book cover for Venus in Furs Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch (January 27, 1836 - March 9, 1895), writer and journalist, was born in Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (now Lviv, Ukraine). ... Kazimierz Michałowski (1901 - 1981) was a Polish archeologist and Egyptologist, founder of Nubiology. ... Egyptologist is the designation given to an archaeologist or historian who specialises in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... Nubiology is the designation given to the primarily archaeological science that specialises in the scientific study of Ancient Nubia and its antiquities. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Following are the successive heads of state of Poland. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Andrzej Mostowski (born 1 November 1913 in Lwów, Poland - 22 August 1975 in Canada) was a Polish mathematician. ... Paul Muni photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1932 Paul Muni (September 22, 1895 - August 25, 1967) was a versatile actor from the Golden Age of Hollywood, nominated for five Academy Awards. ... Janusz Onyszkiewicz (born 1937) is a Polish mathematician, alpinist, politician and a vice-president of the European Parliament (since 20 July 2004). ... The European Parliament is the parliamentary body of the European Union (EU), directly elected by EU citizens once every five years. ... Wojciech Pszoniak (born in 1942 in Lwów, Poland) is a movie and theatrical actor. ... Noble Family Sieniawski Coat of Arms Leliwa Parents Mikołaj Hieronim Sieniawski Cecylia Maria Radziwiłł Consorts Elżbieta Lubomirska Children with Elżbieta Lubomirska Maria Zofia Sieniawska Date of Birth 1666 Place of Birth Lwów Date of Death February 18, 1726 Place of Death Lwów Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski (1666-1726) was a Polish... Wacław Sobieski (b. ... Leopold Staff (November 14, 1878 – May 31, 1957) was a Polish poet. ... The conductor Stanisław Skrowaczewski (born October 3, 1923) was born in Lwow, Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine) and became best known for his work with the Minnesota Orchestra. ... Wacław Szybalski (born 1921 in Lwów, Poland - now Lviv, Ukraine) is a Professor of Oncology at the McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School. ... Alfred Tarski, original name Alfred Teitelbaum (b. ... Kazimierz Jerzy Skrzypna-Twardowski, Ritter von Ogonczyk (b. ... Stanisław Marcin Ulam (April 13, 1909–May 13, 1984) was a Polish-American mathematician who helped develop the key theory behind the hydrogen bomb. ... Rudolf Weigl Professor Rudolf Stefan Weigl (1883 - 1957) was a famous Polish biologist and inventor of the first effective vaccine for epidemic typhus. ... This is about the disease Typhus. ... Gabriela Zapolska: pseudonym of the Polish novelist and actress Maria G. Śnieżko-Błocka (born March 30, 1857, in Podhajce, Austrian Galicia, now Pidhaytsi, Ukraine - died December 17, 1921, in Lwów, Poland, now Lviv, Ukraine). ... Andrzej Zulawski (born November 22, 1940) is a film director He was born in Lwow, Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine). ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ...

Contemporary Lviv

Government

Administrative division

Lviv is divided in 6 distinct entities called raions with their own administrative bodies: See rayon for the textile made of processed cellulose. ...

  • Halyts'ky (Галицький район)
  • Zaliznychny (Залізничний район)
  • Lychakivs'ky (Личаківський район)
  • Sykhivsky (Сихівський район)
  • Frankivs'ky (Франківський район)
  • Shevchenkivs'ky (Шевченківський район)

Notable suburbs are:

  • Vynnyky (місто Винники)
  • Brokhovychi (селище Брюховичі)
  • Rudne (селище Рудне)

Mayor

Municipal government

Population

Transport

Transit

Airports

Lviv has an international airport. Lviv Airport Website (http://avia.lviv.ua)


Public Transportation

Buses

As in most Ukrainian cities, the public bus network is not well-developed and the number of lines is limited.


A cheap alternative to the public transport are the "marshrutky", which are small private-run buses cruising around the city and the suburbs. Marshrutky do not have any fixed bus-stops nor timetables, yet their services are relatively cheap, fast and efficient. The marshrutky also run on suburban lines to most towns of the region including the line to Shehyni (Шегині) at the Polish border. The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and...


