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Encyclopedia > Kyoto Protocol
Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Signed
- location
December 11, 1997
Kyoto, Japan
Effective
- condition
February 16, 2005
55 parties and at least 55% CO2 1990 emissions by UNFCCC Annex I parties.
Signatories 178 countries and other governmental entities (as of April 2008)

The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. Image File history File links UNFCCC_Logo. ... UNFCCC logo. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Location of Kyoto, on the main island of Japan Kyoto (Japanese: 京都市; Kyōto-shi) is a city in Japan that has a population of 1. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... UNFCCC logo. ... // Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, where dark green indicates countries that have signed and ratified the treaty. ... In international politics, protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state. ... The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. ... Greenhouse gases are gaseous components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


It was agreed on 11 December 1997 at the 3rd Conference of the Parties to the treaty when they met in Kyoto, and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of November 2007, 175 parties have ratified the protocol. Of these, 36 developed countries (plus the EU as a party in its own right) are required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the levels specified for each of them in the treaty (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries), [1][2] with three more countries intending to participate.[3] One hundred and thirty-seven (137) developing countries have ratified the protocol, including Brazil, China and India, but have no obligation beyond monitoring and reporting emissions. The United States has not ratified the treaty. Among various experts, scientists, and critics, there is debate about the usefulness of the protocol, and there have been cost-benefit studies performed on its usefulness. is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... UNFCCC logo. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, where dark green indicates countries that have signed and ratified the treaty. ... Cost-benefit analysis is a term that refers both to: a formal discipline used to help appraise, or assess, the case for a project or proposal, which itself is a process known as project appraisal; and an informal approach to making decisions of any kind. ...

Contents

Description

See also: Global warming

The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Countries that ratify this protocol commit to reducing their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases (GHG), or engaging in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... UNFCCC logo. ... This article describes a type of political entity. ... Ratification is the process of adopting an international treaty, or a constitution or other nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple subnational entities. ... In international law and international relations, a protocol is a treaty or international agreement that supplements a previous treaty or international agreement. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. ...


The Kyoto Protocol now covers more than 170 countries globally but only 60% of countries in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions. As of December 2007, the US and Kazakhstan are the only signatory nations not to have ratified the act. The first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol ends in 2012, and international talks began in May 2007 on a subsequent commitment period.[4] // Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, where dark green indicates countries that have signed and ratified the treaty. ...


At its heart, the Kyoto Protocol establishes the following principles:

  • Kyoto is underwritten by governments and is governed by global legislation enacted under the UN’s aegis.
  • Governments are separated into two general categories: developed countries, referred to as Annex I countries (who have accepted greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations and must submit an annual greenhouse gas inventory), and developing countries, referred to as Non-Annex I countries (who have no greenhouse gas emission reduction obligations but may participate in the Clean Development Mechanism).
  • Any Annex I country that fails to meet its Kyoto obligation will be penalized by having to submit 1.3 emission allowances in a second commitment period for every ton of greenhouse gas emissions they exceed their cap in the first commitment period (i.e., 2008-2012).
  • As of January 2008, and running through 2012, Annex I countries have to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by a collective average of 5% below their 1990 levels (for many countries, such as the EU member states, this corresponds to some 15% below their expected greenhouse gas emissions in 2008). While the average emissions reduction is 5%, national limitations range from an 8% average reduction across the European Union to a 10% emissions increase for Iceland; but, since the EU's member states each have individual obligations,[5] much larger increases (up to 27%) are allowed for some of the less developed EU countries (see below #Increase in greenhouse gas emission since 1990). [2] Reduction limitations expire in 2013.
  • Kyoto includes "flexible mechanisms" which allow Annex I economies to meet their greenhouse gas emission limitation by purchasing GHG emission reductions from elsewhere. These can be bought either from financial exchanges, from projects which reduce emissions in non-Annex I economies under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), from other Annex 1 countries under the JI, or from Annex I countries with excess allowances. Only CDM Executive Board-accredited Certified Emission Reductions (CER) can be bought and sold in this manner. Under the aegis of the UN, Kyoto established this Bonn-based Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board to assess and approve projects ("CDM Projects") in Non-Annex I economies prior to awarding CERs. (A similar scheme called "Joint Implementation" or "JI" applies in transitional economies mainly covering the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe).

In practice this means that Non-Annex I economies have no GHG emission restrictions, but when a greenhouse gas emission reduction project (a "Greenhouse Gas Project") is implemented in these countries the project will receive Carbon Credits, which can then be sold to Annex I buyers. UN redirects here. ... Greenhouse gas inventories are a type of emission inventory that are developed for a variety of reasons. ... CDM directs here. ... CDM directs here. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Joint implementation (JI) is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialised countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment (so-called Annex 1 countries) to invest in emission reducing projects in another industrialised country as an alternative to emission reductions in their own countries. ... Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... This article deals with carbon credits for international trading. ...


These Kyoto mechanisms are in place for two main reasons:

  • there were fears that the cost of complying with Kyoto would be expensive for many Annex I countries, especially those countries already home to efficient, low greenhouse gas emitting industries, and high prevailing environmental standards. Kyoto therefore allows these countries to purchase (cheaper) carbon credits on the world market instead of reducing greenhouse gas emissions domestically, and
  • this is seen as a means of encouraging Non-Annex I developing economies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through sustainable development, since doing so is now economically viable because of the investment flows from the sale of Carbon Credits.

All the Annex I economies have established Designated National Authorities to manage their greenhouse gas portfolios under Kyoto. Countries including Japan, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Spain and many more are actively promoting government carbon funds and supporting multilateral carbon funds intent on purchasing Carbon Credits from Non-Annex I countries. These government organizations are working closely with their major utility, energy, oil & gas and chemicals conglomerates to try to acquire as many Greenhouse Gas Certificates as cheaply as possible. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ...


Virtually all of the Non-Annex I countries have also set up their own Designated National Authorities to manage the Kyoto process (and specifically the "CDM process" whereby these host government entities decide which Greenhouse Gas Projects they do or do not wish to support for accreditation by the CDM Executive Board).


The objectives of these opposing groups are quite different. Annex I entities want Carbon Credits as cheaply as possible, whilst Non-Annex I entities want to maximize the value of Carbon Credits generated from their domestic Greenhouse Gas Projects.


Objectives

Kyoto is intended to cut global emissions of greenhouse gases.
Kyoto is intended to cut global emissions of greenhouse gases.

The objective is to achieve "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system."[6] Global trends in major greenhouse gases. ... Global trends in major greenhouse gases. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Greenhouse gases are gaseous components of the atmosphere that contribute to the greenhouse effect. ...


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has predicted an average global rise in temperature of 1.4°C (2.5°F) to 5.8°C (10.4°F) between 1990 and 2100.[7] IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


Proponents also note that Kyoto is a first step[8][9] as requirements to meet the UNFCCC will be modified until the objective is met, as required by UNFCCC Article 4.2(d).[10]


Status of the agreement

Participation in the Kyoto Protocol: green indicates states parties, yellow indicates states with ratification pending, and red indicates those that signed but declined ratification of the treaty.
Participation in the Kyoto Protocol: green indicates states parties, yellow indicates states with ratification pending, and red indicates those that signed but declined ratification of the treaty.

The treaty was negotiated in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, opened for signature on March 16, 1998, and closed on March 15, 1999. The agreement came into force on February 16, 2005 following ratification by Russia on November 18, 2004. As of April 2008, a total of 178 countries and other governmental entities have ratified the agreement (representing over 61.6% of emissions from Annex I countries).[1][2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 31 KB) World map: Kyoto Protocol, participation (18-nov-2005) (Imported from English Wikipedia) Licencing Related image File links The following pages link to this file: Kyoto Protocol ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 31 KB) World map: Kyoto Protocol, participation (18-nov-2005) (Imported from English Wikipedia) Licencing Related image File links The following pages link to this file: Kyoto Protocol ... Location of Kyoto, on the main island of Japan Kyoto (Japanese: 京都市; Kyōto-shi) is a city in Japan that has a population of 1. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


According to article 25 of the protocol, it enters into force "on the ninetieth day after the date on which not less than 55 Parties to the Convention, incorporating Parties included in Annex I which accounted in total for at least 55% of the total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990 of the Parties included in Annex I, have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession." Of the two conditions, the "55 parties" clause was reached on May 23, 2002 when Iceland ratified. The ratification by Russia on 18 November 2004 satisfied the "55%" clause and brought the treaty into force, effective February 16, 2005. is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Details of the agreement

According to a press release from the United Nations Environment Programme: Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ...

