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Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. Written Ukrainian bears resemblances to these two languages, but with several notable differences. Historically, Belarusian and Ukrainian diverged from Old or Middle Ruthenian language. Spoken literary Ukrainian, however finds... Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian) is the This article concerns places that serve as centers of government and politics. For alternative meanings see capital (disambiguation) In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or... capital and largest city of Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the This article is about the river. See also Dnipro launch vehicle for the rocket, or Dnepr (motorcycle). Length 2,290 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge - m³/ s Area watershed 516,300 km² Origin Russia Mouth Black Sea Basin countries Russia, Belarus, Ukraine The Dnieper River... Dnieper river.


2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January events January 1 Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. Pascal Couchepin becomes President of the Confederation in Switzerland... As of 2003, Kiev officially had 2,642,486 inhabitants, although the large number of unregistered Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. An immigrant is usually someone who intends to reside permanently, and not a casual visitor or traveler. Immigration means in-migration into a country, and is the reverse of emigration, or out-migration... migrants would probably raise this figure to about 4 million.


Administratively, Kiev is a national-level subordinated A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. Municipalities are not necessarily the same as townships. In most countries, this is the smallest administrative subdivision... municipality, independent from surrounding Kyivs'ka oblast'. However, the governing bodies of that oblast' are situated in the city.


Kiev is an important industrial, scientific, educational and cultural center of Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. Usually some or all of the countries adjacent to Russias western border are included. As is also true of continents, regions are only... Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, Higher education is education provided by universities and other institutions that award academic degrees, such as university colleges, and liberal arts colleges. Higher education includes both the teaching and the research activities of universities, and within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level (sometimes referred to as... higher education institutions, world-famous A museum is a non-profit making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, for purposes of study, education and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment. This definition is taken... museums and Although today the word art usually refers to the visual arts, the concept of what art is has continuously changed over centuries. Perhaps the most concise definition is its broadest—art refers to all creative human endeavors, excluding actions directly related to survival and reproduction. From a wide perspective... art institutions.


The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system of A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. It is also called public transit or mass transit. While it is generally taken to mean rail and bus services, wider definitions would include scheduled airline services... public transport, including a This page refers to urban rail mass transit systems. For other uses see metro (disambiguation) See also Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: Metro List of metro systems metro station U-Bahn S-Bahn advanced light rapid transit monorail Metrophile (A person with a devoted interest in these systems) . External... metro system.


Historically, Kiev is one of the most ancient (probably 1550 years old) and important cities of the region, the center of The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... Rus The Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan, Mexico. Building projects of this size require the social organization found in civilizations. A civilization or civilisation has a variety of meanings related to human society. The term comes from the Latin civis, meaning citizen or townsman. 1. In a technical sense, a... civilization, survivor of numerous wars, purges and genocides. Many historical and architectural landmarks are preserved or reconstructed in the city.

Kiev city
місто Київ

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Kiev Center. Satellite Photo. March 17, 2002. DigitalGlobe.com
In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. Population is studied in a wide variety of ways and disciplines. In population dynamics, size, age and sex structure, mortality, reproductive... population

   total
   Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. However it is most frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular. Population density is usually expressed in terms of items or organisms per unit area. Definitions of population density Population density, according to the definition above, depends... density
   urban


2,642,486
3,299/km²
100.0%

area 800 Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. It is one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to: the area of a square measuring 1 kilometre on each side 1 000 000 m2 100 hectares 0.386 102 square miles... km²
urban-type
localities

10
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Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square) in the middle of Khreschatyk, Kiev's main boulevard. It got its current look after renovation in 2002.
Contents

Geography and climate

Kiev is located on both sides of the Dnieper river which flows south through the city towards the Black Sea - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Black Sea From Wikipedia Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS Cities of the Black Sea The Black Sea (known as the Euxine Sea in the antiquity) is an... Black Sea. Its geographic co-ordinates are 50°27′ N 30°30′ E (http://kvaleberg.com/extensions/mapsources/index.php?params=50_27_N_30_30_E_type:city(2600000)_scale:300000_region:ua). Geographically, Kiev belongs to the Polesie (Polish spelling; Polissya, Полісся in Ukrainian, Polesye, Полесье in Russian, Palyessye or Palesse, Пале́сьсе in Belarusian) is one of the largest European swampy areas, located in the South... Polissya natural zone (a part of the European mixed woods). However, the city's unique landscape distinguishes it from the surrounding region. The elder right-bank (western) part of Kiev is represented by numerous woody hills, ravines and small rivers (now mostly extinct). It is a part of the larger Prydniprovs'ka height (Придніпровська височина) adjoining the western bank of the Dnieper. The left-bank (eastern) part of the city was built in the Dnieper valley. Significant areas of it were artificially sand-deposited and enforced by dam stands for dekametre. Scrivener Dam, Canberra Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam (a common Teutonic word, compare to Dutch dam, Swedish and German damm, and the Gothic verb faurdammjan, to block up) is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs... dams.


The river forms a branching system of A tributary (or affluent or confluent) is a contributory stream, a river that does not reach the sea, but joins another major river (a parent river), to which it contributes its waters, swelling its discharge. A tributary joins another river at a confluence. When a rivers tributaries are listed... tributaries, isles and harbors within city limits. The city is adjoined by the mouth of the Desna (Десна́) is a river in Russia and Ukraine, left tributary of Dnepr. The name of the river means right hand in old-slavic language. Desna has a length of 1130 km. Cities and towns that stay on Desna Bryansk Chernigov Tributaries of Desna Desna... Desna River and the Kyivs'ke reservoir in the north, and the Kanivs'ke reservoir in the south. Both Dnieper and Desna around Kiev are This article concerns navigation in the sense of determination of position and direction on the surface of the Earth. See Navigation (disambiguation) for other meanings. There are several traditions of navigation. Polynesian navigation The Polynesian navigators routinely crossed thousands of miles of open ocean, to tiny inhabited islands, using only... navigable, although regulated by the reservoir shipping locks and limited by winter freezing-over.


Kiev's The climate (ancient Greek: κλίμα) is the weather averaged over a long period of time. A descriptive saying is that climate is what you expect, weather is what you get. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) glossary definition is: [1] Climate vs weather The exact... climate is continental humid, although it has changed significantly during the last decades due to The adjective global and adverb globally imply that the verb or noun to which they are applied applies to the entire Earth and all of its species and regions. It is sometimes used as a synonym for the much narrower international/internationally but this is incorrect: Only two nations need... global climate changes.


History

Middle Ages through 17th century

Kiev was probably founded in the ( 4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. Attila the Hun conquers large parts of Europe, threatens to attack Rome in 452 Vandals conquer Carthage in 439, sack Rome in 455 At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. The... 5th century and functioned as a trading post between Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; Modern Greek: Konstantinoupoli or Κωνσταντινούπολη) is the former name of the city of Istanbul in todays Turkey. Today, Constantinople is the area between the Golden Horn and... Constantinople and Scandinavia is the cultural and historic region of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Scandinavian countries are Norway, Sweden and Denmark, which recognize each other as parts of Scandinavia. The collective label Scandinavia reflects the cultural similarity, and the strong historical ties, between these countries despite their political independence. The terms Fennoscandia... Scandinavia. The Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. It contains matter from wars between Goths and Huns. The saga deals with the shieldmaiden Hervor and her son Heidrek, the king of Reidgotaland. Between his sons Angantyr and Hlod, there is a... Hervarar saga may refer to it as Arheimar (...á Danparstöðum á þeim bæ, er Árheimar heita...), whereas the The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. They were written in the Old Norse language. The texts are epic tales in prose, often with stanzas or... Norse sagas otherwise call it Könugarð. As the region came under The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. They speak Slavic languages and reside chiefly in the east of that continent, but are also found in Asia. Ethno-cultural subdivisions One can customarily divide the Slavs into the following subgroups: East Slavs: Russians... Slav rule the town became known as Kyiv. Kyi, Schek and Khoriv (Ukrainian: Кий, Щек і Хорив) three brothers, sometimes mentioned along with their sister Lybid (Либідь) who according to the Tale of Bygone Years were the founders of Kyiv. Archeological excavations have shown, there... Legend speaks of a founder-family consisting of Kyi (Кий) the eldest, his brothers Schek and Khoriv, and also their sister Lybid'.