Tramways

The first tramway lines were opened on May 5, 1880. On May 31, 1894 the last horse-powered line has been electrified. In 1922 the tramways were switched to right-hand-side system. After the World War II and the annexation of the city by the Soviet Union several lines were closed for service, yet most of the tramway infrastructure was preserved. However, many of the tram stops were cancelled and currently an average distance between them exceeds 2 kilometres. A Tram or Light rail system Historically, a railway, particularly one used for the carriage of minerals. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1880 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining, as the last day of May. ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Currently the Lviv tramway operator runs approximately 220 cars on 75 kilometres of tracks. Most of the tracks are in a very bad shape and so are the streetcars themselves. Most of the cars are of KT4 type, produced by the czechoslovak Tatra-Works. Newer T4+T4 are operating only on line 2. Pre-war Gothaer Waggonfabrik cars (built after 1910) are used for maintenance and utility purposes. Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). ... Tatra mountains - a mountain range, part of the Carpathian Mountains, between Poland and Slovakia. ... Gothaer Waggonfabrik (Gotha, GWF) was a German manufacturer of rolling stock established in the late nineteenth century at Warnemünde. ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Trolleybuses

After the war and the expulsion of the majority of the city's inhabitants, the city started to grow rapidly. The cancelled tramway lines in the city centre were replaced with trolleybusses on November 27, 1952. In the later period new lines were opened for communication with the blocks-of-flats areas at the city outskirts. Currently the trolleybus network runs some 200 cars, mostly of the 1960s 14Tr type. A trolleybus in Arnhem An electric trolleybus (also known as trolley bus or trackless trolley or simply trolley) is a bus powered by two overhead electric wires, from which the bus draws electricity using two trolley poles. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year. ... 1952 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ...


Railway

Modern L'viv retains its nodal position, with nine railways converging on the city. There are many destinations, both within Ukraine and international. Most cities in Ukraine can be reached from the main train station. Due to the proximity of the Polish-Ukrainian border there are several trains going to Poland (mostly via Przemyśl and Rava Ruska) for example the luxurious Kyiv-Kraków link. The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... For alternative meanings of Przemysl see: Przemysl (disambiguation page). ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ...


For more details see: Lviv Railway Station Website (http://www.railway.lviv.ua/)


Sport

Historically Lviv was one of the most important centres of sports in Central Europe. The first professional football club, Czarni Lwów, was opened in 1903, and the first stadium was opened in 1913. Currently L'viv is home to several major professional football clubs and a number of smaller clubs. Currently the only one playing in the first division (Vysha Liha) is the FK Karpaty L'viv (founded in 1963). Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the region of Europe between Eastern Europe and Western Europe. ... The striker (wearing red jersey) has run past the defender (in white jersey) and is about to take a shot at the goal, while the goalkeeper positions himself to stop the ball. ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Events January-February January 11 - The Whisky A Go-Go night club in Los Angeles, the first disco in the USA, is opened. ...


Like most of Ukrainian sport clubs, those based in Lviv have also branches that specialize in other disciplines. The following lists the major sport clubs and the discipline the club is famous for:

<-- needs expansion --> The striker (wearing red jersey) has run past the defender (in white jersey) and is about to take a shot at the goal, while the goalkeeper positions himself to stop the ball. ...


Culture

Music

Theatre

Grand Theatre (now L'viv Opera and Ballet Theatre)

Theatre in Lwow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Theatre in Lwow File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Museums and art galleries

There are many museums and art galleries in Lviv, most notable are the National Gallery, Museum of Religion (formerly Museum of Atheism) and National Museum (formerly Museum of Industry).


Education

L'viv is one of the most important education centres of Ukraine. It is home to three major universities and a number of smaller schools of higher education. There are 8 institutes of the National Science Academy of Ukraine, more than 40 research institutes, 3 academies and 11 state-owned colleges. Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


The most important are:

  • University of Lviv (Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка)
  • Lviv Polytechnic (Національний університет "Львівська політехніка")

for links to their sites see: List of universities in Ukraine Lviv Polytechnic (full name Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukrainian Національний університет Львівська політехніка, Polish Politechnika Lwowska) is the biggest scientifical university in Lviv. ... This is a partial list of universities in Ukraine. ...