"The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement under which industrialized countries will reduce their collective emissions of greenhouse gases by 5.2% compared to the year 1990 (but note that, compared to the emissions levels that would be expected by 2010 without the Protocol, this limitation represents a 29% cut). The goal is to lower overall emissions of six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons - averaged over the period of 2008-2012. National limitations range from 8% reductions for the European Union and some others to 7% for the US, 6% for Japan, 0% for Russia, and permitted increases of 8% for Australia and 10% for Iceland.[11]

It is an agreement negotiated as an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, which was adopted at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992). All parties to the UNFCCC can sign or ratify the Kyoto Protocol, while non-parties to the UNFCCC cannot. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the third session of the Conference of Parties to the UNFCCC (COP3) in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Sulfur hexafluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula . ... CFC molecules CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are a family of artificial chemical compounds containing chlorine, fluorine and carbon. ... Fluorotelomer alcohol FTOH 8:2 Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are compounds derived from hydrocarbons by replacement of hydrogen atoms by fluorine atoms. ... UNFCCC logo. ... The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit (or, in Portuguese, Eco 92) was a major conference held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... For other uses, see Kyoto (disambiguation). ...


Most provisions of the Kyoto Protocol apply to developed countries, listed in Annex I to the UNFCCC. Emission figures exclude international aviation and shipping.


Common but differentiated responsibility

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to a set of a "common but differentiated responsibilities." The parties agreed that:

  1. the largest share of historical and current global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries;
  2. per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low, and
  3. the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs.[12]

In other words, China, India, and other developing countries were not included in any numerical limitation of the Kyoto Protocol because they were not the main contributors to the greenhouse gas emissions during the pre-treaty industrialization period. However, even without the commitment to reduce according to the Kyoto target, developing countries do share the common responsibility that all countries have in reducing emissions.


Financial commitments

The Protocol also reaffirms the principle that developed countries have to pay billions of dollars, and supply technology to other countries for climate-related studies and projects. This was originally agreed in the UNFCCC. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. ...


Emissions trading

Main article: Emissions trading

Kyoto is a 'cap and trade' system that imposes national caps on the emissions of Annex I countries. On average, this cap requires countries to reduce their emissions 5.2% below their 1990 baseline over the 2008 to 2012 period. Although these caps are national-level commitments, in practice most countries will devolve their emissions targets to individual industrial entities, such as a power plant or paper factory. One example of a 'cap and trade' system is the 'EU ETS'. Other schemes may follow suit in time. Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. ... The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the largest multi-national, greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in the world. ...


This means that the ultimate buyers of credits are often individual companies that expect their emissions to exceed their quota (their Assigned Allocation Units, AAUs or 'allowances' for short). Typically, they will purchase credits directly from another party with excess allowances, from a broker, from a JI/CDM developer, or on an exchange. This article deals with carbon credits for international trading. ...


National governments, some of whom may not have devolved responsibility for meeting Kyoto obligations to industry, and that have a net deficit of allowances, will buy credits for their own account, mainly from JI/CDM developers. These deals are occasionally done directly through a national fund or agency, as in the case of the Dutch government's ERUPT programme, or via collective funds such as the World Bank’s Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF). The PCF, for example, represents a consortium of six governments and 17 major utility and energy companies on whose behalf it purchases Credits.


Since allowances and carbon credits are tradeable instruments with a transparent price, financial investors can buy them on the spot market for speculation purposes, or link them to futures contracts. A high volume of trading in this secondary market helps price discovery and liquidity, and in this way helps to keep down costs and set a clear price signal in CO2 which helps businesses to plan investments. This market has grown substantially, with banks, brokers, funds, arbitrageurs and private traders now participating in a market valued at about $60 billion in 2007[13]. Emissions Trading PLC, for example, was floated on the London Stock Exchange's AIM market in 2005 with the specific remit of investing in emissions instruments. Template:The Spot Market The Spot Market or Cash Marketis a commodities or securities market in which goods are sold for cash and delivered immediately. ... A futures contract is a form of forward contract, a contract to buy or sell an asset of any kind at a pre-agreed future point in time, that has been standardised for a wide range of uses. ... The Source by Greyworld, in the new LSE building Paternoster Square. ...


Although Kyoto created a framework and a set of rules for a global carbon market, there are in practice several distinct schemes or markets in operation today, with varying degrees of linkages among them.


Kyoto enables a group of several Annex I countries to join together to create a market-within-a-market. The EU elected to be treated as such a group, and created the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). The EU ETS uses EAUs (EU Allowance Units), each equivalent to a Kyoto AAU. The scheme went into operation on 1 January 2005, although a forward market has existed since 2003. The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the largest multi-national, greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in the world. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The UK established its own learning-by-doing voluntary scheme, the UK ETS, which ran from 2002 through 2006. This market existed alongside the EU's scheme, and participants in the UK scheme have the option of applying to opt out of the first phase of the EU ETS, which lasts through 2007[citation needed].


The sources of Kyoto credits are the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint Implementation (JI) projects. The CDM allows the creation of new carbon credits by developing emission reduction projects in Non-Annex I countries, while JI allows project-specific credits to be converted from existing credits within Annex I countries. CDM projects produce Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), and JI projects produce Emission Reduction Units (ERUs), each equivalent to one AAU. Kyoto CERs are also accepted for meeting EU ETS obligations, and ERUs will become similarly valid from 2008 for meeting ETS obligations (although individual countries may choose to limit the number and source of CER/JIs they will allow for compliance purposes starting from 2008). CERs/ERUs are overwhelmingly bought from project developers by funds or individual entities, rather than being exchange-traded like allowances. CDM directs here. ... Joint implementation (JI) is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialised countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment (so-called Annex 1 countries) to invest in emission reducing projects in another industrialised country as an alternative to emission reductions in their own countries. ...


Since the creation of Kyoto instruments is subject to a lengthy process of registration and certification by the UNFCCC, and the projects themselves require several years to develop, this market is at this point largely a forward market where purchases are made at a discount to their equivalent currency, the EUA, and are almost always subject to certification and delivery (although up-front payments are sometimes made). According to IETA, the market value of CDM/JI credits transacted in 2004 was EUR 245 m; it is estimated that more than EUR 620 m worth of credits were transacted in 2005.


Several non-Kyoto carbon markets are in existence or being planned, and these are likely to grow in importance and numbers in the coming years. These include the New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative and Western Climate Initiative in the United States, the Chicago Climate Exchange and the State of California’s recent initiative to reduce emissions. The New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme (also known as GGAS), which commenced on 1 January 2003, is a mandatory greenhouse gas trading scheme that aims to lower greenhouse gas emissions to 7. ... Eight states, shown in green, are participating in RGGI. Observers are not colorized. ... Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) is the world’s first and North America’s only voluntary, legally binding greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and trading system for emission sources and offset projects in North America and Brazil. ... The Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, a law in California, was signed by Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger on September 27, 2006. ...


These initiatives, taken together may create a series of partly-linked markets, rather than a single carbon market. The common theme across most of them is the adoption of market-based mechanisms centered on carbon credits that represent a reduction of CO2 emissions. The fact that some of these initiatives have similar approaches to certifying their credits makes it conceivable that carbon credits in one market may in the long run be tradeable in other schemes. This would broaden the current carbon market far more than the current focus on the CDM/JI and EU ETS domains. An obvious precondition, however, is a realignment of penalties and fines to similar levels,since these create an effective ceiling for each market.


