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Encyclopedia > Léon Foucault
File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 01:58, 5 Dec 2003 . . Maximus Rex (7387 bytes) File links The following... J. B. Léon Foucault
J. B. Léon Foucault

Jean Bernard Léon Foucault ( September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). There are 104 days remaining. Events 96 - Nerva elevated as Roman Emperor after Domitian was stabbed to death. 323 - Constantine the Great decisively defeats Licinius in the Battle of Chrysopolis, establishing Constantines sole control over the... 18 September Events January 17 - Simón Bolívar proclaims the Republic of Gran Colombia January 29 - Sir Singapore February 6 - Formal treaty between Sultan Hussein of Johor and the British Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles originates Singapore February 15 - The United States House of Representatives agrees to Tallmadge Amendment to bar slaves... 1819 February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 323 days remaining, 324 in leap years. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu Tenno. 731 - Gregory II ends his reign as Pope. 824 - Paschal I ends his reign as Pope... 11 February 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). Events January 3 - Meiji Emperor declares Meiji Restoration, his own restoration to full power, against the supporters of the Tokugawa Shogunate. January 10 - Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu declares emperors declaration illegal and attacks Kyoto. Pro-Emperor forces drive... 1868) was a The French Republic or France ( French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. France is a democracy organised as a... French Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), Nature) is the science of Nature in the broadest sense. Physicists study the behavior and properties of matter in a wide variety of contexts, ranging from the sub-microscopic particles... physicist best known for the invention of the For the novel Foucaults Pendulum by Umberto Eco, See Foucaults Pendulum (book). Foucaults Pendulum in the Panthéon, Paris A Foucault pendulum, or Foucaults pendulum, named after the French physicist Léon Foucault, was conceived as an experiment to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth; its... Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earth's rotation. He also made an early measurement of the speed of light, invented the A gyroscope is a device which demonstrates the principle of conservation of angular momentum, in physics. The essence of the device is a spinning wheel on an axle. The device, once spinning, tends to resist changes to its orientation. The gyroscope was invented and named in 1852 by Léon... gyroscope, and discovered In fluid dynamics, an eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current (water) created when the fluid flows past an obstacle. The moving fluid creates a space devoid of downstream-flowing water on the downstream side of the object. Fluid behind the obstacle flows into the void... eddy currents.

Contents

Early years

Foucault was the son of a publisher at The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. Paris is the capital city of France, as well as the capital of the Île-de-France région, whose territory encompasses Paris and its suburbs. The city of Paris proper is also a dé... Paris, where he was born on September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). There are 104 days remaining. Events 96 - Nerva elevated as Roman Emperor after Domitian was stabbed to death. 323 - Constantine the Great decisively defeats Licinius in the Battle of Chrysopolis, establishing Constantines sole control over the... September 18, Events January 17 - Simón Bolívar proclaims the Republic of Gran Colombia January 29 - Sir Singapore February 6 - Formal treaty between Sultan Hussein of Johor and the British Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles originates Singapore February 15 - The United States House of Representatives agrees to Tallmadge Amendment to bar slaves... 1819. After an education received chiefly at home, he studied medicine, which, however, he speedily abandoned for physical science. He first directed his attention to the improvement of Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (1787 - 1851) was the Basque artist and chemist who is recognized for his invention of the Daguerreotype process of photography. He announced its perfection after years of experimentation in 1839, with the French Academy of Sciences announcing the process on January 9 of that... L. J. M. Daguerre's photographic processes. For three years he was experimental assistant to Alfred Donné ( Events January 1 - Legislative union of Ireland completed under the Act of Union 1800, bringing about the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. January 1 - Giuseppe Piazzi discovers the first (and largest) asteroid Ceres. January 20 - John Marshall is appointed Chief Justice of the United States. February 3 - William... 1801 Events January - April January – Cleopatras Needle arrives in London January 9 - Humbert I becomes King of Italy January 23 – Disraeli orders British fleet to Dardanelles January 28 - The Yale News becomes the first daily, college newspaper in the United States. January 31 - Turkey agrees to armistice at... 1878) in his course of lectures on microscopic Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. Anatomy (from the Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things; thus there is animal anatomy ( zootomy) and plant anatomy ( phytonomy). The major branches... anatomy.


With Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau Physicist Armand Hippolyte Louis Fizeau (September 23, 1819-1896), French physicist, was born in Paris. His earliest work was concerned with improvements in photographic processes; and then, in association with J. B. L. Foucault, he engaged in a series of investigations on the interference of light... A. H. L. Fizeau he carried on a series of investigations on the intensity of the Prism splitting light Light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength that is visible to the eye, or in a more general sense, any electromagnetic radiation in the range from infrared to ultraviolet. The three basic dimensions of light (and of all electromagnetic radiation) are: intensity (or brilliance or amplitude, perceived... light of the The Sun (occasionally referred to as Sol) is the star at the centre of our solar system. Planet Earth orbits the Sun, as do innumerable other bodies including other planets, asteroids, meteoroids, comets and dust. In common usage, the primary stellar body around which an object orbits is called its... sun, as compared with that of General Name, Symbol, Number Carbon, C, 6 Chemical series Nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 2, p Density, Hardness 2267 kg/m3 0.5 (graphite) 3516 - 3525 kg/m3 10.0 (diamond) Appearance black (graphite) colourless (diamond) Atomic properties Atomic mass 12.0107 u Atomic radius (calc.) 70 (67) pm... carbon in the The 300,000-watt Plasma Arc Lamp in the Infrared Processing Center (IPC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory An arc lamp is a device that produces light by the sparking (or arcing, from voltaic arc) of a high current between two carbon rod electrodes. The rods are touched and then... arc lamp, and of Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime or quicklime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic and alkaline crystalline solid. As a commercial product lime often also contains magnesium oxide, silicon oxide and smaller amounts of aluminium oxide and iron oxide. Calcium oxide is usually made... lime in the flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe; on the interference of Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. The name means below red (from the Latin infra, below), red being the color of visible light of longest... infrared radiation, and of light rays differing greatly in lengths of path; and on the chromatic This article treats polarization in electrodynamics. Other articles treat polarization in electrostatics, polarization in politics and polarization in psychology. In electrodynamics, polarization is a property of waves, such as light and other electromagnetic radiation. Unlike more familiar wave phenomena such as waves on water or sound waves, electromagnetic waves are... polarization of light.


Middle years

In the Events and Trends First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi New Zealand. The treaty between the British Crown and Maori made New Zealand a British colony and is considered the founding point of modern New Zealand. Introduction of the postage... 1840s, he contributed to the Comptes Rendus a description of an electromagnetic regulator for the electric arc lamp, and, in conjunction with Henri Victor Regnault (July 21, 1810 - January 19, 1878) was a French chemist and physicist best known for his careful measurements of the thermal properties of gases. Born in Aix-la-Chapelle in 1810, he moved to Paris following the death of his parents at the age of eight. There... Henri Victor Regnault, a paper on binocular Vision can refer to: Visual perception is one of the senses. vision (religion) Vision can mean an imagined picturing originating with not-so-divine sources: politicians, business planners and change gurus play on this sense of the word. A company vision may express a corporate long-term goal - not to... vision. In Events January 4 - The first American ice-skating club is formed (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). January 29 - Henry Clay introduces the Compromise of 1850 to the U.S. Congress February 28 - University of Utah opens in Salt Lake City, Utah March 7 - United States Senator Daniel Webster gives his Seventh of March... 1850, by the use of a revolving mirror similar to that used by Sir Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 _ October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) and the Wheatstone bridge. He was a major figure in the development... Charles Wheatstone for measuring the speed of electric currents, he was able to demonstrate the greater Cherenkov effect in a swimming pool nuclear reactor. The effect is due to electrons moving faster than the speed at which light moves in water. The speed of light (denoted as c, reputedly from the Latin celeritas, speed, and also known as Einsteins constant) in a vacuum is exactly... speed of light in air than in water, and to establish that the speed of light in different media is inversely as the The refractive index of a material is the factor by which electromagnetic radiation is slowed down (relative to vacuum) when it travels inside the material. For a non-magnetic material, the square of the refractive index is the materials dielectric constant (sometimes expressed as the relative permittivity multiplied by... refractive indices of the media (see The Fizeau-Foucault apparatus (1850) was designed by the French physicists Hippolyte Fizeau and Léon Foucault for measuring the speed of light. The apparatus involves light reflecting off a rotating mirror, toward a stationary mirror some 20 miles (35 kilometers) away. As the rotating mirror will have moved slightly... Fizeau-Foucault Apparatus).


