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Encyclopedia > Légion d'honneur
French Legion of Honor

The Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honor (AmE) or Legion of Honour (ComE)) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. First instituted by Napoléon Bonaparte, First Consul of the French Republic, on May 19, 1802, it is one of the most prestigious French awards and the country's highest civilian honor. This Order replaces the previous Orders of Saint Michael, The Holy Spirit, Saint Louis, Saint Lazarus and Mount Carmel. French Legion This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... French Legion This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... American English or U.S. English is the diverse form of the English language used mostly in the United States of America. ... Commonwealth English is intended as a collective term for the perceived standard English language used in the Commonwealth of Nations1, applying in theory to Australian English, British English, Caribbean English, Canadian English, Hiberno-English (Irish English)2, Hong Kong English, Indian English (includes Pakistani English), New Zealand English, and South... An Order is a decoration, awarded by a government to an individual, usually for distinguished service to a nation or to humanity. ... Bonaparte as general, by Antoine-Jean Gros. ... Originally, three equal Consuls made up the government established by Napoleon Bonaparte after the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9, 1799), which established the Consulate in France (1799-1804). ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... 1802 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem is a religious/military order dating back to the First Crusade. ...

Contents

Description

Legion d'honneur ribbon The order is conferred upon men and women, either French citizens or foreigners, for outstanding achievements in military or civil life. In practice, in current usage, the order is conferred, in addition to military recipients, to many entrepreneurs, high-level civil servants, sport champions as well as other people with high connections in the executive. French Legion of Honor Ribbon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... An entrepreneur -derived from the French words entre (ie: enter) and prendre(ie: take)- is, in its most general sense, a person who creates or starts a new project, opportunity, or venture. ... The French Civil Service (fonction publique) is the set of civil servants (fonctionnaires) working for the French government. ... A champion is one who has repeatedly come out first among contestants in a challenge or other test, one who is outstandingly skilled in their field. ...


According to some sources, Napoleon declared: On appelle ça des hochets, je sais, on l'a dit déjà. Et bien, j'ai répondu que c'est avec des hochets que l'on mène les hommes. — "These are called [trinkets], I know, it has already been said. Well, I answered that it's with [trinkets] that you lead people." (The French word hochet means a child's rattle).


Composition

Grand Officer's badge

The President of France is the Grand Master of the Order and appoints all other members of the Order—by convention, on the advice of the Government. Following Continental practice (unlike the British orders), the Legion of Honor has no Sovereign. Its principal officers are the Chancellor and Secretary-General. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The President of France, known officially as the President of the Republic (Président de la République in French), is Frances elected Head of State. ...


The Legion has five classes:

  • Grand Cross - wears the badge on a sash on the right shoulder, plus the star on the left chest;
  • Grand Officer - wears the badge on a ribbon with rosette on the left chest, plus the star on the right chest;
  • Commander - wears the badge on a necklet;
  • Officer - wears the badge on a ribbon with rosette on the left chest;
  • Chevalier - wears the badge on a ribbon on the left chest.

The Order has a maximum quota of 75 Commanders Grand Cross, 250 Grand Officers, 1,250 Commanders, 10,000 Officers and 113,425 (ordinary) Chevaliers. As of 2000 the actual membership was 61 Commanders Grand Cross, 321 Grand Officers, 3,626 Commanders, 22,401 Officers and 87,371 Chevaliers. Appointments of veterans of World War II, French military personnel involved in the North African Campaign and other foreign French military operations, as well as wounded soldiers, are made independently of the quota. Rosettes are small, circular devices that are presented with a medal. ... Rosettes are small, circular devices that are presented with a medal. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


In 1998, all surviving veterans of World War I from any country who had fought on French soil were made Chevaliers of the Legion if they were not so already, as part of the commemoration of the 80th anniversary of the war's end. In December 2004, on the occasion of his 110th birthday, France's oldest surviving veteran of the war, Maurice Flocquet, was promoted to Officer. 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A supercentenarian (sometimes hyphenated super-centenarian) is someone who has reached the age of 110 years or more, something achieved by only one in a thousand centenarians (1/10th of 1%, based on European data). ...