During the eighth and ninth centuries Kiev was an outpost of the The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. They founded the independent Khazar kingdom in the 7th century C.E. in the southeastern part of todays Europe, near the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus. In addition to western Kazakhstan, the Khazar kingdom also... Khazar empire. A hill-fortress, called Sambat (Old Turkic for "High Place") was built to defend the area. At some point during the late ninth or early tenth century Kiev fell under the rule of The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. Promoting trade, piracy and mercenary militarism, they roamed the river systems and portages of what later became Russia, reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople. The Slavs and the Byzantines, however, did not distinguish between Scandinavians and closely... Varangians (see Askold (Höskuldr) and Dir (Dyri) were according to the Primary Chronicle, two of Ruriks men. The chronicle relates that they were neither his relatives nor of noble blood. They asked for permission to go to Constantinople (Old Norse Miklagard, Slavic Czargrad). When travelling on the Dnieper, they saw... Askold and Prince Oleg ( Norse name Helgu) was the East Slavic ruler who moved the capital of Rus from Novgorod the Great to Kiev. He is thought to have been a supreme ruler from 879 to 912, although recently discovered Khazarian sources mention the activities of certain kagan HLGW of Rus ca... Oleg) and became the nucleus of the The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... Rus polity. The date given for Oleg's conquest of the town in the The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... Primary Chronicle is Events Carloman, King of the West Franks becomes sole king upon the death of his brother. Marinus I becomes pope. Births Deaths August 5: Louis III, king of West Francia Pope John VIII Heads of states France - Louis III, king of France (879_882) Categories: 882 ... 882, but some historians, such as Omeljan Pritsak and Constantine Zuckerman, dispute this and maintain that Khazar rule continued as late as the 920s (documentary evidence exists to support this assertion - see the Introduction The Kievian Letter is an early 10th century letter written by a Khazarian Jewish community in Kiev. The letter, a Hebrew-language recommendation written on behalf of one member of their community, was part of an enormous collection brought to Cambridge by Solomon Schechter from the Cairo Genizah. It... Kievian Letter and Also called the Cambridge Document, the Schechter Letter was discovered in the genizah of a Cairo synagogue by Solomon Schechter. The Letter The Schechter Letter is a communique from an unnamed Khazar author to an unidentified Jewish dignitary. Many believe that the Schechter Letter was addressed to Hasdai ibn Shaprut... Schechter Letter.)


From Oleg's seizure of the city until Events Prince Andrey Bogolyubskiy sacks the Kievan Rus capital Kiev. Start of the conquest of Ireland. Richard fitzGilbert de Clare (Strongbow) makes an alliance with the exiled Irish chief, Dermot MacMurrough, to help him recover his kingdom of Leinster. Births Deaths September 10 - Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I of... 1169 Kiev was the capital of the principal The Varangians or Variags were Vikings who travelled eastwards from Sweden and Norway. Promoting trade, piracy and mercenary militarism, they roamed the river systems and portages of what later became Russia, reaching the Caspian Sea and Constantinople. The Slavs and the Byzantines, however, did not distinguish between Scandinavians and closely... Varangian/East-Slavic state, known as Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by... Kievan Rus' (or Kyivan Rus'). The church of Present exterior is the result of 17th-century remodeling. Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev (Sobor Sviatoyi Sofiyi, Собор Святої Софії in Ukrainian) is an outstanding architectural monument of Kievan Rus and the principal cathedral or Kievan metropolitan... Saint Sophia in Kiev, begun in Events Construction of the church of Saint Sophia Cathedral is started in Kyiv. Ferdinand I of Castile and Leon becomes king of Spain. Harthacanute seizes the crown of England from his half-brother Harold I. Births Su Dongpo, Chinese poet Deaths Avicenna, physician, philosopher, and scientist Categories: 1037 ... 1037, was designed to emulate the splendor of Byzantine churches, reflecting the reception of Christianity from the The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. In certain specific contexts, usually referring to the centuries that marked the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it is also often referred to as the Eastern... Byzantine Empire. Though it is dedicated to "Holy Wisdom", as was the great cathedral of Hagia Sofia, Istanbul, Turkey, June 1994 The Church of the Holy Wisdom, variously known as Hagia Sophia (Άγια Σοφία) in Greek, Sancta Sophia in Latin or Ayasofya in Turkish, is a former Christian church, now a museum, in Istanbul, formerly Constantinople. It is... Hagia Sophia in Map of Constantinople. Constantinople (Roman name: Constantinopolis; Modern Greek: Konstantinoupoli or Κωνσταντινούπολη) is the former name of the city of Istanbul in todays Turkey. Today, Constantinople is the area between the Golden Horn and... Constantinople, the building has a very different form—rather than a single hemispherical dome rising out of the block of the building, Hagia Sophia in Kiev has 13 onion-shaped domes carried on drums. The central dome is larger than the rest (and in the most recent renovations, gilded), but not significantly so.


Devastated by the invading Honorary guard of Mongolia. The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. They currently number about 8.5 million and speak the Mongol language. They form one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of... Mongols in Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... 1240, it subsequently passed under the rule of the state of Halych-Volynia [before 1264] and then The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuania ( Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s - 1360s - 1370s 1380s 1390s 1400s 1410s Years: 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 - 1362 - 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 See also: 1362 state leaders Events Under Edward III, French as Englands national language, for the first time... 1362), The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poland ( Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. March 13 - Battle of Jarnac - Royalist troops under Marshal Gaspard de Tavannes surprise and defeat the Huguenots under the Prince of Condé, who is captured and murdered. A substantial proportion of the Huguenot army manages to escape under Gaspard de Coligny. June... 1569), a short-lived Ukrainian This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey. Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891. Cossack (Polish Kozak; plural, Kozacy, Russian Kazak (Казак); plural, Kazaki (К... Cossack state ( Events Peace treaty signed at Westphalia ends the Thirty Years War. The Dutch and the Spanish sign the Treaty of Munster, ending the Eighty Years War. The Spanish Empire recognizes the Dutch Republic of United Netherlands as a sovereign state, (governed by the House of Orange-Nassau and the Estates... 1648), which formed a protective treaty with This article is about Muscovite Russia. For the duck see Muscovy Duck Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княж... Muscovy ( Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. June 3 - Louis XIV of France crowned at Rheims June 6 - Charles X succedes his cousin Christina to the Swedish throne. After her abdication on June 5, Christina now the former reigning queen of a... 1654) and slowly lost independence, then autonomy by Events February 9 - American Revolutionary War: British Parliament declares Massachusetts in rebellion March 23 - American Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivers his speech - give me liberty or give me death in Williamsburg, Virginia. April 14 - American Revolutionary War: Massachusetts Governor Gage is secretly ordered by the British to enforce the Coercive... 1775, as Muscovy renamed itself, "Russia" ( Events April 11 - War of the Spanish Succession: Treaty of Utrecht June 23 - French residents of Acadia given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia Canada first Orrery built by George Graham Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713... 1713), then the " Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Russian Empire" ( Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... 1721), successively.