Revisions

The protocol left several issues open to be decided later by the sixth Conference of Parties (COP). COP6 attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in the Hague in late 2000, but was unable to reach an agreement due to disputes between the European Union on the one hand (which favoured a tougher agreement) and the United States, Canada, Japan and Australia on the other (which wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible). COP6 was the sixth session of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. ... Hague redirects here. ...


In 2001, a continuation of the previous meeting (COP6bis) was held in Bonn where the required decisions were adopted. After some concessions, the supporters of the protocol (led by the European Union) managed to get Japan and Russia in as well by allowing more use of carbon dioxide sinks. Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is the opposite of a carbon source. ...


COP7 was held from 29 October 2001 through 9 November 2001 in Marrakech to establish the final details of the protocol. COP7 was the seventh session of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For the record label, see Marrakesh Records. ...


The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, along with the 11th conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11). See United Nations Climate Change Conference. Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 11 or COP/MOP 1, is a global event taking place in Montreal, Quebec, Canada from November 28 to December 9, 2005. ...


The 3rd of December 2007, Australia ratified the protocol during the first day of the COP13 in Bali.


Enforcement

If the Enforcement Branch determines that an Annex I country is not in compliance with its emissions limitation, then that country is required to make up the difference plus an additional 30%. In addition, that country will be suspended from making transfers under an emissions trading program.[14]


Current positions of governments

Carbon emissions from various global regions during the period 1800-2000 AD
Carbon emissions from various global regions during the period 1800-2000 AD
See also: List of Kyoto Protocol signatories

Description This figure shows the annual fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, in million metric tons of carbon, for a variety of non-overlapping regions covering the Earth. ... Description This figure shows the annual fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, in million metric tons of carbon, for a variety of non-overlapping regions covering the Earth. ... // Participation in the Kyoto Protocol, where dark green indicates countries that have signed and ratified the treaty. ...

Australia

Despite Australia being one of the biggest emitters on a per capita basis[15][16], the country was granted a limitation of an 8% increase. This was because of considerations specified in Article 4, section 8(h) of the Convention.


The Australian Prime Minister at the time, John Howard (Liberal Party), declined to ratify the Agreement, arguing that the protocol would cost Australians jobs,[17] due to countries with booming economies and massive populations such as China and India not having any reduction obligations. Further, it was claimed that Australia was already doing enough to cut emissions; having pledged $300 million to reduce Greenhouse gas emissions over three years.[citation needed] John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... This article is about the modern Australian political party. ...


Australia's new government formed by the Australian Labor Party after the November 2007 election fully supports the protocol[18] and Prime Minister Kevin Rudd signed the instrument of ratification immediately after assuming office on 3 December 2007, just before the meeting of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change [19]; it took effect in March, 2008.[20] When still in Opposition, Kevin Rudd commissioned Professor Ross Garnaut to report into the economic issues of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Garnaut's report is due to be handed to the Australian Government in September 2008, with a draft in June 2008. ALP redirects here. ... The 2007 general election for the Parliament of Australia is expected to take place in November or early December, with 33 to 68 days notice. ... Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The 2007 United Nations Climate Change Conference will take place at the Bali International Conference Centre, Nusa Dua, in Bali, Indonesia, between December 3 and December 14, 2007 [1]. Representatives from over 180 countries will be attending, together with observers from intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... This article describes the national government of Australia. ...


Analysis has projected Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions at 109% of the 1990 emissions level over the period 2008–12, calculated including the effects of Land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF). This is slightly above its 108% Kyoto Protocol limitation. As of 2007, the UNFCCC is reporting that Australia's 2004 greenhouse gas emissions were at 125.6% of 1990 levels, calculated without the LULUCF correction. http://unfccc.int/files/inc/graphics/image/gif/graph3_2007_ori.gif Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) is a term often used in climate change topics. ...


The previous Australian Government, along with the United States, agreed to sign the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate at the ASEAN regional forum on 28 July 2005. Furthermore, the Australian state of New South Wales (NSW) commenced The NSW Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme (GGAS).[21] This mandatory greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme commenced on 1 January 2003 and is currently being trialled by the state government in NSW alone. Uniquely this scheme allows Accredited Certificate Providers (ACP) to trade emissions from householders in the state. As of 2006 the scheme is still in place despite the outgoing Prime Minister's clear dismissal of emissions trading as a credible solution to climate change. Following the example of NSW, the National Emissions Trading Scheme (NETS) has been established as an initiative of State and Territory Governments of Australia, all of which have Labor Party governments.[22] The focus of NETS is to bring into existence an intra-Australian carbon trading scheme and to coordinate policy developments to this end. According to the Constitution of Australia,[23] environmental matters are under the jurisdiction of the States, and the NETS is intended to facilitate ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the incoming Labor Government. The Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate is an agreement between six Asia-Pacific nations: Australia, the Peoples Republic of China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States to develop and share technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ... Hymn The ASEAN Hymn Jakarta, Indonesia Membership 10 Southeast Asian states Leaders  -  Secretary General Ong Keng Yong Area  -  Total 4,497,4931 km²  Expression error: Unrecognised punctuation character , sq mi  Population  -   estimate 566. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... NSW redirects here. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ...


Greenpeace have called Clause 3.7 of the Kyoto Protocol the "Australia Clause", as Australia was the major beneficiary. The clause allows for Annex 1 countries with high rates of land clearing in 1990 to consider that year a base level. Greenpeace argues that Australia had extremely high levels of land clearing in 1990, and that this meant that Australia's "baseline" was unusually high compared to other countries.[24] Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ...


Canada

On December 17, 2002, Canada ratified the treaty that came into force in February 2005, requiring it to reduce emissions to 6% below 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 commitment period. At that time, numerous polls showed support for the Kyoto protocol at around 70%.[25][26] Despite strong public support, there was still some opposition, particularly by the Canadian Alliance, precursor to the governing Conservative Party, some business groups,[27] and energy concerns, using arguments similar to those being used in the US. In particular, there was a fear that since US companies would not be affected by the Kyoto Protocol that Canadian companies would be at a disadvantage in terms of trade. In 2005, the result was limited to an ongoing "war of words", primarily between the government of Alberta (Canada's primary oil and gas producer) and the federal government. As of 2003, the federal government claimed to have spent or committed 3.7 billion dollars on climate change programmes.[28] By 2004, CO2 emissions had risen to 27% above 1990 levels (which compares unfavorably to the 16% increase in emissions by the United States during that time).[29] December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... For other uses, see Alberta (disambiguation). ...


In January 2006, a Conservative minority government under Stephen Harper was elected, who previously has expressed opposition to Kyoto, and in particular to the plan to participate in international emission trading. Rona Ambrose, who replaced Stéphane Dion as the environment minister, has since endorsed some types of emission trading, and indicated interest in international trading.[30] On April 25, 2006, Ambrose announced that Canada would have no chance of meeting its targets under Kyoto, and would look to participate in U.S. sponsored Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate. "We've been looking at the Asia-Pacific Partnership for a number of months now because the key principles around [it] are very much in line with where our government wants to go," Ambrose told reporters.[31] On May 2, 2006, it was reported that environmental funding designed to meet the Kyoto standards had been cut, while the Harper government develops a new plan to take its place.[32] As the co-chair of UN Climate Change Conference in Nairobi in November 2006, Canada and its government received criticism from environmental groups and from other governments for its climate change positions.[33] On January 4, 2007, Rona Ambrose moved from the Ministry of the Environment to become Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs. The Environment portfolio went to John Baird, the former President of the Treasury Board. Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... Ronalee Rona Ambrose, PC, BA, MA, MP (born March 15, 1969 in Valleyview, Alberta) is Canadas current Minister of the Environment. ... Stéphane Maurice Dion, PC, MP, Ph. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, also known as AP6, is an international non-treaty agreement among Australia, India, Japan, the Peoples Republic of China, South Korea, and the United States announced July 28, 2005 at an Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... John Russell Baird, PC, MP (born May 26, 1969) is a Canadian politician. ...


Canada's federal government has introduced legislation to set mandatory emissions targets for industry, but it will not take effect until an estimated 2050. The government has since begun working with opposition parties to improve the legislation.