Members convicted of severe crimes (crimes in French) are dismissed de jure from the order. Members convicted of lesser felonies (délits in French) can be dismissed too. De jure (in Classical Latin de iure) is an expression that means by law, as contrasted with de facto, which means in fact. The terms de jure and de facto are used like in principle and in practice when one is describing political situations. ...


Wearing the decoration of the Legion of Honor without having the right to do so is an offense.


Insignia

  • The badge of the Legion is a five-armed 'Maltese Asterisk' (for want of a better description — see Maltese Cross) in gilt (in silver for chevalier) enameled white, with an enameled laurel and oak wreath between the arms. The obverse central disc is in gilt, featuring the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République Française on a blue enamel ring. The reverse central disc is also in gilt, with a set of crossed tricolore, surrounded by the Legion's motto Honneur et patrie (Honour and Fatherland) and its foundation date on a blue enamel ring. The badge is suspended by a enameled laurel and oak wreath.
  • The star (or "plaque") is worn by Grand Cross (in gilt on the left chest) and Grand Officer (in silver on the right chest) respectively; it is similar to be badge, but without enamel, and with the wreath replaced by a cluster of rays in between each arm. The central disc features the head of Marianne, surrounded by the legend République Française and the motto "Honneur et patrie".
  • The ribbon for the badge is plain red.

The badge or star is not worn usually, except at the time of the decoration ceremony or on a dress uniform. Instead, one normally wears the ribbon or rosette on one's suit. This article refers to the asterisk symbol. ... The Maltese Cross (✠) has been the symbol of the Christian warrior since the First Crusade. ... A gilt is any of the following: A thin covering of gold. ... Some trees and shrubs in the laurel family Lauraceae are called Laurel: Bay laurel Laurus nobilis, the original true laurel that is the source of bay leaves used as a seasoning. ... Oakland International Airport is located in Oakland, California and serves the San Francisco Bay Area metro region. ... A gilt is any of the following: A thin covering of gold. ... Marianne busts with features of Brigitte Bardot - ? - ? - Catherine Deneuve - Mireille Mathieu For the Tori Amos song see Marianne (song). ... A gilt is any of the following: A thin covering of gold. ... The term tricolore can refer to: the Flag of France (in French, le drapeau tricolore or, rarely, le tricolore) the Flag of Italy (in Italian: il tricolore) the Flag of Russia (in Russian: триколор) a tricolour banner or flag which has three colours, usually in approximately equal size (horizontally or... A gilt is any of the following: A thin covering of gold. ... Marianne busts with features of Brigitte Bardot - ? - ? - Catherine Deneuve - Mireille Mathieu For the Tori Amos song see Marianne (song). ... A ribbon is a thin band of flexible material, typically cloth but also plastic or sometimes metal, used primarily for binding and tying. ... This page describes uniform in the sense of clothing. ... Rosettes are small, circular devices that are presented with a medal. ...


Museum of the Legion of Honor

The Musée national de la Legion d'Honneur can be found at:

2, rue de la Légion d'honneur
F-75007 Paris
Open daily (except on Mondays) 2–5 pm
RER: Musée d'Orsay (opposite the main entrance of the Musée d'Orsay)

Musée dOrsay Inside the main hall The Musée dOrsay is a museum in Paris, situated on the left bank of the River Seine. ...

See also

The Ordre de la Libération (Order of the Liberation) is a French honorific title awarded to heroes of the Liberation of France during the Second World War. ... The Ordre National du Mérite (in English: The National Order of Merit) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... An Order is a decoration, awarded by a government to an individual, usually for distinguished service to a nation or to humanity. ... State decorations are orders, medals and other decorations granted by a sovereign state. ... A list of famous prizes, medals, and awards including cups, trophies, bowls, badges, state decorations etc. ... A garter is one of the Orders most recognisable insignia. ...

External link

  • Chancery of the Legion of Honour (http://www.legiondhonneur.fr/) (in French)

 
 

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