In Events May 10 - Amerigo Vespucci allegedly leaves Cádiz for his first voyage to the New World. May 13 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. May 20 - John Cabot sets sail from Bristol on his ship the Mathew looking for a route to the west (other documents give a May... 1497, the city was granted a The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. Among the most advanced systems of old Germanic law of the time, in the 13th... Magdeburg law, turning it into a self-governed entity independent from Szlachta ( pronounced: [ʃlaxta]) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ( Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). Szlachta formed in the late Middle Ages and existed through the 18th century and even into the 19th century. Traditionally, szlachta were owners of landed property, often in forms of folwarks... szlachta rule.


In See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe. November 16 - Battle of Lützen Christina becomes queen of Sweden; five regents, headed by Axel Oxenstierna, govern country. Antigua and Barbuda is... 1632, Peter Mogila the Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. During the first millennium of Christendom, differences developed between the Christian East and West. By the 11th century, this had culminated in a Great Schism, separating the Roman Catholic Church... Orthodox When the word metropolitan (from the Greek metera = mother and polis = town) is used as an adjective, as in metropolitan bishop, metropolitan France, or metropolitan area it can mean: of or characteristic of a metropolis; see also metropolitan area of or belonging to the home territories of a country, as... Metropolitan of Kiev and There are two well-known places called Galicia: Galicia in Western Europe, an Atlantic Ocean region in Spain. Galicia in Central Europe, a historical region which is currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. See also Gaul in France, Belgium and northern Italy Galatia in Turkey Galati (county) in Romania This... Galicia established the Kiev Mogila Academy, an educational institution aimed to preserve and develop Ukrainian culture and Orthodox faith despite The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Polish Catholic is a term generally used in relation to the members, beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. More broadly, it can be applied to Christian churches in general. Early Christians used the term to describe the whole undivided Church, the words literal meaning is universal or whole... Catholic oppression. Although ruled by the church, the academy provided students with educational standards close to universities of Western Europe (including multi-lingual training). Later it became one of the main educational centers of the The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. They speak Slavic languages and reside chiefly in the east of that continent, but are also found in Asia. Ethno-cultural subdivisions One can customarily divide the Slavs into the following subgroups: East Slavs: Russians... Slavic world. Closed by the Russian Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to... Tsarist government in Events March 4 - James Monroe succeeds James Madison as the President of the United States of America April – Earthquake in Palermo, Italy April 3 – Princess Caraboo appears in Almondsbury in Gloucestershire, England May - The General Convention of the Episcopal Church founded General Theological Seminary while meeting in New... 1817, the academy was reestablished in 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January - The Internet Society is formed. January 1 Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt replaces Javier Pérez de Cuéllar of Peru as United Nations Secretary-General George H. W. Bush becomes the first... 1992 as a This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. The word secular comes from a Latin word meaning happening once in an age. This offers the opportunity for a confusing variety of meanings. A dog is big compared to an ant but not compared to an elephant, and... secular non-governmental international university. It is still based in the same compound, containing some (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. During this period, the power of England and the United Provinces increased; while that of Spain and Portugal declined. Similarly, the power... 17th century architecture.


19th century to 1917 Revolution

In Events January 1 - Abolition of customs charges at borders within Germany. January 3 - The government of Mexico imprisons Stephen F. Austin in Mexico City March 6 - York, Upper Canada is incorporated as Toronto. March 18 - The Tolpuddle Martyrs, six Dorset farm labourers, are sentenced to be transported to a penal... 1834, St. Volodymyr University was established in Kiev (now known as National Taras Shevchenko University of Kiev). The great Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko, self portrait Taras Hryhorovich Shevchenko, Тарас Григорович Шевченко (March 9, 1814 - March 10, 1861), Ukrainian poet, artist, and humanist. Life Born into a serf family in the village... Taras Shevchenko cooperated with its geography department as a field researcher and editor. In the late 1840s, the famous historian, Mykola Kostomarov (Nikolay Kostomarov in Russian), founded the first Ukrainian national secret political society, the Cyril-Methodian Brotherhood.


From the late (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. Historians will sometimes specifically refer to the 18th century as 1715-1789, denoting the period of time between the death... 18th century until the late Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century, city life was dominated by Russian military and ecclesial concerns. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. During the first millennium of Christendom, differences developed between the Christian East and West. By the 11th century, this had culminated in a Great Schism, separating the Roman Catholic Church... Orthodox Church institutions formed a significant part of Kiev's infrastructure and business activity at that time.


Following the gradual loss of Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine's Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. In politics, a self-governing city or region, e.g. Kurdistan, Kosovo or Hong Kong SAR (not necessarily as a result of formal secession), is autonomous. Autonomy is usually a pre-requisite to separation or secession, however... autonomy, Kiev experienced growing This article is about the political term. For localization of computers and software, see Russification (computers). Russification refers to both official and unofficial policies of Imperial Russia and Soviet Union with respect to their national constituents and to national minorities in Russia proper aimed at Russian domination. In a narrow... Russification in the Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century by means of Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. The English term Russians is also used to refer to citizens of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity (see demographics of Russia for information on other nationalities inhabiting Russia... Russian Migration occurs when living things move from one biome to another. In most cases organisms migrate to avoid local shortages of food, usually caused by winter. Animals may also migrate to a certain location to breed, as is the case with some fish. The species that periodically migrate are called... migration, administrative actions and social Modernization is the process of changing the conditions of a society, an organisation or another group of people in ways that change the privileges of that group according to modern technology or modern knowledge. According to the sociologist Peter Wagner, modernization can be seen as processes, and as offencives. While... modernization. At the beginning of the (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th century, the city was dominated by Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian-speaking population, while the lower classes retained Ukrainian Folk can refer to a number of different things: It can be short for folk music, or, for folksong, or, for folklore; it may be a word for a specific people, tribe, or nation, especially one of the Germanic peoples; it might even be a calque on German Volk, a... folk culture to a significant extent. However, enthusiasts among ethnic Ukrainian The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds.—After a Miniature of the Tournaments of King Réné (Fifteenth Century) MSS. of the National Library of Paris. The nobility represents, or... nobles, military and merchants made recurrent attempts to preserve native culture in Kiev (by clandestine book-printing, amateur theater, folk studies etc.)


During the Russian industrial revolution in the late Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century, Kiev became an important trade and transportation center of the Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Russian Empire, specializing in This article deals with sugar as food and as an important, widely traded commodity; the word also has other uses; see Sugar (disambiguation) A sugar is a form of carbohydrate; the most commonly used sugar is a white crystalline solid, sucrose; used to alter the flavor and properties (mouthfeel, perservation... sugar and An assortment of grains The word grain has a great many meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. For examples: a grain of sand or salt; see grain size for granule a grain is a type of simple dry fruit technically called a caryopsis. In agriculture, such... grain export by This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. These consist of two parallel rails, usually of steel, generally mounted upon cross-sectional beams (termed sleepers or ties) of timber, concrete or other... railroad and on the Dnieper river. As of 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. Events January January 1 - Nigeria becomes a British protectorate January 2 - John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China. January 2 - Chicago Canal opens. January 5 - Irish leader John Edward Redmond calls for a revolt against British rule... 1900, the city also became a significant industrial center, having a population of 250,000. Landmarks of that period include the railway infrastructure, the foundation of numerous educational and cultural facilities as well as notable architectural monuments (mostly merchant-oriented). The first electric train For specific light rail systems, many of which use the words light rail as part of their name, see list of light rail transit systems. A train of Light Rail, KCRC, Hong Kong. A METRORail train approaching Preston Station in downtown Houston, Texas, USA. The O-Train, the diesel light... tram line of the Russian Empire was established in Kiev (arguably, the first in the world).