A private member's bill,[34] was put forth by Pablo Rodriguez, Liberal, aiming to force the government to "ensure that Canada meets its global climate change obligations under the Kyoto Protocol." With the support of the Liberals, the New Democratic Party and the Bloc Québécois, and with the current minority situation, the bill passed the House of Commons on 14 February 2007 with a vote of 161-113,[35] and is now being considered by the Senate. If passed, the bill would give the government 60 days to form a detailed plan of action. The government has flatly refused to abide by the bill, which may spark a constitutional crisis, lawsuit, or non-confidence motion once the bill becomes law, as is expected.[36] A Private Members Bill is a proposed law introduced by a backbench member of parliament, whether from the government or the opposition side, to that legislature or parliament. ... Pablo Rodriguez (born June 21, 1967) is a Canadian politician. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... This article is about the Canadian political party. ... The Bloc Québécois (BQ) is a centre-left federal political party in Canada that defines itself as devoted to the promotion of sovereignty for Quebec. ... Type Lower House Speaker Peter Milliken, Liberal since January 29, 2001 Leader of the Government in the House of Commons Peter Van Loan, Conservative since January 4, 2007 Opposition House Leader Ralph Goodale, Liberal since January 23, 2006 Members 308 Political groups Conservative Party Liberal Party Bloc Québécois... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... A constitutional crisis is a severe breakdown in the smooth operation of government. ... Civil action redirects here. ... A Motion of No Confidence, also called Motion of Non Confidence is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ...


In May 2007 Friends of the Earth sued the Canadian federal government for failing to meet its Kyoto Protocol obligations to cut greenhouse gas emissions linked to global warming. This was based on a clause in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act that requires Ottawa to "prevent air pollution that violates an international agreement binding on Canada".[37] Canada's obligation to the treaty began in 2008. Friends of the Earth is an international network of environmental organizations in 70 countries. ...


Regardless of the national position, some individual provinces are pursuing policies to restrain emissions, including Quebec[38] and British Columbia and Manitoba as part of the Western Climate Initiative. Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English French (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 14 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th) Area  Ranked 8th Total 647,797...


People's Republic of China

See also: Energy policy of China

In 2004 the total greenhouse gas emissions from the People's Republic of China were about 54% of the USA emissions.[39] However, China is now building on average one coal-fired power plant every week, and plans to continue doing so for years.[40][41] Various predictions see China overtaking the US in total greenhouse emissions between late 2007 and 2010,[42][43][44] and according to many other estimates, this already occurred in 2006.[45][46][47] The energy policy in China is closely watched by the international community. ...


The Chinese government insists that the gas emissions level of any given country is a multiplication of its per capita emission and its population. Because China has put into place population control measures while maintaining low emissions per capita, it claims it should therefore in both of the above aspects be considered a contributor to the world's environment. In addition, the country's energy intensity - measured as energy consumption per unit of GDP - was lowered by 47 per cent between 1991 and 2005; from 1950 to 2002, China’s carbon dioxide emissions from fossil sources accounted for only 9.33% of the global total in the same period, and in 2004, its per-capita emission of carbon dioxide from fossil sources was 3.65 tons, which is 87% of the world average and 33 per cent of that of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.[48] The phrase one-child policy is commonly used in English to refer to the population control policy (or Planned Birth policy) of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Energy intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nations economy. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ...


In June of 2007, China unveiled a 62-page climate change plan and promised to put climate change at the heart of its energy policies but insisted that developed countries had an “unshirkable responsibility” to take the lead on cutting greenhouse gas emissions and that the "common but differentiated responsibility" principle, as agreed up in the UNFCCC should be applied.[49][50] The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty produced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. ...


In response to critics of the nation's energy policy, China responded that those criticisms were unjust[51], while studies of carbon leakage suggest that nearly a quarter of China's emissions result from exports for consumption by developed countries[52]. Carbon leakage occurs when there is an increase in carbon dioxide emissions by some countries in reaction to an emission reduction by countries with climate policy. ...


European Union

See also: Energy policy of the European Union

On May 31, 2002, all fifteen then-members of the European Union deposited the relevant ratification paperwork at the UN. The EU produces around 22% of global greenhouse gas emissions, and has agreed to a cut, on average, by 8% from 1990 emission levels. On 10 January 2007, the European Commission announced plans for a European Union energy policy that included a unilateral 20% reduction in GHG emissions by 2020. Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, and evolved out of the European Coal and Steel Community, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the European Council on October 27, 2005... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Although the European Union has legislated in the area of energy policy for many years, and evolved out of the European Coal and Steel Community, the concept of introducing a mandatory and comprehensive European energy policy was only approved at the meeting of the European Council on October 27, 2005...


The EU has consistently been one of the major nominal supporters of the Kyoto Protocol, negotiating hard to get wavering countries on board.


In December 2002, the EU created an emissions trading system in an effort to meet these tough targets. Quotas were introduced in six key industries: energy, steel, cement, glass, brick making, and paper/cardboard. There are also fines for member nations that fail to meet their obligations, starting at €40/ton of carbon dioxide in 2005, and rising to €100/ton in 2008. Current EU projections suggest that by 2008 the EU will be at 4.7% below 1990 levels. The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the largest multi-national, greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in the world and is a main pillar of EU climate policy. ...


Transport CO2 emissions in the EU grew by 32% between 1990 and 2004. The share of transport in CO2 emissions was 21% in 1990, but by 2004 this had grown to 28%.


The position of the EU is not without controversy in Protocol negotiations, however. One criticism is that, rather than reducing 8%, all the EU member countries should cut 15% as the EU insisted a uniform target of 15% for other developed countries during the negotiation while allowing itself to share a big reduction in the former East Germany to meet the 15% goal for the entire EU. Also, emission levels of former Warsaw Pact countries who now are members of the EU have already been reduced as a result of their economic restructuring. This may mean that the region's 1990 baseline level is inflated compared to that of other developed countries, thus giving European economies a potential competitive advantage over the U.S. Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


Both the EU (as the European Community) and its member states are signatories to the Kyoto treaty.
Greece, however was excluded from the Kyoto Protocol on Earth Day (April 22, 2008) due to unfulfilled commitment of creating the adequate mechanisms of monitoring and reporting emissions, which is the minimum obligation, and delivering false reports by having no other data to report. The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


Germany

Germany has reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 17.2% between 1990 and 2004.[53] On June 28, 2006, the German government announced it would exempt its coal industry from requirements under the EU internal emission trading system. Claudia Kemfert, an energy professor at the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin said, "For all its support for a clean environment and the Kyoto Protocol, the cabinet decision is very disappointing. The energy lobbies have played a big role in this decision."[54] is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


United Kingdom

The energy policy of the United Kingdom fully endorses goals for carbon dioxide emissions reduction and has committed to proportionate reduction in national emissions on a phased basis. The United Kingdom is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. For energy use in practice, see Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom The Energy policy of the United Kingdom is a set of official publications and activities directed at the present and future production, transmission and use of various power technologies within the UK. Historically a country emphasizing... This is a list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions. ...


On March 13, 2007, a draft Climate Change Bill was published after cross-party pressure over several years, led by environmental groups. Informed by the Energy White Paper 2003,[55] The Bill aims to put in place a framework to achieve a mandatory 60% cut in the UK's carbon emissions by 2050 (compared to 1990 levels), with an intermediate target of between 26% and 32% by 2020.[56] If approved, the United Kingdom is likely to become the first country to set such a long-range and significant carbon reduction target into law. Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Countries by carbon dioxide emissions (red the highest) IMF 2005 figures of total GDP of nominal compared to PPP. Absolute, not adjusted for population. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ...


