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Encyclopedia > L'Aquila
City centre.
City centre.
Comune dell'Aquila

Municipal coat of arms
Country Flag of Italy Italy
Region Abruzzo
Province L'Aquila (AQ)
Mayor Massimo Cialente
Elevation 714 m
Area 466 km²
Population
 - Total 69,368
 - Density 135/km²
Time zone CET, UTC+1
Coordinates 42°21′N, 13°24′E
Gentilic Aquilani
Dialing code 0862
Postal code 67100
Frazioni see list
Patron St. Maximus, St. Equitius, St. Peter Celestine, St. Bernardino of Siena
 - Day June 10

Location of L'Aquila in Italy
Website: www.comune.laquila.it
Santa Maria di Collemaggio.
San Pietro's square.
San Pietro's square.

L'Aquila is a city and comune of central Italy. Laid out within medieval walls on a hill in the wide valley of the Aterno river, and surrounded by the Apennine Mountains, with the Gran Sasso d'Italia to the north-east, it is both the capital of the Abruzzo region and the seat of the province of L'Aquila. Described as "the most handsome city of the Abruzzo" by the Finacial Times, l'Aquila sits upon hillside in the middle of a narrow valley, tall snow-capped mountains of the of the Gran Sasso massif flank the town. A maze of narrow streets lined with baroque or renaissance buildings and churches, opening onto elegant piazzas, home to the University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila is a lively college town and as such has many cultural institutions: a repertory theater, a symphony orchestra, a fine-arts academy, a state conservatory, and a film institute. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x679, 444 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): LAquila ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x679, 444 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): LAquila ... Image File history File links L'Aquila-Stemma. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Regions of Italy were granted a degree of regional autonomy in the 1948 constitution, which states that the constitutions role is: to recognize, protect and promote local autonomy, to ensure that services at the State level are as decentralized as possible, and to adapt the principles and laws... Abruzzo is a region of Italy bordering Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... In Italy, a province (in Italian: provincia) is an administrative division of intermediate level between municipality (comune) and region (regione). ... Aquila (It. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Here are a list of area codes in Italy. ... A frazione, in Italy, is the name given in administrative law to a type of territorial subdivision of a comune; for other subdivisions, see municipio, circoscrizione, quartiere. ... City centre. ... Saint Maximus of Aquila (d. ... Pope Celestine V (c. ... Saint Bernardino of Siena (sometimes Bernardine, September 8, 1380 – May 20, 1444) was an Italian preacher, Franciscan missionary and Christian saint. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Italy_Regions_220px_(including_Pelagie_Islands). ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links L'aquila07. ... Image File history File links L'aquila07. ... In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ... The Aterno is a river in eastern Italy. ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... Gran Sasso (Italian for great stone), a massif located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy, is the highest of the Apennines and the centerpiece of a national park (established 1991). ... Abruzzo is a region of Italy bordering Marche to the north, Lazio to the west and south-west, Molise to the south-east and the Adriatic Sea to the east. ... Aquila (It. ... Gran Sasso (Italian for great stone), a massif located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy, is the highest of the Apennines and the centerpiece of a national park (established 1991). ... The University of LAquila (Italian: Università degli Studi dellAquila) is a university located in LAquila, Italy. ...

Contents

History

The city construction was begun by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily out of several already existing villages (ninety-nine, according to local tradition; see Amiternum), as a bulwark against the power of the papacy. The name of Aquila ("Eagle" in Italian) was indeed chosen after the heraldic eagle in the Hohenstaufen arms. The construction was completed in 1254 under Frederick's son, Conrad IV of Germany. The name was switched to Aquila degli Abruzzi in 1861, and L'Aquila in 1939. After the death of Conrad, the city was destroyed by his brother Manfred in 1259, but soon rebuilt by Charles I of Anjou, its successor as king of Sicily. The walls were completed in 1316. Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Amerernum is an ancient Sabine prefectura in the Abruzzo region of modern Italy. ... Arms of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty The Hohenstaufen (or the Staufer(s)) were a dynasty of Kings of Germany, many of whom were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor and Dukes of Swabia. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Conrad IV, Conrad of Hohenstaufen (April 25, 1228 Andria, Italy – May 21, 1254, Lavello), was king of Jerusalem (as Conrad II) 1228–1254, of Germany 1237–1254, and of Sicily (as Conrad I) 1250–1254. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles I (March 1227 - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous son of King Louis VIII of France, created Count of Anjou by his elder brother King Louis IX in 1246, thus founding the second Angevin dynasty. ...