At that time, a large The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jewish community emerged in Kiev, developing its own ethnic culture and business interests. This was stimulated by the prohibition of Jewish settlement in The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia proper ( Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow  listen? ( Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097.12 km2. Its coordinates are 55°45′ N 37°37′ E. The citys population... Moscow and Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Saint Petersburg) — as well as further eastwards. In fact, the The Pale of Settlement (Черта оседлости in Russian, or cherta osedlosti) was the border region of Imperial Russia in which Jews were allowed to live. Consisting of a vast swathe of territory, the Pale included much of present... Pale of Settlement ( Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian: черта оседлости) crossed through Kiev itself, fencing off some of the city's Districts are a form of local government in several countries. Austria In Austria, a district is an administrative subdivision normally encompassing several municipalities, roughly equivalent to the Landkreis in Germany. The administrative office of a district, the Bezirkshauptmannschaft is headed by the Bezirkshauptmann. It is in charge of the administration... districts from the Jewish population.


The development of Aviation or Air transport refers to the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft, include fixed wing (airplane) and rotary wing (helicopter) types, as well as lighter than air craft such as balloons and airships (also known as dirigibles.) Aviation can be broadly divided into three areas: Commercial... aviation (both military and amateur) became another notable mark of distinction of Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s - 1900s - 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s Years: 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 Events and Trends Technology Lawrence Hargrave makes the first stable wing design for a heavier-than-air aircraft Orville and... 1900s Kiev. Prominent aviation figures of that period include Kievites Pyotr Nesterov (well-known Soon after aircraft were invented, pilots realised that they could be used as part of a flying circus to entertain people or impress others in what was termed aerobatics. Manoeuvres that had no practical purpose were flown for artistic reasons or to draw gasps from onlookers. In due course some... aerobatics pioneer) and Igor Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (May 25, 1889 - October 26, 1972) was a Ukrainian of Polish descent and a pioneer of aviation who designed the first four-engine aeroplanes and the first modern helicopter. Igor Sikorsky was born in Kiev, Ukraine and studied at the Naval War College in St... Igor Sikorsky. The world's first A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more large horizontal rotors (propellers). Helicopters are classified as rotary-wing aircraft to distinguish them from conventional fixed-wing aircraft. The word helicopter is derived from the Greek words helix (spiral) and pteron (wing). The engine-driven... helicopter was built and tested in Kiev by Sikorsky.


Ukrainian Revolution and Independence

In 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917 Tsentral'na Rada, the Ukrainian Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. It may refer to personal conduct or family units but more commonly refers to larger scale activities, i.e. professions, industry bodies, religions and political units, up to and including autonomous regions and aboriginal peoples (or others... self-government body, was established in the city. Later that year, Ukrainian Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. In politics, a self-governing city or region, e.g. Kurdistan, Kosovo or Hong Kong SAR (not necessarily as a result of formal secession), is autonomous. Autonomy is usually a pre-requisite to separation or secession, however... autonomy was declared. On November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. Events 1665 - The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published. 1783 - A man convicted of forgery is the last to be publicly hanged at Londons Tyburn... November 7, 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917 it was transformed into an Business In business, an independent business is a term of distinction and is generally used to refer to businesses which are privately owned as opposed to those publicly owned through a distribution of shares on the market. A sole-proprietorship is the most common form of independent business. Other terms... independent Ukrainian Peoples Republic with the capital in Kiev. During this short period of independence, Kiev experienced rapid growth of its cultural and political status. Academy of Sciences can refer to a national academy or another learned society dedicated to sciences. Examples include: Brazil - Brazilian Academy of Sciences Peoples Republic of China - Chinese Academy of Sciences France - French Academy of Sciences Hungary - Hungarian Academy of Sciences Moldova - Academy of Sciences of Moldova Netherlands - Royal... Academy of Sciences and professional Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. Written Ukrainian bears resemblances to these two languages, but with several notable differences. Historically, Belarusian and Ukrainian diverged from Old or Middle Ruthenian language. Spoken literary Ukrainian, however finds... Ukrainian-language theaters and libraries were established by the new government.


Later Kiev became a war zone in the lasting and bloody struggle between Ukrainian governments and Russian Bolshevik Party Meeting. A Bolshevik (Большеви́к, derived from Russian word loosely translated as majority) was a member of a faction of Bolsheviks of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), the Marxist political party led by Vladimir Lenin that seized power... Bolsheviks.


Early Soviet Rule and World War II

The Bolshevik Party Meeting. A Bolshevik (Большеви́к, derived from Russian word loosely translated as majority) was a member of a faction of Bolsheviks of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), the Marxist political party led by Vladimir Lenin that seized power... Bolsheviks took control of Kiev in 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. January 9 - Britain announces it will build 1,000,000 homes for war veterans. January 10 - League of Nations holds its first meeting... 1920. After the State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. (According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of international... Ukrainian SSR was formed under Moscow rule, Kharkiv ( ukr: Ха́рків; rus: Ха́рьков, Kharkov) is the second largest city in Ukraine, a center of Kharkivska oblast. It is situated in the northeast of the country and has a population of two million. It is... Kharkiv was declared its capital due to it being more dominated by the working class. In 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-April January 1 - Alcatraz becomes a federal prison. January 7 - First Flash Gordon comic strip is published. January 10 - Execution of Marinus van der Lubbe January 24 - Einstein visits White House January 26 - The... 1934, the capital was moved back to Kiev, starting a new period of growth and the reestablishment of a Ukrainian spirit (mostly by migrants).


In the Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... 1930s, Kiev suffered the results of the controversial Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Р... Soviet policy of that time. While encouraging lower-class The Ukrainians are a Slavic people of central-eastern Europe. They are the descendants of several peoples who inhabited the vast area extending from north of the Black Sea to the borders of Russia, Poland, Moldova, Belarus and Slovakia. Ukraine had a very turbulent history, a fact justified by its... Ukrainians to pursue careers and develop their culture, the Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Communism From Wikipedia Communism is a term that can refer to one of several things: a social and economic system, an ideology which supports that system, or a political movement that wishes to... Communist regime soon began harsh oppression of political freedom, Ukraine's Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. In politics, a self-governing city or region, e.g. Kurdistan, Kosovo or Hong Kong SAR (not necessarily as a result of formal secession), is autonomous. Autonomy is usually a pre-requisite to separation or secession, however... autonomy and Orthodox religion. Recurring political trials were organized in the city to purge "Ukrainian nationalists", "Western spies" and opponents of Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin ( Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili ( Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილ... Joseph Stalin inside the Bolshevik party. Numerous historic churches were destroyed or vandalized and the Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. The term comes from Greek κληρος (fortune, or metaphorically, heritage). Depending on the religion, clergy usually take care of the ritual aspects of the religious life, teach or otherwise... clergy repressed.


In the late Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... 1930s, clandestine mass Death Penalty World Map Color Key: Blue: Abolished for all crimes Green: Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war) Orange: Abolitionist in Practice Red: Legal Form of Punishment Criminal law Execution is the act of putting a person to death, with... executions began in Kiev. Thousands of Kievites (mostly An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. Men of letters The man of letters stood in many cultures for what we might take to be the contemporary intellectual; the distinction not having great weight when... intellectuals and party activists) were arrested in the night, hurriedly court-martialed, shot and buried in mass graves. The main execution sites were Babi Yar (Ukrainian Babyn Yar) is the name of a ravine situated in the city of Kiev, Ukraine. It is the site of a mass murder by German Nazis during World War II. During World War II, the mass murder of the German paramilitary execution squads was carried out at... Babi Yar and the Bykivnya forest. Tens of thousands were sentenced to Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Ла... GULAG camps. However, the city's economy continued to grow, following Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin ( Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili ( Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილ... Stalin's Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . This social and economic change is closely intertwined with technological innovation, particularly the development of large... industrialization policy.


During Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War II, Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. The Third Reich is an Anglicization of the German... Nazi Germany occupied Kiev on September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). There are 103 days remaining. Events 1356 - In Battle of Poitiers English defeat French 1692 - Giles Corey is pressed to death after refusing to plead in the Salem witch trials. 1777 - First Battle of Saratoga/Battle of... 19 September 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 6 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms Speech in the State of the Union Address. January 10 - Lend-Lease is introduced into the U.S. Congress. January 19 - British troops attack Italian... 1941 as part of Original German plan Operation Barbarossa (Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the German codename for Nazi Germanys invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which commenced on June 22, 1941. It was to be the turning point for the fortunes of Hitlers Third Reich in that the failure of... Operation Barbarossa, destroying a huge Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krest... Red Army This article is about the arithmetic operation. For other uses, see Division (disambiguation). In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division is an arithmetic operation which is the reverse operation of multiplication, and sometimes it can be interpreted as repeated subtraction. Specifically, if a × b = c, where b is not... division in the area and taking more than 650,000 prisoners. On September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). There are 93 days remaining. Events 61 BC - Pompey the Great celebrates his third triumph, for victories over the pirates and the end of the Mithridatic Wars on his 45th birthday. 48 BC - Ptolemy XIII of Egypt... September 29 and 30 at Babi Yar (Ukrainian Babyn Yar) is the name of a ravine situated in the city of Kiev, Ukraine. It is the site of a mass murder by German Nazis during World War II. During World War II, the mass murder of the German paramilitary execution squads was carried out at... Babi Yar, SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... SS A member of Einsatzgruppe D executes a Jew kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. Einsatzgruppen (a German military term meaning mission squads) were semi-military groups formed in Nazi Germany before and during World War II. These death squads belonged to the S.S. and... Einsatzgruppen carried out the mass murder of 33,771 The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jews. The city remained in German hands until it was retaken by the Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Р... Soviet Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krest... Red Army on November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. From September 23, there are 88 days in a fall (autumn) season. We are considered halfway through fall (autumn) on November 6. Events 1528 - Shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar N... 6 November 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. Events January January 4 - End of term for Culbert Olson, 29th Governor of California. He is succeeded by Earl Warren. January 11 - The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China. January 11 - General Juanto dies in Argentina - Ramon... 1943. Both Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ Communism From Wikipedia Communism is a term that can refer to one of several things: a social and economic system, an ideology which supports that system, or a political movement that wishes to... Communists and Ukrainian Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. According to the theory of nationalism, the preservation of identity features, the independence in all subjects, the wellbeing, and the glory of ones own nation are fundamental values... nationalists established underground A resistance movement is a group dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country. The term can also refer to any organized effort by supporters of a common goal against a constituted authority. Thus resistance movements can include any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or... resistance activities (known as Підпілля, pidpillia; подполье, podpoliye in Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian) in Kiev during the occupation. Kiev was heavily bombarded during the war, so many architectural landmarks (including most of the main Khreschatyk Street) were destroyed. For its suffering during the War, the city was later awarded the title Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. This symbolic distinction for a... Hero City.


As of the Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. See History of nuclear weapons Sputnik, the first man-made satellite, and thus the Sputnik crisis The De Havilland Comet enters service as the worlds first jet airliner Charles Townes builds a maser in 1953 at Columbia University... 1950s, Kiev's pre-war population of Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... 1930s had mostly perished due to The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The term repression was officially used to denote the prosecution of people recognized as counter-revolutionaries and enemies of... purges, war losses and forced Migration occurs when living things move from one biome to another. In most cases organisms migrate to avoid local shortages of food, usually caused by winter. Animals may also migrate to a certain location to breed, as is the case with some fish. The species that periodically migrate are called... migration to other regions of the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик... USSR.


Post-WWII Soviet Rule

Post-wartime in Kiev was a period of rapid socio-economic growth and political Peace is generally defined as a state of quiet or tranquillity, as an absence of disturbance or agitation (Latin derivation Pax = Absentia Belli). But behind this simple definition lies a lot of controversy and nuance. Absence of noise Those who live far from the cities and from civilization are often... pacification. The An arms race is a competition between two or more countries for military supremacy. Each party competes to produce superior numbers of weapons, larger armies, or superior military technology in a technological escalation. Most arms races have occurred in the modern era. One of the first arms races occurred in... arms race of the The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. On one side was the Soviet Union and its allies, often referred to as the Eastern bloc. On the other side were the... Cold War caused the establishment of a powerful technological complex in the city (both R&D and production), specializing in Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering concerning aircraft, spacecraft and related topics. It is often called aeronautical engineering, particularly when referring solely to aircraft, and astronautical engineering, when referring to spacecraft. Some of the elements of aerospace engineering are: Aerodynamics - the study of fluid flow around objects such as... aerospace, Microelectronics is a subfield of electronics. Microelectronics, as the name suggests, is related to the study and manufacture of electronic components which are very small. These devices are made from semiconductors using a process known as photolithography. Many components of normal electronic design are available in microelectronic equivalent: transistors, capacitors... microelectronics and precision See also list of optical topics. Optics (appearance or look in ancient Greek) is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light and the interaction of light with matter. Optics explains and is illuminated by optical phenomena. The field of optics usually describes the behavior of... optics. Dozens of industrial companies were created employing highly skilled personnel. Exact sciences and technology became the main issues of Kiev's intellectual life. Dozens of research institutes in various fields formed the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. Kiev also became an important military center of the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик... Soviet Union. More than dozen military schools and academies were established here, also specializing in high-tech warfare (see also The Soviet education was organized in a highly centralized government-run system, designed to fulfill political and military purposes foremost. Its advantages were total access for all citizens and post-education employment. Although this system was unbelievably ineffective by economic standards, it managed to raise the countrys educational level... Soviet education).


This created a labor force demand which fed migration from Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. Such areas are distinct from more intensively settled urban and suburban areas, and also from unsettled lands such as outback or wilderness. People live in villages, on farms and in other isolated houses. Rural areas... rural areas of both Ukraine and The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia. Large suburbs and an extensive transportation infrastructure were built to accommodate the growing population. However, many rural-type buildings and groves have survived on the city's hills, creating Kiev's image as one of the world's greenest cities. The city grew tremendously in the Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. See History of nuclear weapons Sputnik, the first man-made satellite, and thus the Sputnik crisis The De Havilland Comet enters service as the worlds first jet airliner Charles Townes builds a maser in 1953 at Columbia University... 1950s through Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology Bulletin board system popularity Popularization of personal computers, Walkmans, VHS videocassette recorders, and compact disc (CD) players Introduction of the IBM PC Home video games become enormously popular, most notably Atari until the market crashes in 1983; the rise... '80s. Some significant Urban is in or having to do with cities, as distinct from rural areas. In terms of music, urban music and urban radio are synonymous with the contemporary musical genres hip hop and R&B, and the associate hip hop culture which originated in New York City and is... urban achievements of this period include establishment of the This page refers to urban rail mass transit systems. For other uses see metro (disambiguation) See also Wikimedia Commons has multimedia related to: Metro List of metro systems metro station U-Bahn S-Bahn advanced light rapid transit monorail Metrophile (A person with a devoted interest in these systems) . External... Metro, building new river bridges (connecting the old city with Left Bank suburbs), and Boryspil’ (Ukrainian Бориспіль) is a city in northern Ukraine, situated in the left-bank part of Kyivska oblast, close to the capital city of Kyiv. It is also a center of Boryspilskyi raion (district). Boryspil’ is known... Boryspil AirPort is a wireless networking protocol from Apple Computer designed for both Macintosh and PC computers. It is based on the IEEE 802.11b (also known as Wi-Fi) standard and has been certified to be compatible with other 802.11b devices. According to Apple, AirPort is capable of speeds... airport (the city's second, and later international).