For his demonstration in Events January 23 - The flip of a coin determines whether a new city in Oregon is named after Boston, Massachusetts, or Portland, Maine, with Portland winning. March 1 - Victor Hugo gives speech at the French national assembly and uses the phrase United States of Europe several times March 27 - First... 1851 of the diurnal motion of the Earth by the rotation of the plane of oscillation of a freely suspended, long and heavy pendulum exhibited by him at the Panthéon in The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. Paris is the capital city of France, as well as the capital of the Île-de-France région, whose territory encompasses Paris and its suburbs. The city of Paris proper is also a dé... Paris, and again in the following year by means of his invention the A gyroscope is a device which demonstrates the principle of conservation of angular momentum, in physics. The essence of the device is a spinning wheel on an axle. The device, once spinning, tends to resist changes to its orientation. The gyroscope was invented and named in 1852 by Léon... gyroscope, he received the The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. It is also the societys oldest award, the first medal being awarded in 1731. The award was created after a £100 bequest in 1709 to... Copley medal of the The Royal Society of London is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence and was founded in 1660. The Royal Irish Academy, founded in 1782, is also closely affiliated with it. The Royal Society of Edinburgh (founded 1783) is a separate Scottish body. The premises of the... Royal Society in Events January 23 - The first bridge over the Mississippi River opens in what is now Minneapolis, Minnesota, a crossing made today by the Father Louis Hennepin Bridge. George Hamilton-Gordon is forced to resign as Prime Minister of Britain because of bad management of the campaigns in the Crimean War... 1855, and in the same year he was made physical assistant in the imperial observatory at Paris.


In September of that year he discovered that the In physics, a net force acting on a body causes that body to accelerate; that is, to change its velocity. The concept appeared first in the second law of motion of classical mechanics. It is usually expressed by the equation F = m · a where F is the force, measured in... force required for the rotation of a Copper is also the title of a web and print comic: see Copper (comic). General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11 , 4, d Density, Hardness 8920 kg/m3, 3.0 Appearance copper, metallic Atomic properties Atomic weight 63.546 amu Atomic radius... copper disc becomes greater when it is made to rotate with its rim between the poles of a Magnetic lines of force of a bar magnet shown by iron filings on paper A magnet is an object that has a magnetic field. The word magnet comes from the Greek magnítis líthos (μαγνήτης λίθος), which means... magnet, the disc at the same time becoming heated by the In fluid dynamics, an eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current (water) created when the fluid flows past an obstacle. The moving fluid creates a space devoid of downstream-flowing water on the downstream side of the object. Fluid behind the obstacle flows into the void... eddy current or "Foucault currents" induced in the metal.

Enlarge
Diagram of a variant of J. B. Léon Foucault Jean Bernard Léon Foucault (18 September 1819–11 February 1868) was a French physicist best known for the invention of the Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earths rotation. He also made an early measurement of the speed of... Leon Foucault's speed of light experiment where a modern laser is the source of light.

Foucault invented in 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). Events January 9 - Earthquake at Fort Tejon, California with an estimated magnitude of 7.9 February 16 - The National Deaf Mute College (later renamed Gallaudet University) is established in Washington, DC becoming the first school for the advanced... 1857 the polarizer which bears his name, and in the succeeding year devised a method of giving to the mirror of reflecting telescopes the shape of a A spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. If the ellipse is rotated about its major axis, the surface is called a prolate spheroid (similar to the shape of a rugby ball). If the minor axis is chosen... spheroid or a In mathematics, a paraboloid is a quadric, a type of surface in three dimensions, described by the equation: (elliptic paraboloid), or (hyperbolic paraboloid). Hyperbolic paraboloid. There are two kinds of paraboloid: elliptic and hyperbolic. The elliptic paraboloid is shaped like a cup and can have a maximum or minimum point... paraboloid of revolution. With Wheatstone’s revolving mirror he in Events January-March January 10 - End of term for John Gately Downey, 7th Governor of California. He is succeeded by Amasa Leland Stanford. January 30 - The first American ironclad warship, the USS Monitor is launched. February 1 - Julia Ward Howes Battle Hymn of the Republic is published for the... 1862 determined the speed of light to be 298,000 A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). It is approximately equal to 0.621 miles, 1094 yards or 3281 feet. Slang terms for kilometre include klick (sometimes spelt click or klik... km/ This article is about the unit of time. See second (disambiguation) for other uses The second (symbol s) is a unit for time, and one of seven SI base units. It is defined as the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between... s (about 185,000 A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. Today, one mile is mainly equal to about 1609 metres on land and 1852 metres at sea and in the air, but see below for the details. Current definitions The meanings of mile that are... mi./s) —10,000 km/s less than that obtained by previous experimenters and only 0.6% off the currently accepted value.