The UK currently appears on course to meet its Kyoto limitation for the basket of greenhouse gases, assuming the Government is able to curb rising carbon dioxide emissions between now (2007) and the period 2008-2012.[57] Although the UK's overall greenhouse gas emissions have fallen, annual net carbon dioxide emissions have risen by around 2% since The Labour Party came to power in 1997.[57] As a result it now seems highly unlikely that the Government will be able to honour its manifesto pledge to cut carbon dioxide emissions by 20% from 1990 levels by the year 2010,[57] unless immediate and drastic action is taken under after the passing of the Climate Change Bill. For Government policy, see Energy policy of the United Kingdom Energy use and conservation in the United Kingdom has been receiving increased attention over recent years. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Countries by carbon dioxide emissions (red the highest) IMF 2005 figures of total GDP of nominal compared to PPP. Absolute, not adjusted for population. ...


France

In 2004, France shut down its last coal mine, and now gets 80% of its electricity from nuclear power[58] and therefore has relatively low CO2 emissions.[citation needed] This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ...


Norway

Between 1990 and 2006, Norway's carbon emissions increased by almost 8%. [3] Norway, a European country on the Scandinavian Peninsula made its own idea to maintain green-house gas stability. Norway's idea for carbon neutrality, (which is still legal under the Kyoto Protocol,) is that they will finance for reforestation in China.


India

India signed and ratified the Protocol in August, 2002. Since India is exempted from the framework of the treaty, it is expected to gain from the protocol in terms of transfer of technology and related foreign investments. At the G-8 meeting in June 2005, Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh pointed out that the per-capita emission rates of the developing countries are a tiny fraction of those in the developed world. Following the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, India maintains that the major responsibility of curbing emission rests with the developed countries, which have accumulated emissions over a long period of time. However, the U.S. and other Western nations assert that India, along with China, will account for most of the emissions in the coming decades, owing to their rapid industrialization and economic growth. G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2002. ... This article is about the Prime Minister of India. ...


Russia

See also: Energy policy of Russia

Vladimir Putin approved the treaty on November 4, 2004 and Russia officially notified the United Nations of its ratification on November 18, 2004. The issue of Russian ratification was particularly closely watched in the international community, as the accord was brought into force 90 days after Russian ratification (February 16, 2005). The main document defining the Energy policy of Russia is the Energy Strategy, which sets out policy for the period up to 2020. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


President Putin had earlier decided in favour of the protocol in September 2004, along with the Russian cabinet,[59] against the opinion of the Russian Academy of Sciences, of the Ministry for Industry and Energy and of the then president's economic adviser, Andrey Illarionov, and in exchange to EU's support for Russia's admission in the WTO.[60] As anticipated after this, ratification by the lower (22 October 2004) and upper house of parliament did not encounter any obstacles. Andrey Nikolayevich Illarionov (Russian: Андре́й Никола́евич Илларио́нов) (born September 16, 1961) is the former economic policy advisor to the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin. ... For other uses of the initials WTO, see WTO (disambiguation). ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Kyoto Protocol limits emissions to a percentage increase or decrease from their 1990 levels. Since 1990 the economies of most countries in the former Soviet Union have collapsed, as have their greenhouse gas emissions. Because of this, Russia should have no problem meeting its commitments under Kyoto, as its current emission levels are substantially below its limitations.


It is debatable whether Russia will benefit from selling emissions credits to other countries in the Kyoto Protocol.[61]


United States

See also: Energy policy of the United States

The United States (U.S.), although a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, has neither ratified nor withdrawn from the Protocol. The signature alone is symbolic, as the Kyoto Protocol is non-binding on the United States unless ratified. The United States was, as of 2005, the largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels.[62] The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ...


On July 25, 1997, before the Kyoto Protocol was finalized (although it had been fully negotiated, and a penultimate draft was finished), the U.S. Senate unanimously passed by a 95–0 vote the Byrd-Hagel Resolution (S. Res. 98),[63][64] which stated the sense of the Senate was that the United States should not be a signatory to any protocol that did not include binding targets and timetables for developing as well as industrialized nations or "would result in serious harm to the economy of the United States". On November 12, 1998, Vice President Al Gore symbolically signed the protocol. Both Gore and Senator Joseph Lieberman indicated that the protocol would not be acted upon in the Senate until there was participation by the developing nations.[65] The Clinton Administration never submitted the protocol to the Senate for ratification. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is a Jewish-American Democratic politician and a current U.S. senator from Connecticut. ...


The Clinton Administration released an economic analysis in July 1998, prepared by the Council of Economic Advisors, which concluded that with emissions trading among the Annex B/Annex I countries, and participation of key developing countries in the "Clean Development Mechanism" — which grants the latter business-as-usual emissions rates through 2012 — the costs of implementing the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced as much as 60% from many estimates. Other economic analyses, however, prepared by the Congressional Budget Office[citation needed] and the Department of Energy[citation needed], Energy Information Administration (EIA)[66], demonstrated a potentially large loss to GDP from implementing the Protocol of up to 4.2% (EIA). William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The Council of Economic Advisers is a group of economists set up to advise the President of the United States. ... CDM directs here. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congressional Budget Office is a federal agency within the legislative branch of the United States government. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... The Energy Information Administration (EIA), as part of the U.S. Department of Energy, collects and disseminates data on energy reserves, production, consumption, distribution, prices, technology, and related international, economic, and financial matters. ...


The current President, George W. Bush, has indicated that he does not intend to submit the treaty for ratification, not because he does not support the Kyoto principles, but because of the exemption granted to China (the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide[67]). Bush also opposes the treaty because of the strain he believes the treaty would put on the economy; he emphasizes the uncertainties which he believes are present in the climate change issue.[citation needed] Furthermore, the U.S. is concerned with broader exemptions of the treaty. For example, the U.S. does not support the split between Annex I countries and others. Bush said of the treaty: George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... National and international science academies and professional societies have assessed the current scientific opinion on climate change, in particular recent global warming. ...

This is a challenge that requires a 100% effort; ours, and the rest of the world's. The world's second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases is the People's Republic of China. Yet, China was entirely exempted from the requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. India and Germany are among the top emitters. Yet, India was also exempt from Kyoto … America's unwillingness to embrace a flawed treaty should not be read by our friends and allies as any abdication of responsibility. To the contrary, my administration is committed to a leadership role on the issue of climate change … Our approach must be consistent with the long-term goal of stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere."[68]

In June 2002, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released the "Climate Action Report 2002". Some observers have interpreted this report as being supportive of the protocol, although the report itself does not explicitly endorse the protocol.[citation needed] At the G-8 meeting in June 2005 administration officials expressed a desire for "practical commitments industrialized countries can meet without damaging their economies". According to those same officials, the United States is on track to fulfill its pledge to reduce its carbon intensity 18% by 2012.[69] The United States has signed the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate, a pact that allows those countries to set their goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions individually, but with no enforcement mechanism. Supporters of the pact see it as complementing the Kyoto Protocol while being more flexible, but critics have said the pact will be ineffective without any enforcement measures.[citation needed] EPA redirects here. ... G-8 work session; July 20-22, 2002. ... Carbon intensity is the ratio of carbon emissions to economic activity or some other activity. ... The Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate is an agreement between six Asia-Pacific nations: Australia, the Peoples Republic of China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States to develop and share technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ...


The Administration's position is not uniformly accepted in the U.S. For example, Paul Krugman notes that the target 18% reduction in carbon intensity is still actually an increase in overall emissions.[70] The White House has also come under criticism for downplaying reports that link human activity and greenhouse gas emissions to climate change and that a White House official, former oil industry advocate and current Exxon Mobil officer, Philip Cooney, watered down descriptions of climate research that had already been approved by government scientists, charges the White House denies.[71] Critics point to the Bush administration's close ties to the oil and gas industries. In June 2005, State Department papers showed the administration thanking Exxon executives for the company's "active involvement" in helping to determine climate change policy, including the U.S. stance on Kyoto. Input from the business lobby group Global Climate Coalition was also a factor.[72] Paul Krugman Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist. ... Carbon intensity is the ratio of carbon emissions to economic activity or some other activity. ... Exxon Mobil Corporation or ExxonMobil (NYSE: XOM), headquartered in Irving, Texas, is an oil producer and distributor formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger of Exxon and Mobil. ... Philip Cooney is the former chief of staff for President George W. Bushs Council on Environmental Quality and a former energy industry lobbyist. ... Department of State redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel brand. ... The Global Climate Coalition was a group of mainly United States businesses opposing immediate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ...