It quickly became the second city of the kingdom of Naples. It was an autonomous city, ruled by a diarchy composed of the City Council (which had varying names and composition over the centuries) and the King's Captain. It fell initially under the lordship of Niccolò dell'Isola, appointed by the people as People's Knight, then killed when he became a tyrant. Later, it fell under Pietro "Lalle" Camponeschi, Count of Montorio, who became the third side of a new triarchy, with the Council and the King's Captain. Camponeschi, who was also Great Chancellor of the kingdom of Naples, become too powerful, and was killed by order of Prince Louis of Taranto. His descendants fought with the Pretatti family for power for several generations, but never again attained the power of their ancestor. The last, and the one true "lord" of L'Aquila, was Ludovico Franchi, who challenged the power of the pope by giving refuge to Alfonso I d'Este, former duke of Ferrara, and the children of Giampaolo Baglioni, deposed signor of Perugia. In the end, however, the Aquilans, always fond of their freedom, had him deposed and imprisoned by the king of Naples. Louis of Taranto (1320-1362): of the Anjou family, Prince of Taranto, King of Naples. ... Portrait of Alfonso dEste by an unknown artist Alfonso dEste (1486–1534) was Duke of Ferrara during the War of the League of Cambrai. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of Dukes of Modena. ... Gian Paolo Baglioni (c. ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: Country Italy Region Umbria Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...


The power of L'Aquila was based on the close connection between the city and its mother-villages, which had established the city as a federation, each of them building a borough and considering it as a part of the mother-village. That is also why number 99 is so important in the architecture of L'Aquila, and a very peculiar monument, the Fountain of the 99 Spouts (Fontana delle 99 Cannelle), was given its name to celebrate the ancient origin of the town. The City Council was originally composed of the Mayors of the villages, and the city had no legal existence until King Carlo II of Naples appointed a "Camerlengo", responsible for city tributes (previously paid separately by each of its mother-villages). Later, the Camerlengo also took political power, as President of the City Council.


From its beginnings the city constituted an important market for the surrounding countryside, which provided it with a regular supply of food: from the fertile valleys came the precious saffron; the surrounding mountain pastures provided summer grazing for numerous transhumant flocks of sheep, which in turn supplied abundant raw materials for export and, to a lesser extent, small local industries, which in time brought craftsmen and merchants from outside the area.


Within a few decades L'Aquila became a crossroads in communications between cities within and beyond the Kingdom, thanks to the so-called "via degli Abruzzi", which ran from Florence to Naples by way of Perugia, Rieti, L'Aquila, Sulmona, Isernia, Venafro, Teano and Capua. Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: Country Italy Region Umbria Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617. ... Capua is a city in the province of Caserta, (Campania, Italy) situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Napoli, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ...


Negotiations for the succession of Edmund, son of Henry III of England, to the throne of the Kingdom of Sicily involved L'Aquila in the web of interests linking the Papal Curia to the English court. On 23rd December 1256, Pope Alexander IV elevated the churches of Saints Massimo and Giorgio to the status of cathedrals as a reward to the citizens of L'Aquila for their opposition to King Manfred who, in July 1259, had the city razed to the ground in an attempt to destroy the negotiations. The denuus reformator was Charles I of Anjou, but the city really became known beyond the borders of the Kingdom as a result of the exceptionally important event that took place on August 29, 1294, when the hermit Pietro del Morrone was consecrated as pope Celestine V in the church of S. Maria di Collemaggio, in commemoration of which the new pope decreed the annual religious rite of the pardon, Perdonanza, still observed today on August 28 and 29: it is the immediate ancestor of the Jubilee Year. Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... Alexander IV, né Rinaldo Conti (Anagni, ca. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Onuphrius lived as a hermit in the desert of Upper Egypt in the late 4th century A hermit (from the Greek erÄ“mos, signifying desert, uninhabited, hence desert-dweller) is a person who lives to some greater or lesser degree in seclusion and/or isolation from society. ... Pope Celestine V (1215 – May 19, 1296), born Pietro Angelerio, also known as Pietro del Morrone (according to some sources Angelario or Angelieri or Angelliero or Angeleri), was elected Pope in the year 1294. ... The concept of the Jubilee is a special year of remission of sins and universal pardon. ...