Meanwhile, city life was declining in the political, cultural, and ethnic realms, especially after the end of Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union... Khrushchev's era. Systematic oppression of pro-Ukrainian intellectuals became a major object of This article is about the political term. For localization of computers and software, see Russification (computers). Russification refers to both official and unofficial policies of Imperial Russia and Soviet Union with respect to their national constituents and to national minorities in Russia proper aimed at Russian domination. In a narrow... Russification in the 1970s - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ 1970s From Wikipedia Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of... 1970s, when A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. A university provides both tertiary and quaternary education. University is derived from the Latin universitas, meaning corporation since the first medieval European universities were simply groups of scholars. History Arguably the first western university was... universities and research facilities were gradually and secretly prohibited from using Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. Written Ukrainian bears resemblances to these two languages, but with several notable differences. Historically, Belarusian and Ukrainian diverged from Old or Middle Ruthenian language. Spoken literary Ukrainian, however finds... Ukrainian. Strong Russian migration into the city was an official excuse for switching most schools to Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian and later not allowing children to learn Ukrainian at all.


Every attempt to dispute Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Р... Soviet rule was harshly oppressed, especially concerning This article deals with democracy in its modern sense. For other meanings, see Democracy (disambiguation). Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. Under such a system, legislative decisions are made by the people themselves... democracy, State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. (According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of international... Ukrainian SSR's self-government, and ethnic-religious problems. Campaigns against "Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism" and "Western influence" in Kiev's educational and scientific institutions were mounted repeatedly. Due to tight political control and lack of career prospects in Kiev, Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow  listen? ( Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097.12 km2. Its coordinates are 55°45′ N 37°37′ E. The citys population... Moscow became a preferable life destination for many Kievites (and Ukrainians as a whole), especially for artists and other creative intellectuals. Dozens of show-business celebrities in modern The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia were born in Kiev.


In the 1970s - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ 1970s From Wikipedia Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of... 1970s and later Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology Bulletin board system popularity Popularization of personal computers, Walkmans, VHS videocassette recorders, and compact disc (CD) players Introduction of the IBM PC Home video games become enormously popular, most notably Atari until the market crashes in 1983; the rise... 1980s Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM... '90s, given special permission from Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Р... Soviet government, a significant part of the city's The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Jews migrated to The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit.: Medinat Yisrael; Arabic: دولة اسرائيل, translit.: Daulat Israil) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea... Israel and the West.


The The Chernobyl Nuclear power plant The Chernobyl accident which occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union) is widely regarded as the worst in the history of nuclear power generation. It produced a plume of radioactive debris that drifted... Chornobyl accident of 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 1 - Spain and Portugal enter the European Community January 1 - Aruba gains increased autonomy from the Netherlands and is separated from the Netherlands Antilles. January 9 - After losing a patent battle with Polaroid, Kodak leaves... 1986 affected city life tremendously, both An environment is a complex of external factors that acts on a system and determines its course and form of existence. An environment may be thought of as a superset, of which the given system is a subset. An environment may have one or more parameters, physical or otherwise. The... environmentally and socio-politically. Some areas of the city have been polluted by Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. Decay is said to occur in the parent nucleus and produce a daughter nucleus. The trefoil symbol is used to indicate radioactive material. The Unicode encoding of this symbol is U+2622 (☢... radioactive dust. However, Kievites were neither informed about the actual threat of the accident, nor recognized as its victims. Moreover, on May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). There are 244 days remaining. Events 300-1899 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. 1328 - Wars of Scottish Independence end: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as... May 1, 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 1 - Spain and Portugal enter the European Community January 1 - Aruba gains increased autonomy from the Netherlands and is separated from the Netherlands Antilles. January 9 - After losing a patent battle with Polaroid, Kodak leaves... 1986 (a few days after the accident), local For other usage of the initials CPSU see CPSU (disambiguation). The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тск... CPSU leaders ordered Kievites (including hundreds of children) to take part in a mass civil Marines on parade A parade is an organized procession of people along a street, often in costume, and often accompanied by decorated vehicles called floats or sometimes large lighter-than-air balloons with complex shapes. Parades are held for a wide range of reasons, but are usually celebrations of some... parade in the city's center—"to prevent panic". Later, thousands of Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... refugees from accident zone were resettled in Kiev.


After 57 years as the capital of the State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. (According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of international... Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic of the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик... Soviet Union, Kiev in 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991 became the capital of independent Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine.


The city has been the site of ongoing mass protests over the The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. The election was held in a highly charged atmosphere, with allegations of media bias, intimidation and even a poisoning of... 2004 Ukrainian presidential election by supporters of opposition candidate Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko ( Ukrainian: Віктор Андрійович Ющенко) (born 23 February 1954) is the president of Ukraine. As leader of the Our Ukraine (Nasha Ukrayina) political coalition, he was the main opposition... Viktor Yushchenko since November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 39 days remaining. Events 1700-1899 1718 - Off the coast of Virginia, English pirate Edward Teach (best known as Blackbeard) is killed in battle when a British boarding party cornered and... November 22, 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. It was designated the: International Year of Rice (by the United Nations) International Year to Commemorate the Struggle against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO) Elections were held in 73 countries during 2004. See a list of elections... 2004 at Independence Square. Smaller counter-protests in favor of Viktor Yanukovych Campaign Poster 2004 Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych ( Russian: Виктор Федорович Янукович1) (born July 9, 1950 in Yenakiieve, Donetska oblast) was Prime Minister of Ukraine from November 21... Viktor Yanukovych have also taken place.


Current city mayor is Olexander Omelchenko.


Features

View of kashtan (chestnut) tree in Kiev, Ukraine. Photo taken by K. Eno in 1996 . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date...
View of kashtan (chestnut) tree in Kiev, Ukraine. Photo taken by K. Eno in 1996 . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date... Enlarge
A kashtan (chestnut) tree
Statues in the Great Patriotic War museum in Kiev, Ukraine. Photo taken by K. Eno in 1995 . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on...
Statues in the Great Patriotic War museum in Kiev, Ukraine. Photo taken by K. Eno in 1995 . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on... Enlarge
Great Patriotic War Museum

It is said that one can walk from one end of Kiev to the other in the summertime without leaving the shade of its many trees. There are two botanical gardens and numerous large and small parks. Notable among these are the War Museum, which offers both indoor and outdoor displays of military history and equipment surrounded by verdant hills overlooking the Dnieper river; Hidropark, located on an island in the river and accessible by metro or by car, in which an amusement park, swimming beaches, and boat rentals can be found; and Victory Park, one of many parks scattered around the city in residential areas where one may stroll, jog, or ride a bicycle.