In 2002, Congressional researchers who examined the legal status of the Protocol advised that signature of the UNFCCC imposes an obligation to refrain from undermining the Protocol's object and purpose, and that while the President probably cannot implement the Protocol alone; Congress can create compatible laws on its own initiative.[73]


Local governments

As of January 18, 2007, eight Northeastern US states are involved in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI),[74] which is a state level emissions capping and trading program. It is believed that the state-level program will indirectly apply pressure on the federal government by demonstrating that reductions can be achieved without being a signatory of the Kyoto Protocol. is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Eight states, shown in green, are participating in RGGI. Observers are not colorized. ...

On August 31, 2006, the California Legislature (representing over 33 million Californians) reached an agreement with Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger to reduce the state's greenhouse-gas emissions, which rank at 12th-largest in the world, by 25% by the year 2020. This resulted in the Global Warming Solutions Act which effectively puts California in line with the Kyoto limitations, but at a date later than the 2008-2012 Kyoto commitment period. Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[2] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[3] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The California State Legislature is the legislative branch of the state government of California. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (German IPA: ; born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American bodybuilder, Golden Globe-winning actor, businessman and politician currently serving as the 38th Governor of the U.S. state of California. ... The Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, a law in California, was signed by Governor of California Arnold Schwarzenegger on September 27, 2006. ...


As of December 4, 2007, 740 US cities in 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, representing over 76 million Americans support Kyoto after Mayor Greg Nickels of Seattle started a nationwide effort to get cities to agree to the protocol. On October 29, 2007, it was reported that Seattle met their target reduction in 2005, reducing their greenhouse gas emissions by 8 percent since 1990.[75] is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels Gregory J. Greg Nickels (born August 7, 1955) became the 51st and current mayor of Seattle, Washington on January 1, 2002. ... Seattle redirects here. ...

For other uses, see Albany. ... Albuquerque redirects here. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1749 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - Total 15. ... Ann Arbor redirects here. ... Arlington is a city in Tarrant County, Texas (USA) within the Dallas-Fort Worth-Arlington metropolitan area. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California, in the United States. ... Boston redirects here. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Chattanooga redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Fairfield, Delaware Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City 212. ... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Location of Denver in the State of Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State State of Colorado City and County Denver[1] Founded 1858-11-22, as Denver City, K.T.[2] Incorporated 1861-11-07, as Denver City, C.T.[3] Consolidated... “Des Moines” redirects here. ... Fairfield is a town located in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. ... 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Support

Advocates of the Kyoto Protocol state that reducing these emissions is crucially important, as carbon dioxide is causing the earth's atmosphere to heat up. This is supported by attribution analysis. Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for relatively recent changes observed in the Earths climate. ...


No country has passed national legislation requiring compliance with their treaty obligation. The governments of all of the countries whose parliaments have ratified the Protocol are supporting it. Most prominent among advocates of Kyoto have been the European Union and many environmentalist organizations. The United Nations and some individual nations' scientific advisory bodies (including the G8 national science academies) have also issued reports favoring the Kyoto Protocol. Bold textHello ... Group of Eight redirects here. ...


An international day of action was planned for 3 December 2005, to coincide with the Meeting of the Parties in Montreal. The planned demonstrations were endorsed by the Assembly of Movements of the World Social Forum. is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


A group of major Canadian corporations also called for urgent action regarding climate change, and have suggested that Kyoto is only a first step.[77]


In the United States, there is at least one student group, Kyoto Now!, which aims to use student interest to support pressure towards reducing emissions as targeted by the Kyoto Protocol compliance. Kyoto Now! is a student-led movement at colleges and universities across the USA through which students hope to make American universities commit to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. ...


Opposition

Some public policy experts who are skeptical of global warming see Kyoto as a scheme to either slow the growth of the world's industrial democracies or to transfer wealth to the third world in what they[who?] claim is a global socialism initiative. Others argue the protocol does not go far enough to curb greenhouse emissions (Niue, The Cook Islands, and Nauru added notes to this effect when signing the protocol).[78] Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ...


Some environmental economists have been critical of the Kyoto Protocol.[79][80] [81] Many see the costs of the Kyoto Protocol as outweighing the benefits, some believing the standards which Kyoto sets to be too optimistic, others seeing a highly inequitable and inefficient agreement which would do little to curb greenhouse gas emissions.[82] Finally, some economists as Gwyn Prins and Steve Rayner think that an entirely different approach needs to be followed than the approach suggested by the Kyoto-protocol. [83] Environmental economics is a subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues (other usages of the term are not uncommon). ...


Further, there is controversy surrounding the use of 1990 as a base year[citation needed], as well as not using per capita emissions as a basis. Countries had different achievements in energy efficiency in 1990. For example, the former Soviet Union and eastern European countries did little to tackle the problem and their energy efficiency was at its worst level in 1990; the year just before their communist regimes fell. On the other hand, Japan, as a big importer of natural resources, had to improve its efficiency after the 1973 oil crisis and its emissions level in 1990 was better than most developed countries. However, such efforts were set aside, and the inactivity of the former Soviet Union was overlooked and could even generate big income due to the emission trade. There is an argument that the use of per capita emissions as a basis in the following Kyoto-type treaties can reduce the sense of inequality among developed and developing countries alike, as it can reveal inactivities and responsibilities among countries. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Long-Term Oil Prices, 1861-2006 (orange line adjusted for inflation, black not adjusted). ...


Cost-benefit analysis

Economists have been trying to analyze the overall net benefit of Kyoto Protocol through cost-benefit analysis. There is disagreement due to large uncertainties in economic variables.[84] Some of the estimates indicate either that observing the Kyoto Protocol is more expensive than not observing the Kyoto Protocol or that the Kyoto Protocol has a marginal net benefit which exceeds the cost of simply adjusting to global warming.[citation needed] However, a study in Nature[85] found that "accounting only for local external costs, together with production costs, to identify energy strategies, compliance with the Kyoto Protocol would imply lower, not higher, overall costs." Cost-benefit analysis is an important technique for project appraisal: the process of weighing the total expected costs against the total expected benefits of one or more actions in order to choose the best or most profitable option. ...


The recent Copenhagen consensus project found that the Kyoto Protocol would slow down the process of global warming, but have a superficial overall benefit. Defenders of the Kyoto Protocol argue, however, that while the initial greenhouse gas cuts may have little effect, they set the political precedent for bigger (and more effective) cuts in the future.[86] They also advocate commitment to the precautionary principle. Critics point out that additional higher curbs on carbon emission are likely to cause significantly higher increase in cost, making such defense moot. Moreover, the precautionary principle could apply to any political, social, economic or environmental consequence, which might have equally devastating effect in terms of poverty and environment, making the precautionary argument irrelevant. The Stern Review (a UK government sponsored report into the economic impacts of climate change) concluded that one percent of global GDP is required to be invested in order to mitigate the effects of climate change, and that failure to do so could risk a recession worth up to twenty percent of global GDP.[87] Copenhagen Consensus is a project which seeks to establish priorities for advancing global welfare using methodologies based on the theory of welfare economics. ... The precautionary principle is a moral and political principle which states that if an action or policy might cause severe or irreversible harm to the public, in the absence of a scientific consensus that harm would not ensue, the burden of proof falls on those who would advocate taking the... Sir Nicholas Stern, author of the report. ...


Discount rates

One problem in attempting to measure the "absolute" costs and benefits of different policies to global warming is choosing a proper discount rate. Over a long time horizon such as that in which benefits accrue under Kyoto, small changes in the discount rate create very large discrepancies between net benefits in various studies. However, this difficulty is generally not applicable to "relative" comparison of alternative policies under a long time horizon. This is because changes in discount rates tend to equally adjust the net cost/benefit of different policies unless there are significant discrepancies of cost and benefit over time horizon. The discount rate is a financial concept based on the future cash flow in lieu of the present value of the cash flow. ...