The pontificate of Celestine gave a new impulse to building development, as can be seen from the city statutes. In 1311, moreover, King Robert of Anjou granted privileges which had a decisive influence on the development of trade. These privileges protected all activities related to sheep-farming, exempting them from customs duties on imports and exports. This was the period in which merchants from Tuscany (Scale, Bonaccorsi) and Rieti purchased houses in the city. Hence the conditions for radical political renewal: in 1355 the trade guilds of leather-workers, metal-workers, merchants and learned men were brought into the government of the city, and these together with the Camerario and the Cinque constituted the new Camera Aquilana. Eleven years earlier, in 1344, the King had granted the city its own mint.


The middle of the 14th century was a period of great crisis for L'Aquila, as for the whole of Europe. The city was struck so frequently by plague epidemics (1348, 1363) and earthquakes (1349) that it gave the appearance of having been abandoned. Reconstruction began soon, however. Many are the signs of the importance L'Aquila had reached by the turn of the 14th-15th century: Jewish families came to live in the city; the generals of the Franciscan Order chose the city as the seat of the Order's general chapters (1376, 1408, 1411, 1450, 1452, 1495); friar Bernardino of Siena, of the Franciscan order of the Observance, visited L'Aquila twice, the first time to preach in the presence of King René of Naples, and in 1444, on his second visit, he died in the city. The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Saint Bernardino of Siena (sometimes Bernardine, September 8, 1380 – May 20, 1444) was an Italian preacher, Franciscan missionary and Christian saint. ... Statue of King René, Aix-en-Provence. ...


The Osservanti branch of the Franciscan order had a decisive influence on L'Aquila. As a result of initiatives by Fra Giovanni da Capistrano and fra Giacomo della Marca, Lombard masters undertook, in the relatively undeveloped north-east of the city, an imposing series of buildings centring on the hospital of S. Salvatore (1446) and the convent and the basilica of S. Bernardino. The construction work was long and difficult, mainly because of the earthquake of 1461, which caused the buildings to collapse, and the translation of the body of S. Bernardino did not take place until May 14, 1472. The whole city suffered serious damage on the occasion of the earthquake, and two years went by before repairs on the churches and convents began. Saint Giovanni da Capistrano (English:John Capistrano, June 24, 1386 – October 23, 1456), Italian friar, theologian and inquisitor, was born in the village of Capistrano, in the diocese of Sulmona in the Abruzzi. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 - Orkney and Shetland are returned by Norway to Scotland, due to a defaulted dowry payment Possible discovery of Bacalao (possibly Newfoundland, North America) by João Vaz Corte-Real. ...


This period ended in the 16th century, when Spanish viceroy Philibert van Oranje destroyed L'Aquila and established Spanish feudalism in its countryside. The city, separated from its roots, never developed again. It was destroyed, for the third time (the first was in 1258, by King Manfredi of Sicily, while still unfinished), by an earthquake in 1703. Successive earthquakes have repeatedly damaged the city's large Duomo. Philibert de Châlon (18 March 1502 - 3 August 1530) was the last prince of Orange from the house of Châlon. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... The Duomo of Florence, Santa Maria del Fiore Front of Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore the Duomo Duomo is a generic Italian term for a cathedral church. ...