Business

Industry

Tourist attractions

  • the Old Town
    • Rynok square (Old Town Market; 185,000 square metres)
      • Black House
    • Armenian Cathedral
    • Greek Cathedral
    • Latin Cathedral
    • St. Yur church
    • Dominican abbey
    • Boim Chapel
  • Vysoky Zamok hill overlooking the historical centre
  • Lychakivskiy Cemetery

The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth with official name: Rzeczpospolita Obojga Narodów (The... Lychakivskiy Cemetery (Polish Cmentarz Łyczakowski) is a famous cemetery in Lviv. ...

Films and books featuring Lviv

Portions of Schindler's List were shot in the Lviv city center, as it was less expensive to do so than in Krakow.


See also:

Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:

File links The following pages link to this file: Abu Dhabi Abraham Lincoln Australia Adolf Hitler Animation Andorra Alaska Anatomy Asia Albert Einstein Asterales Automobile Aircraft Alexander Graham Bell Apple Computer American Civil War Ancient Egypt Asteraceae Alps Arches National Park Aarhus Almond Caesar Augustus Acacia Acropolis Acupuncture Amaranth Alexander... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Lwów School of Mathematics was a group of mathematicians in the corresponding Polish city (now Lviv, Ukraine) who worked together, meeting partcularly at the Scottish Café to discuss mathematical problems. ... The murder of Lwow professors was the mass execution of approximately 45 Polish professors of the University of Lwów, their families and guests, committed in July 1941 in Lwów. ... Smirnoff is a famous vodka distillery founded in Moscow. ... Red Ruthenia (Polish: Ruś Czerwona, Latin: Ruthenia Rubra or Russia Rubra) is the name used since the medieval times to refer to the area known as Eastern Galicia prior to World War I. History Originally it was related to a certain territory between Western Bug and Wieprz rivers. ... Tourism > Tourism in Ukraine Ukraine is a country on the crossroads between central and eastern Europe, between north and south. ... On 27 July 2002, 84 people were killed and over 100 injured at an airshow in Sknyliv (Скнилів) airport near Lviv, Ukraine. ... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Arms of Exeter, showing motto Semper Fidelis is a Latin motto translating to always faithful. It is the motto of: Plymouth Argyle, and the song is played as the team enters the pitch before the start of the game. ... After the Armenian Apostolic Church, along with the rest of Oriental Orthodoxy formally broke off communion from the Chalcedonian churches, numerous Armenian bishops made attempts to restore communion with the Catholic Church. ... Massacre of prisoners was a massacre committed by Soviet NKVD on prisoners in cities from which the Red Army was withdrawing after the German invasion in 1941. ... The Curzon line was a boundary line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a border between Poland, to the west, and Lithuania, Russia and Ukraine, to the east. ... Tatar invasions of Europe from the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the middle ages to early modern period. ...

External links

In English

  • Lviv City Council (http://www.city-adm.lviv.ua/index_e.html)
  • Lvivbest.com (http://www.lvivbest.com)
  • State of Environment in L'viv institution (http://www.city-adm.lviv.ua/lviv/lviv_eng/index.htm)
  • Lemberg - Jewish Encyclopedia (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=175&letter=L)
  • Webcam view on the Lviv Opera (http://ukrtelecom.ua/en/offers/web_cam/dpm_lviv.html) - requires MS Windows

In Ukrainian

  • Business in L'viv (http://www.today.lviv.ua/)
  • Free mail (http://www.lviv.name/)

In Polish

  • Guidebook to history of Polish Lwów (http://www.lwow.com.pl)
  • Guidebook to contemporary L'viv (http://www.piotr-szczepanski.org/lwow/)
  • Lwów 1929 address book (http://www.lwow.com.pl/ksiegaadr.html)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Lviv Life | Lviv Travel Guide | Lviv Hotels Restaurants Bars Pubs and Lviv Apartments | Ukraine (414 words)
You can follow the links for tips on culture, travel and general info, and there are also a host of options when it comes to restaurants, hotels, bars, shops and things to do.
Lviv is on the crest of major change in the wake of Ukraine's Orange Revolution.
If you're exploring Eastern Europe, a trip to Lviv could easily be combined with visits to other cities such as Warsaw and Cracow.
Lviv. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (325 words)
791,000), capital of Lviv region, W Ukraine, at the watershed of the Western Bug and Dniester rivers and in the northern foothills of the Carpathian Mts.
Lviv was captured by the Poles in the 1340s, the Turks in 1672, and the Swedes in 1704.
Lviv was annexed to Ukraine by the USSR in 1939.
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