While it has been difficult to arrive at a scenario under which the net benefits of Kyoto are positive using traditional discounting methods such as the Shadow Price of Capital approach,[88] there is an argument that a much lower discount rate should be utilized; that high rates are biased toward the current generation. This may appear to be a philosophical value judgment, outside the realm of economics, but it could be equally argued that the study of the allocation of resources does include how those resources are allocated over time.


Increase in greenhouse gas emission since 1990

Below is a list of the change in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2004 for some countries that are part of the Climate Change Convention as reported by the United Nations.[89]

Country Change in greenhouse gas
Emissions (1990-2004)
excluding LULUCF
Change in greenhouse gas
Emissions (1990-2004)
including LULUCF
EU Assigned Objective
for 2012
Treaty Obligation 2008-2012
Germany -17% -18.2% -21% -8%
Canada +27% +26.6% N/A -6%
Australia +25% +5.2% N/A +8%
Spain +49% +50.4% +15% -8%
Norway +10% -18.7% N/A +1%
New Zealand +21% +17.9% N/A 0%
France -0.8% -6.1% 0% -8%
Greece +27% +25.3% +25% -8%
Ireland +23% +22.7% +13% -8%
Japan +6.5% +5.2% N/A -6%
United Kingdom -14% -14.8% -12.5% -8%
Portugal +41% +28.9% +27% -8%
EU-15 -0.8% -2.6% N/A -8%

Below is a table of the changes in CO2 emission of some other countries which are large contributors, but are not required to meet numerical limitations.[90]

Country Change in greenhouse gas
Emissions (1990-2004)
China +47%
India +55%

Comparing total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 to 1990 levels, the US emissions were up by 16%,[91] with irregular fluctuations from one year to another but a general trend to increase.[92] At the same time, the EU group of 23 (EU-23) Nations had reduced their emissions by 5%.[93] In addition, the EU-15 group of nations (a large subset of EU-23) reduced their emissions by 0.8% between 1990 and 2004, while emission rose 2.5% from 1999 to 2004. Part of the increases for some of the European Union countries are still in line with the treaty, being part of the cluster of countries implementation (see objectives in the list above).


As of year-end 2006, the United Kingdom and Sweden were the only EU countries on pace to meet their Kyoto emissions commitments by 2010. While UN statistics indicate that, as a group, the 36 Kyoto signatory countries can meet the 5% reduction target by 2012, most of the progress in greenhouse gas reduction has come from the stark decline in Eastern European countries' emissions after the fall of communism in the 1990s.[94]


Successor

Main article: Post-Kyoto Protocol negotiations on greenhouse gas emissions

In the non-binding 'Washington Declaration' agreed on February 16, 2007, Heads of governments from Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom, the United States, Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa agreed in principle on the outline of a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. They envisage a global cap-and-trade system that would apply to both industrialized nations and developing countries, and hoped that this would be in place by 2009.[95][96] The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ...  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita...


On June 7, 2007, leaders at the 33rd G8 summit agreed that the G8 nations would 'aim to at least halve global CO2 emissions by 2050'. The details enabling this to be achieved would be negotiated by environment ministers within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in a process that would also include the major emerging economies.[97] is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Leaders of the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... UNFCCC logo. ... The term emerging markets is commonly used to describe business and market activity in industrializing or emerging regions of the world. ...


A round of climate change talks under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Vienna Climate Change Talks 2007) concluded in 31 August 2007 with agreement on key elements for an effective international response to climate change.[98] The Kyoto Protocol, the worlds first treaty to attempt to address global warming by limiting greenhouse gas emissions, is due to expire at the end of 2012. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


A key feature of the talks was a United Nations report that showed how energy efficiency could yield significant cuts in emissions at low cost. tytytrtyty This article is about energy efficiency as a ratio. ...


The talks are meant to set the stage for a major international meeting to be held in Nusa Dua, Bali, which started on 3 December, 2007.[99] Nusa Dua is a peninsula in the south of Bali. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ...


Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate

See also: Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate

The Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate is an agreement between six Asia-Pacific nations: Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States. The partnership had its official launch in January 2006 at a ceremony in Sydney, Australia. Within the past year, the six nations have initiated nearly 100 projects aimed at clean energy capacity building and market formation. Building on these activities, long-term projects are scheduled to deploy clean energy and environment technologies and services. The pact allows those countries to set their goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions individually, but with no enforcement mechanism. Supporters of the pact see it as complementing the Kyoto Protocol whilst being more flexible while critics have said the pact will be ineffective without any enforcement measures and ultimately aims to void the negotiations leading to the Protocol called to replace the current Kyoto Protocol (negotiations started in Montreal in December 2005). The Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate is an agreement between six Asia-Pacific nations: Australia, the Peoples Republic of China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States to develop and share technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ... Map showing general definition of Asia-Pacific The term Asia-Pacific or APAC generally applies to littoral East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australasia near the Pacific Ocean, plus the states in the ocean itself (Oceania). ...


See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... The G8+5 group of leaders consists of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States), plus the leaders of the leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa). ... The Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate is an agreement between six Asia-Pacific nations: Australia, the Peoples Republic of China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United States to develop and share technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. ... The issue of human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change (global warming) is becoming a central focus of the Green movement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Citizens for a Sound Economy (CSE) is a conservative political group operating in the United States, whose self-described mission is to fight for less government, lower taxes, and less regulation. ... There are numerous international environmental agreements made to protect the environment in different ways. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Convention (disambiguation). ... The Tragedy of the Commons is a type of social trap, often economic, that involves a conflict over resources between individual interests and the common good. ... The politicization of science occurs when government, business or interest groups use legal or economic pressure to influence the findings of scientific research which differ from the majority view, or influence the way the research is disseminated, reported or interpreted. ... This is a list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here CO2 emission per capita per year per country This is a list of countriesafsdafdasfsdfsfsdfafsafsdafsadfs by carbon dioxide emissions per capita from 1990 through 2003. ... This is a list of countries arranged by their ratio of Gross domestic product (GDP (Nominal)) to carbon dioxide emissions. ... Checking the status of a cleanup site Superfund is the common name for the United States environmental law that is officially known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 9601 to 9675, which was enacted by the United States Congress on December 11... Logo of TREC The Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Cooperation (TREC)[1] is an initiative of the Club of Rome, the Hamburg Climate Protection Foundation and the National Energy Research Center of Jordan (NERC). ... A low-carbon economy is an economy in which carbon dioxide emissions from the use of carbon based fuels (coal, oil and gas) are significantly reduced. ... Members of the Western Regional Climate Action Initiative (green). ...

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is the largest multi-national, greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in the world. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Geophysical Union (or AGU) is a nonprofit organization of geophysicists, consisting (as of 2006) of over 49,000 members from over 140 countries. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Independent (disambiguation). ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (in Dutch:Milieu en Natuur Planbureau; MNP) is a Dutch research institution whose main function is to advise the Dutch government on environmental issues. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Financial Times (FT) is a British international business newspaper. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UNFCCC logo. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Department of Trade and Industry is a United Kingdom government department. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... This article is about the year. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nicholas Stern Sir Nicholas Stern, FBA (born 22 April 1946) is a British economist and academic. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UN redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Kyoto Protocol
Wikinews has related news:
Kyoto Protocol comes into effect

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

Protocol

  • Full text of the Kyoto Protocol (HTML version), (PDF version) (Alternate HTML version)
  • Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change at Law-Ref.org - fully indexed and crosslinked with other documents
  • List of countries who have ratified, accepted, approved, or accessed the Kyoto Protocol
  • The layman's guide to the Kyoto Protocol