Later years

He was created in that year a member of the Bureau des Longitudes and an officer of the Legion of Honour. In Events January - March January 21 - Maori Wars: The Tauranga Campaign starts. February 27 - American Civil War: The first Northern prisoners arrive at the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Georgia. March 1- Alejandro Mon Menéndez takes office as Prime Minister of Spain March 10 - American Civil War: The Red River Campaign... 1864 he was made a foreign member of the The Royal Society of London is claimed to be the oldest learned society still in existence and was founded in 1660. The Royal Irish Academy, founded in 1782, is also closely affiliated with it. The Royal Society of Edinburgh (founded 1783) is a separate Scottish body. The premises of the... Royal Society of London, and next year a member of the mechanical section of the Institute. In 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. Events January 31 - American Civil War: Confederate General Robert E. Lee becomes general-in-chief. February - The Only known month in History without a Full moon. February 17 - American Civil War: Columbia, South Carolina burns as Confederate forces flee from advancing Union... 1865 appeared his papers on a modification of This article is about the Scottish engineer and inventor. For Ronald Reagans Secretary of the Interior, see James G. Watt. James Watt (January 19, 1736–August 19, 1819) was a Scottish mathematician and engineer whose improvements to the steam engine were a key stage in the Industrial Revolution... Watt's governor, upon which he had for some time been experimenting with a view to making its period of revolution constant, and on a new apparatus for regulating the electric light; and in the following year (Compt. Rend. lxiii.) he showed how, by the deposition of a transparently thin film of General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series Transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5 , d Density, Hardness 10490 kg/m3, 2.5 Appearance Lustrous white metal Atomic properties Atomic weight 107.8683 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 160 (165) pm Covalent radius 153 pm van der Waals radius 172... silver on the outer side of the object glass of a telescope, the sun could be viewed without injuring the eye. From the year 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). Events January 29 - The Raven by Edgar Allan Poe is published for the first time (New York Evening Mirror). March 1 - President John Tyler signs a bill authorizing the United States to annex the Republic of Texas. March... 1845 he edited the scientific portion of the Journal des Débats. His chief scientific papers are to be found in the Comptes Rendus, Events January January 4 - Samuel Colt sells his first revolver pistol to the United States government. January 13 - The Treaty of Cahuenga ends the Mexican-American War in California. January 16 - John C. Fremont is appointed Governor of the new California Territory. January 30 - Yerba Buena, California is renamed San... 1847 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events March 1 - North German Confederation issues 10gr and 30gr value stamps, printed on goldbeaters skin May 4 - Naval Battle of Hakodate in Japan. May 10 - Transcontinental Railroad completed at Promontory, Utah. May 15 - Woman... 1869.


Death and afterwards

Foucault died of paralysis on February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 323 days remaining, 324 in leap years. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu Tenno. 731 - Gregory II ends his reign as Pope. 824 - Paschal I ends his reign as Pope... February 11, 1868 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). Events January 3 - Meiji Emperor declares Meiji Restoration, his own restoration to full power, against the supporters of the Tokugawa Shogunate. January 10 - Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu declares emperors declaration illegal and attacks Kyoto. Pro-Emperor forces drive... 1868 at Paris and was buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre.


External links

  • Dvorak, Rudolf, "Jean Bernard Léon Foucault (http://ams.astro.univie.ac.at/~nendwich/Science/SoFi/portrait.html)(1850s) — an Applied Physicist".

This article incorporates text from the The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. (Proprietary interest is typically represented by a copyright or patent.) Such works and inventions are considered part of... public domain The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. The edition is still often regarded as the greatest edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, with many articles being up to 10 times the length of... 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica.


 
 

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