Enlarge
View of Livoberezhniy district from the Botanical Gardens

In parks and elsewhere, one will encounter many Species Aesculus arguta: Texas Buckeye Aesculus californica: California Buckeye Aesculus chinensis: Chinese Horse-chestnut Aesculus flava (): Yellow Buckeye Aesculus glabra: Ohio Buckeye Aesculus hippocastanum: Common Horse-chestnut Aesculus indica: Indian Horse-chestnut Aesculus neglecta: Dwarf Buckeye Aesculus parviflora: Bottlebrush Buckeye Aesculus pavia: Red Buckeye Aesculus sylvatica: Painted Buckeye Aesculus turbinata... horse-chestnut trees, called "kashtany". The large five-bladed leaves are distinctive, bursting into bloom in springtime, as are the glossy brown nuts that tumble to the sidewalks in the fall.


Architectural fascinations abound, including government buildings such as the Mariyinsky Palace (designed and constructed from Events May 11 - War of Austrian Succession: Battle of Fontenoy - At Fontenoy, French forces defeat an Anglo-Dutch-Hanoverian army including the Black Watch June 4 – Austrian army at Hohenfriedberg August 19 - Beginning of the 45 Jacobite Rising at Glenfinnan September 12 - Francis I is elected Holy Roman Emperor... 1745 Events February 11 - Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the US, is opened. March 23 - The Halifax Gazette, the first Canadian newspaper June 15 - Benjamin Franklin proves that lightning is electricity (kite + key + lightning) September 14 - The British Empire adopts the Gregorian calendar, making it necessary to skip eleven days... 1752, then reconstructed in 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). Events January - April January 6 - The inauguration of the Musikverein ( Vienna). January 10 - John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil January 15 - A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the United States Democratic Party with a donkey (A... 1870) and the sweeping Ministry of Foreign Affairs building; several Orthodox churches and church complexes such as the Categories: Ukraine-related stubs | Eastern Orthodoxy | Places in Ukraine | Kyiv city | UN World Heritage Sites ... Pecherska Lavra, Present exterior is the result of 17th-century remodeling. Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev (Sobor Sviatoyi Sofiyi, Собор Святої Софії in Ukrainian) is an outstanding architectural monument of Kievan Rus and the principal cathedral or Kievan metropolitan... St. Sophia's, and St. Andrew's, and others such as the Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century Lutheran church; and public monuments such as the statue of Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as... Bohdan Khmel'nyts'kyi astride his horse up the hill from Independence Square and the venerated Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c.958–1015) was the grand prince of Kiev who converted to Christianity in 988, and proceeded to baptise the whole Kievan Rus. His name is known in... Volodymyr the Great, baptizer of the Rus, overlooking the river above Podil.

Download high resolution version (803x435, 32 KB)View of Lavra monastery and church complex, looking southwest, with Dnipro river and Paton Bridge in the background. Photo taken by K. Eno in 1995 . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this...
Download high resolution version (803x435, 32 KB)View of Lavra monastery and church complex, looking southwest, with Dnipro river and Paton Bridge in the background. Photo taken by K. Eno in 1995 . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Enlarge
Pecherska monastery, with the Paton bridge over the Dnieper river

Among the many hotels, the cylindrical Salut is unique—located across from Glory Square and the eternal flame, its windows command views in all directions from one of the highest points in Kiev.


Kiev offers several institutions of higher learning, including the Taras Shevchenko State University of Kiev, the Polytechnic Institute, the Agricultural University, and numerous scientific and technical institutes.


Industry includes many large and small publishing and printing plants, such as Pressa Ukraina, and the famous Arsenal camera and lens factory which produces consumer, medical, and military optical equipment.


Boating, fishing, and water sports are popular pastimes. Since the lakes and rivers freeze over in the winter, ice fishermen are frequently seen, as are children with their ice skates. However, the peak of summer is when masses of people can be seen on the shores, swimming or sunbathing, with daytime high temperatures between 30 and 34 degrees Celsius.

Download high resolution version (955x418, 61 KB)View of Dnipro River from Pechersk, looking east over the Metro bridge towards Hidropark and Livoberezhna. Photo taken by K. Eno in 1996 . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version...
Download high resolution version (955x418, 61 KB)View of Dnipro River from Pechersk, looking east over the Metro bridge towards Hidropark and Livoberezhna. Photo taken by K. Eno in 1996 . File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version... Enlarge
View east across Dnieper river, to Hidropark and Livoberezhna district.

Each residential region has its market, or rynok. Here one will find table after table of individuals hawking everything imaginable: vegetables, fresh and smoked meats, fish, cheese, honey, dairy products such as milk and home-made smetana (sour cream), Wiktionary has a definition of: Caviar Caviar is the processed, salted roe of various species of fish, most notably sturgeon. It is commercially marketed throughout the world as a delicacy and is eaten principally as a garnish or spread, as with hors doeuvres. Today the best caviar comes from... caviar, cut flowers, housewares, tools and hardware, and clothing. Each of the markets has its own unique mix of products and as you travel on the metro, bus, or tramvai routes, you'll find many travellers passing the time with a book. Where better to get a stack of books at a low price, than at the book market by the Petrovka can refer to: A metro station in Kiev: Petrovka (metro station) A train station in Kiev: Petrovka (train station) A book market in Kiev: Petrovka (book market) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If an... Petrovka metro stop?


City districts

In Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... 1930s Kiev was divided by several districts, finally reaching number 14 in early Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s - 1940s - 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Years: 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 Events and trends Technology First nuclear bomb First cruise missile, the V1 flying bomb and the first ballistic missile, the... 1940s. Several years ago, this number was cut down to 10. Beside these, Kiev is also unformally divided by large neighborhoods, housing as much as 50-100 thousands of people.


Formal districts

  • Pechersk
  • Podol
  • Obolon'
  • Dnipro
  • Darnytsia
  • Solom'yansk
  • Holosiyiv
  • Shevchenko (Шевченко) can refer to: Taras Shevchenko, a Ukrainian poet and artist Andriy Shevchenko, a Ukrainian footballer Aktau, a city in Kazakhstan known from 1964 to 1992 as Shevchenko This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Shevchenko
  • Svyatoshyn
  • Desna

Neighborhoods

  • Poznyaky
  • Osokorky
  • Kharkivskyy
  • Borshchahivka
  • Vynohradar
  • Kurenivka
  • Syrets
  • Nyvky
  • Borshchahivka
  • Zhulyany
  • Chokolivka
  • Shulyavka
  • Tatarka
  • Voskresinka
  • Rusanivka
  • Bereznyaky

Kiev or Kyiv?

The city has been called Kiev in The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. It is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around 402 million people in 2002. English has lingua franca status in many parts of the world, due to the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence... English since at least the Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century. The earliest quotation in the The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi-volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). Generally regarded as the definitive dictionary of English, it includes 500,000 headwords together with some 2.5 million illustrative quotations. The OED is the most comprehensive record of the English language... Oxford English Dictionary containing "Kiev" is dated Events January January 16 - The United States Civil service, is passed January 19 - The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires begins service (Roselle, New Jersey) It was built by Thomas Edison. February February 16 - Ladies Home Journal is published for the first time. February 23 - Alabama becomes the first... 1883, while the name was used in print as early as Events July 15 - San Paolo fuori le Mura church in Rome almost completely destroyed by fire September 10 - Peru December 2 - US President James Monroe delivers a speech to the U.S. Congress, announcing a new policy of forbidding European interference in the Americas and establishing American neutrality in future... 1823 in the English traveller Mary Holderness' travelogue New Russia. Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev.