The city was also sacked two times by French troops in 1799. Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[5] Saxony[6] Denmark [7] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


L'Aquila like so much of Italy is a city of political contrasts. In the 1970s a novel by Alberto Moravia was seized because considered obscene and a local Catholic Archbishop protested the nudity of a centuries-old statue of a young man, and a group of local reactionaries even asked for the seizure of the £ 50 coin, because it showed a naked man. In the late 90s, a municipal swimming pool was dedicated to fascist minister Adelchi Serena, whose main claim to fame was having said that racial laws against Jews had been too mild. However, in October 2003 a liberal judge in l'Aquila ordered the small town of Ofena to remove a crucifix from its elementary school so as to not to offend the religious sensibilities of two young muslim students. After a national outcry, the judge's decision was overturned. Alberto Moravia. ...

The façade of the San Bernardino basilica.
The façade of the San Bernardino basilica.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (750x1000, 596 KB) From the Italian Wikipedia File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): LAquila Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (750x1000, 596 KB) From the Italian Wikipedia File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): LAquila Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera...

Main sights

Although less than two hours' drive from Rome, and a popular summer and winter resort with Romans hiking and skiing in the surrounding mountains, the city has not yet been heavily affected by foreign tourism. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


In the highest part of the town is the massive fortress (Forte Spagnolo), erected by the Spanish viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo in 1534. It is currently home to the National Museum of Abruzzo. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The Cathedral (Duomo) was built in the 13th but crumbled down during the 1703 earthquake. The current façade is from the 19th century.


The church of San Bernardino di Siena (1472) has a fine Renaissance façade by Nicolò Filotesio (commonly called Cola dell'Amatrice), and contains the monumental tomb of the saint, decorated with beautiful sculptures, and executed by Silvestro Ariscola in 1480. Nicolò Filotesio was a Neapolitan painter and architect of the early 1500s. ...


The church of S. Maria di Collemaggio, just outside the town, has a very fine Romanesque façade of simple design (1270-1280) in red and white marble, with three finely decorated portals and a rose-window above each. The two side doors are also fine. The interior contains the mausoleum of Pope Celestine V erected in 1517. Many smaller churches in the town have similar façades (S. Giusta, S. Silvestro and others). S. Maria di Collemaggio is a large medieval church in LAquila, celebrated not only for its architecture, but also as the site of the original Papal Jubilee, a penitential observation devised by Pope Celestine V, who is buried here. ... Pope Celestine V (1215 – May 19, 1296), born Pietro Angelerio, also known as Pietro del Morrone (according to some sources Angelario or Angelieri or Angelliero or Angeleri), was elected Pope in the year 1294. ...


The town also contains some fine palaces: the municipality has a museum, with a collection of Roman inscriptions and some illuminated service books. The Palazzi Dragonetti and Persichetti contain private collections of pictures. Outside the town is the Fontana delle novantanove cannelle, a fountain with ninety-nine jets distributed along three walls, constructed in 1272. The source of the fountain is still unknown.


A well-known city landmark is the Fontana Luminosa ("Luminous Fountain"), a sculpture of two women bearing large jars, built in the 1930s. The local cemetery includes the grave of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, a 19th‑century German gay rights pioneer, who lived and died at L'Aquila: every year, gay people from all over the world meet at the cemetery to honour his memory. Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... -1... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also...


The surrounding area boasts Roman ruins (the important Roman city of Amiternum), ancient monasteries, and numerous castles. The best-known of these is Rocca Calascio (used in the 1980s as the location for the movie Ladyhawke), which is the highest castle in Italy and one of the highest in Europe. Also nearby are several ski resorts for Gran Sasso d'Italia, the highest of the Apennines. Amerernum is an ancient Sabine prefectura in the Abruzzo region of modern Italy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ladyhawke is a 1985 film starring Matthew Broderick, Rutger Hauer and Michelle Pfeiffer, directed by Richard Donner. ... Gran Sasso (Italian for great stone), a massif located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy, is the highest of the Apennines and the centerpiece of a national park (established 1991). ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ...


Sport

The city is the home of L'Aquila Rugby, five times Italian champion. Official website www. ...