Implementation

  • Carbon Finance White Paper
  • Imagining a Post-Kyoto Climate Regime by Prof. Adil Najam of The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy
  • Second Analysis Confirms Greenhouse Gas Reductions in China. Source from the Natural Resources Defense Council. Comprehensive analysis of China's recent economic development and its effects on Chinese emissions.
  • "Global Tragedy of the Commons at COP 6"
  • Ode to Kyoto: The energy industry's stealth campaign to confuse the public and stop Kyoto - Broadcast 23 January 2004 on PBS' NOW with Bill Moyers (RealVideo format).
  • Happy Kyoto Day - Article by Jamais Cascio on the Kyoto Protocol
  • Kyoto Count Up - junkscience.com's Kyoto Protocol implementation cost claims, with counting clock.
  • SinksWatch - An initiative to track and scrutinize carbon sink projects
  • Michael Grubb of the Carbon Trust and Imperial College London on implementing the Kyoto Protocol
  • Climate Justice and Equity - article by Anup Shah explaining why developing and industrialized countries are not subject to similar targets
  • Carbon Finance news service
  • Minneapolis Exceeds Kyoto Protocol in Measurable Pollutants
  • The Byrd-Hagel Resolution "Expressing the sense of the Senate regarding the conditions for the United States becoming a signatory to any international agreement on greenhouse gas emissions under the United Nations"
  • Kyoto promises are nothing but hot air - evidence that the figures reported by many countries are wrong, especially for methane.
  • IPS Inter Press Service - Independent news on climate change and its consequences
The Cabot Intercultural Center of The Fletcher School at Tufts University The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, also called simply The Fletcher School, is the oldest graduate school of international relations in the United States. ... The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) [1] is a leftist, New York City-based, non-profit, non-partisan environmental advocacy group, with offices in Washington, D.C., San Francisco, and Los Angeles. ... is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... PBS redirects here. ... NOW is a PBS newsmagazine especially covering social and political issues. ... RealVideo is a proprietary video format developed by RealNetworks. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... The temperature record shows the fluctuations of the temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans through various spans of time. ... Instrumental global surface temperature measurements; see also [http://www. ... Comparison of ground based (blue) and satellite based (red: UAH; green: RSS) records of temperature variations since 1979. ... The temperature record of the past 1000 years describes the reconstruction of temperature for the last 1000 years on the Northern Hemisphere. ... The website of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration contains detailed data of the annual land and ocean temperature since 1880. ... This article is devoted to temperature changes in Earths environment as determined from geologic evidence on multi-million to billion (109) year time scales. ... National and international science academies and professional societies have assessed the current scientific opinion on climate change, in particular recent global warming. ... Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In common with many other forms of transport, aircraft engines emit polluting gases, contribute to global warming, and cause noise pollution. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... In IPCC reports, equilibrium climate sensitivity refers to the equilibrium change in global mean surface temperature following a doubling of the atmospheric (equivalent) CO2 concentration. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming potential (GWP) is a measure of how much a given mass of greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... The Keeling Curve is a graph measuring the increase in the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since 1958. ... Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) is a term often used in climate change topics. ... Tokyo, a case of Urban Heat Island. ... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ... Cloud forcing (sometimes described as cloud radiative forcing) is the difference between the radiation budget components for average cloud conditions and cloud-free conditions. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Global cooling in general can refer to a cooling of the Earth. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Milankovitch cycles are the collective effect of changes in the Earths movements upon its climate, named after Serbian civil engineer and mathematician Milutin Milanković. The eccentricity, axial tilt, and precession of the Earths orbit vary in several patterns, resulting in 100,000 year ice age cycles of the... Orbital forcing, or Milankovitch theory, describes the effect on climate of slow changes in the tilt of the Earths axis and shape of the orbit. ... The generalised concept of radiative forcing in climate science is any change in the radiation (heat) entering the climate system or changes in radiatively active gases. ... 400 year history of sunspot numbers. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. ... General Circulation Models (GCMs) are a class of computer-driven models for weather forecasting and predicting climate change, where they are commonly called Global Climate Models. ... The politics of global warming looks at the current political issues relating to global warming, as well as the historical rise of global warming as a political issue. ... UNFCCC logo. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... The global warming controversy is a dispute regarding the nature and consequences of global warming. ... This article lists scientists and former scientists who have stated disagreement with one or more of the principal conclusions of the mainstream scientific assessment of global warming. ... This page is non-encyclopedic and represents the editorial views of notably biased publications, such as Newsweek and Mother Jones. ... Graphical description of risks and impacts from global warming from the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... As recent estimates of the rate of global warming have increased, so have the financial estimates of the damage costs. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... A view down the Whitechuck Glacier in North Cascades National Park in 1973 The same view as seen in 2006, where this branch of glacier retreated 1. ... The extinction risk of climate change -- that is, the expected number of species expected to become extinct due to the effects of global warming -- has been estimated in a 2004 Nature study to be between 15 and 37 percent of known species by 2050. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Sea level measurements from 23 long tide gauge records in geologically stable environments show a rise of around 20 centimeters per century (2 mm/year). ... Shutdown or slowdown of the thermohaline circulation is a possible effect of global warming. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Mitigation of global warming involves taking actions aimed at reducing the extent of global warming. ... CDM directs here. ... Joint implementation (JI) is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialised countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment (so-called Annex 1 countries) to invest in emission reducing projects in another industrialised country as an alternative to emission reductions in their own countries. ... The European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) was launched in June 2000 by the European Unions European Commission. ... The United Kingdoms Climate Change Programme was launched in November 2000 by the British government in response to its commitment agreed at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). ... Crude oil prices, 1994-2007 (not adjusted for inflation) In 2005 the government of Sweden announced their intention to make Sweden the first country to break its dependence on petroleum, natural gas and other ‘fossil raw materials’ by 2020. ... Emissions trading (or cap and trade) is an administrative approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. ... Emissions trading schemes (also known as ‘cap and trade’ schemes) are one of the policy instruments available for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases. ... A carbon tax is a tax on energy sources which emit carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. ... Until recently, most carbon offsets were commonly done by planting trees. ... This article deals with carbon credits for international trading. ... A carbon dioxide (CO2) sink is a carbon dioxide reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon dioxide source. The main natural sinks are (1) the oceans and (2) plants and other organisms that use photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere by incorporating it... For the physical concepts, see conservation of energy and energy efficiency. ... Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is using less energy to provide the same level of energy service. ... Renewable energy effectively utilizes natural resources such as sunlight, wind, tides and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished. ... Renewable energy commercialization involves three generations of technologies dating back more than 100 years. ... // Renewable energy development covers the advancement, capacity growth, and use of renewable energy sources by humans. ... The soft energy path is an energy use and development strategy delineated and promoted by some energy experts and activists, such as Amory Lovins and Tom Bender; in Canada, David Suzuki has been a very prominent (if less specialized) proponent. ... The G8 Climate Change Roundtable was formed in January 2005 at the World Economic Forum in Davos. ... The issue of human-caused, or anthropogenic, climate change (global warming) is becoming a central focus of the Green movement. ... Adaptation to global warming covers all actions aimed at reducing the negative effects of global warming. ... This article is about structures for water impoundment. ... The Seven Rila Lakes in Rila, Bulgaria are typical representatives of lakes with glacial origin A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... A rainwater tank is a water tank which is used to collect and store rainwater runoff, typically from rooftops. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Global carbon dioxide emissions 1800–2000 Global average surface temperature 1850 to 2006 Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change: A Scientific Symposium on Stabilisation of Greenhouse Gases was a 2005 international conference that redefined the link between atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration, and the 2°C (3. ... LADSS or Land Allocation Decision Support System, is an agricultural land use planning tool being developed at The Macaulay Institute. ... This article serves as a glossary of the most common terms and how they are used. ...

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CBC News In Depth: Kyoto and beyond (2906 words)
Depending on who you talk to, the Kyoto Protocol is either a) an expensive, bureaucratic solution to fix a problem that may not even exist; or b) the last, best chance to save the world from the "time bomb" of global warming.
The problem the Kyoto Protocol is trying to address is climate change, and more specifically, the speed at which the earth is warming up.
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in late 1997 to address the problem of global warming by reducing the world's greenhouse gas emissions.
Kyoto Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6611 words)
The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is an amendment to the international treaty on climate change, assigning mandatory targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to signatory nations.
The Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the third session of the Conference of Parties (COP) to the UNFCCC in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan.
The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP1) was held in Montreal from November 28 to December 9, 2005, along with the 11th conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP11).
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