In 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. It was the first year of the International Decade of the Worlds Indigenous People (1995- 2005): http://www.unesco.org/culture/indigenous/ Events January January 1 Austria, Finland and Sweden enter the European Union Fred West, accused... 1995, the Ukrainian government made a declaration concerning English-language usage of the name of the city, favoring the use of Kyiv over Kiev. This act has legal jurisdiction only over Ukrainian government spelling of the city's name. It says in part:

  1. To acknowledge that the Roman spelling of Kiev does not recreate the phonetic and scriptural features of the Ukrainian language geographical name.
  2. To confirm that the spelling of Kyiv as standardized Roman-letter correspondence to the Ukrainian language geographical name of Київ.
  3. On the basis of point 7 of the Provision on the Ukrainian Commission for Legal Terminology, determine as mandatory the standardized Roman-letter spelling of Kyiv for use in legislative and official acts.

Many people have followed suit and use the spelling Kyiv in all The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the... Latin alphabet publications. The new spelling Kyiv is increasingly being used by the The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. With the notable exception of the Holy See/ Vatican City (which is the sole permanent observer state), all countries recognized by the CIA as first-level sovereign entities, are members. Other entities recognized... United Nations and most English-speaking A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. In practice, a diplomatic mission usually denotes the permanent mission, namely the office of a countrys diplomatic representatives in the capital city of... diplomatic missions, and by some English-language publications.


Some find the spelling Kiev inappropriate, because it reflects Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian instead of Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. Written Ukrainian bears resemblances to these two languages, but with several notable differences. Historically, Belarusian and Ukrainian diverged from Old or Middle Ruthenian language. Spoken literary Ukrainian, however finds... Ukrainian pronunciation. Some even consider it offensive, a remnant of This article is about the political term. For localization of computers and software, see Russification (computers). Russification refers to both official and unofficial policies of Imperial Russia and Soviet Union with respect to their national constituents and to national minorities in Russia proper aimed at Russian domination. In a narrow... Russification under Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Imperial Russia and the The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик... Soviet Union. However, the Kiev spelling was used in English before reforms of Ukrainian orthography and vocabulary, and also reflects the Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. See IPA in Unicode if you have display problems. Terminology Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between 10th and 14th century in Kievan Rus and its successor states. As the... Old East Slavic (the language of the ancestors of modern Ukrainians and Russians) spelling of the name. The name is pronounced by Ukrainians and many Russians as one would in English say "Keev."


Some writers of English do not accept the authority of the Ukrainian government over English spelling. They point out that the spelling Kiev remains the most widespread spelling in English by a substantial margin and that many cities have different names in English than in their native language, such as Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow  listen? ( Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097.12 km2. Its coordinates are 55°45′ N 37°37′ E. The citys population... Moscow and Warsaw ( Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. It is located on the Vistula river roughly 350 km from both the Baltic Sea coast and the Carpathian Mountains. Its... Warsaw.


See also

  • Askold (Höskuldr) and Dir (Dyri) were according to the Primary Chronicle, two of Ruriks men. The chronicle relates that they were neither his relatives nor of noble blood. They asked for permission to go to Constantinople (Old Norse Miklagard, Slavic Czargrad). When travelling on the Dnieper, they saw... Askold and Dir
  • Chernihiv (Чернігів in Ukraine. Some common historical spellings of the name are Polish: Czernichów, and Russian: Чернигов, Chernigov. Population 295,500 (2004). Founded as early as 9th century One of major cities of early Ruthenia... Chernihiv
  • This article refers to the Mongol state in what is now Russia. For the Irish rock band, see The Golden Horde (band). The Golden Horde (also known as Kipchak or Qipchaq Khanate) was a Tatar state established in present day Russia by unification of Blue Horde and White Horde around... Golden Horde
  • The Khazars were a semi- nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. The name Khazar seems to be tied to a Turkic verb meaning wandering. In the 7th century CE they founded an independent Khaganate in the Northern Caucasus along the Caspian Sea, where over... Khazars
  • Introduction The Kievian Letter is an early 10th century letter written by a Khazarian Jewish community in Kiev. The letter, a Hebrew-language recommendation written on behalf of one member of their community, was part of an enormous collection brought to Cambridge by Solomon Schechter from the Cairo Genizah. It... Kievian Letter
  • For other cities named Novgorod see Novgorod (disambiguation). Novgorod (Но́вгород) is a city in North-Western Russia. Since 1998 the official name of the city has been Velikiy Novgorod (Great Novgorod). It is the capital of Novgorod Oblast. The city lies along... Novgorod
  • Prince Oleg ( Norse name Helgu) was the East Slavic ruler who moved the capital of Rus from Novgorod the Great to Kiev. He is thought to have been a supreme ruler from 879 to 912, although recently discovered Khazarian sources mention the activities of certain kagan HLGW of Rus ca... Oleg
  • Olga of Kiev Olga (Russian: Ольга also called Olga Prekrasa, or Olga the Beauty, Norse: Helga) (died July 11, 969 in Kiev) was a Pskov woman of Varangian extraction who married the future Igor of Kiev, arguably in 903. The Primary Chronicle gives 879 as her... Olga of Kiev
  • The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... Rus
  • Also called the Cambridge Document, the Schechter Letter was discovered in the genizah of a Cairo synagogue by Solomon Schechter. The Letter The Schechter Letter is a communique from an unnamed Khazar author to an unidentified Jewish dignitary. Many believe that the Schechter Letter was addressed to Hasdai ibn Shaprut... Schechter Letter
  • Sviatoslav I, Prince of Kiev (c. 945 - 972) was the warrior Varangian prince of Kiev, who carved out for himself the largest state in Europe and finally moved his capital to Pereyaslavets in Bulgaria in 969. Svyatoslavs return from the Danube to Kiev (1773). We have no information about... Sviatoslav I of Kiev
  • Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine
  • Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c.958–1015) was the grand prince of Kiev who converted to Christianity in 988, and proceeded to baptise the whole Kievan Rus. His name is known in... Vladimir the Great
  • Vladimir Monomakh (1053 – May 19, 1125) was undoubtedly the best loved prince of Kievan Rus. He was the son of Vsevolod I by an anonymous daughter of Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos, from whom he takes his nickname of Monomakh. In his famous Instruction to his own children, Monomakh mentions... Vladimir Monomakh

External links


Ukraine is subdivided into 24 oblasts (Ukrainian singular: область, oblast), 1 autonomous republic (Ukrainian автономна республіка, avtonomna respublika), and 2 cities with special status (Ukrainian singular... Subdivisions of Ukraine Large flag of Ukraine Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook. Most of the flags have had their colours improved and many have been resized to the proper ratios. For a complete list of Wikipedia flags, see List of flags. Corrected shades based on...
oblasts: Cherkas'ka | Chernihivs'ka | Chernivets'ka | Dnipropetrovs'ka | Donets'ka | Ivano-Frankivs'ka | Kharkivs'ka | Khersons'ka | Khmel'nyts'ka | Kirovohrads'ka | Kyivs'ka | Luhans'ka | L'vivs'ka | Mykolaivs'ka | Odes'ka | Poltavs'ka | Rivnens'ka | Sums'ka | Ternopil's'ka | Vinnyts'ka | Volyns'ka | Zakarpats'ka | Zaporiz'ka | Zhytomyrs'ka
autonomous republic: The Crimea (officially Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian transliteration: Avtonomna Respublika Krym, Ukrainian: Автономна Республіка Крим, Russian: Автономная Рес... Crimea
cities with special status: Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. As of 2003, Kiev officially had 2,642,486 inhabitants, although the large number... Kyiv | Sevastopol'

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kyiv (621 words)
Kyiv or Kiev, city, north central Ukraine, capital of Ukraine, and of Kyiv Oblast, on the Dnieper River.
Kyiv was one of the foremost religious centers of medieval Europe, and several noteworthy church buildings survive.
In the 18th century Kyiv was heavily fortified, and in the 19th century it grew as a trade and industrial center.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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