Frazioni

Aquilio, Aragno, Aringo, Arischia, Assergi, Bagno, Bazzano, Camarda, Cansatessa, Casaline, Cermone, Cese, Civita di Bagno, Colle di Preturo, Colle di Sassa, Colle Roio - Poggio di Roio, Collebrincioni, Collefracido, Coppito, Filetto, Foce, Forcelle, Genzano, Gignano, Monticchio, Onna, Paganica, Pagliare di Sassa, Pescomaggiore, Palombaia, Pettino, Pianola, Pile, Pizzutillo, Poggio Roio, Poggio Santa Maria, Pozza di Preturo, Pratelle, Preturo, Ripa, Roio Piano - Poggio di Roio, San Giacomo alto, San Giuliano, San Gregorio, San Leonardo, San Marco Di Preturo, San Martino di Sassa, Santa Rufina, Sant'Angelo, Sant'Elia, Santi, San Vittorino, Sassa, Tempera, Torretta, Valle Pretara, Vallesindola, Vasche. The main square and the church of Santa Maria Assunta in Paganica. ...


Twinned cities

L'Aquila has been twinned with these cities:

Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Rottweil Watershed of the Neckar River Watershed of the Rhine River Rottweil is the oldest town in southwestern Germany, in the State of Baden-Württemberg. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... York is a very diverse and vibrant community in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Location of Cuenca in Spain Looking through an arch in old Cuenca Cuenca is a city (2004 pop. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Hobart is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lubusz Municipal government Rada Miasta Zielona Góra Mayor Bożena Ronowicz Area 58,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 118 730 - 2047/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1323 Latitude Longitude 51°56 N 15°30 E Area code +48 68 Car plates FZ Twin... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Bernalda is a town and comune in the province of Matera, in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... County BistriÅ£a-Năsăud County Status County capital Mayor Moldovan Vasile, Democratic Party, since 2000 Population (2002) 81,467 Geographical coordinates Web site http://www. ...

References

  • Bindi (1889). Monumenti storici ed artistici degli Abruzzi. 
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

  • Official website
  • A portal for L'Aquila
  • Inside Abruzzo: Insider Tips Uncovered
  • |n the Land of Bears and Castles, The Financial Times (29 June 2007)
  • Image gallery
  • newsgroup <italia.laquila.discussioni>
  • L'Aquila Rugby
  • L'Aquila Tourism Places of interest in L'Aquila
  • Turistical and historical informations about L'Aquila, Abruzzo

  Results from FactBites:
 
L'Aquila, prov. of L'Aquila, Abruzzo (931 words)
L'Aquila is the main historical and artistic centre of Abruzzi, has an archbishopry and is renowned for its University, Musical Conservatory, Arts Academy, Theatre and Concert Society, National Museum of the Abruzzi and the ancient Salvatore Tommasi library.
L'Aquila was abandoned for seven years until Manfredi himself was defeated and killed in a battle near Benevento (southern Italy) by Charles II of Anjou, who authorized the rebuilding of the city and order the construction of high walls all around it.
In 1529, the army of Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire sacked L'Aquila, its territory was dismembered and its liberties revoked, and a heavy burden was imposed on it with the construction of the massive castle "ad reprimendam aquilanorum audaciam".
A Concrete Subcontractor for Trump Has Been Banned From City Contracts - New York Times (540 words)
Laquila, which had a $2.5 million contract to build concrete decking for a new wing at the hospital, had secretly and illegally subcontracted the work to a second company for $1.4 million, enabling Laquila to collect a $1 million profit.
In several instances, Laquila failed to disclose a 1987 racketeering indictment for bribing local officials to allow Laquila and other companies to dump construction debris illegally in North Bergen, N.J. The authorities said the bribery scheme was organized by Edward Garafola, who, according to the indictment, was a member of the Gambino crime organization.
Laquila also surfaced in the course of the Manhattan District Attorney's 1989 prosecution of Louis Moscatiello, a plasterers' union official who prosecutors said was an associate of the Genovese crime organization.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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