FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Kwame Nkrumah
 

Kwame Nkrumah Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


1st Prime Minister of Ghana
First Republic
In office
March 6, 1957 – July 1, 1960
President Queen Elizabeth II
(colonial head)
represented by the following:
Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke
(March 6 - June 24, 1957)
Lord Listowel
(24 June 1957 - 1 July 1960)
Preceded by None
Succeeded by Position abolished

1st President of Ghana
First Republic
In office
July 1, 1960 – February 24, 1966
Preceded by Queen Elizabeth II
Succeeded by Lt. Gen. J. A. Ankrah
(Military coup d'état)

Born September 21, 1909(1909-09-21)
Nkroful, Gold Coast
(now Ghana)
Died April 27, 1972 (aged 62)
Bucharest, Romania
Political party Convention Peoples' Party
Spouse Fathia Rizk
Children Francis, Gamal, Samia, Sekou
Profession Lecturer

Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972)[1], one of the most influential Pan-Africanists of the 20th century, served as the founder, and first President of Ghana. The post of Prime Minister of Ghana existed from 1957 to 1960 and again from 1969 to 1972. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke (1898 - British colonial administrator. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... William Francis Hare, 5th Earl of Listowel GCMG PC (28 September 1906 – 12 March 1997) was a British hereditary peer and Labour politician. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Prior to independence Ghana was the British Gold Coast colony. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... Joseph Arthur Ankrah (born 1915) was a Ghanaian general and political figure. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nkroful is the village, near Axim in the Western Region (Ghana) of Ghana, where Kwame Nkrumah, founder and first president of independent Ghana, was born September 21, 1909 and reared, and where he was buried after his death in 1972 -- temporarily, it turned out, because his body was later moved... Flag of Gold Coast Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... The Convention Peoples Party (CPP) is a socialist political party in Ghana, based on the ideas of former President Kwame Nkrumah. ... Fathia Nkrumah (1932-2007), born Fathia Rizk, was the wife of Kwame Nkrumah, the first President of Ghana. ... Lecturer is a term of academic rank. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pan-Africanism literally means all Africanism. It is a sociopolitical world view, as well as a movement, which seeks to unify and uplift both native Africans and those of the African diaspora, as part of a global African community.[1] // Pan-Africanism is usually seen as a product of the... Prior to independence Ghana was the British Gold Coast colony. ...

Contents

Early life and education

He was born Francis Nwia Kofi Ngonloma[2][3] in Nkroful, Gold Coast. Nkrumah graduated from the Achimota School in Accra in 1930,[1] later studying at the Roman Catholic Seminary and teaching at the Catholic school in Axim. In 1935 he left Ghana for the United States, receiving a BA from Lincoln University, Pennsylvania in 1939, where he pledged the Mu Chapter of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc.and in 1942 received an STB (Bachelor of Sacred Theology). He also earned a Master of Science in education from the University of Pennsylvania in 1942 and a Master of Arts in philosophy the following year. While lecturing in political science at Lincoln he was elected president of the African Students Organization of America and Canada. As an undergraduate at Lincoln he participated in at least one student theater production and published an essay on European government in Africa in the student newspaper,The Lincolnian.[1] Nkroful is the village, near Axim in the Western Region (Ghana) of Ghana, where Kwame Nkrumah, founder and first president of independent Ghana, was born September 21, 1909 and reared, and where he was buried after his death in 1972 -- temporarily, it turned out, because his body was later moved... Flag of Gold Coast Map from 1896 of the British Gold Coast Colony. ... The Achimota School, popularly known as Motown, has educated many Ghanaian leaders, including Kwame Nkrumah, and Jerry John Rawlings. ... Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ... Axim is a town, district and kingdom on the coast of Ghana, West Africa. ... Lincoln University in Pennsylvania is a four-year University located on 350 acres in southern Chester County. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the private Ivy League university in Philadelphia. ...


During his time in the United States, Nkrumah visited and preached in black Presbyterian Churches in Philadelphia and New York City. He read books about politics and divinity. He encountered the ideas of Marcus Garvey. He also tutored other students in philosophy. He also met the Trinidadian Marxist C.L.R. James in 1943, and later described how it was from James, then a Trotskyist, that he learnt 'how an underground movement worked'. Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901–19 May 1989) was a journalist, and a prominent socialist theorist and writer. ...


He arrived in London in May 1945 intending to study at the LSE. However, after meeting with George Padmore he helped to organize the Fifth Pan-African Congress in Manchester, England. After that he founded the West African National Secretariat to work for the decolonization of Africa. He also became Vice-President of the West African Students' Union (WASU). This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Mascot Beaver Affiliations University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Nobel laureates 14 Website http://www. ... George Padmore (1902-1959), born Malcolm Nurse was a Trinidadian communist and later a leading Pan-Africanist with anti-communist sympathies. ... The Pan-African Congress was a series of five meetings in 1919, 1921, 1923, 1927, and 1945 that were intended to address the problems facing Africa due to European colonization of much of the continent. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... The West African National Secretariat (WANS) was a Pan-Africanist movement founded by Kwame Nkrumah, based in Britain. ... The West African Students Union (WASU) was an association of students from various West African countries who were studying in the United Kingdom. ...


Nkrumah was later awarded honorary doctorates by Lincoln University, Moscow State University; Cairo University in Cairo, Egypt; Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland; Humboldt University in the former East Berlin; and other universities. Lincoln University in Pennsylvania is a four-year University located on 350 acres in southern Chester County. ... Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени Ðœ.Ð’.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ... Cairo University, the biggest in Africa Cairo University (formerly Fouad the First University) is an institute of higher education located in Giza, Egypt. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For several academies alternatively called Krakow Academy, see Education in Kraków The Jagiellonian University (Polish: , often shortened to UJ) is located in Kraków, Poland. ... For other uses, see Krakow (disambiguation). ... Alternative meaning: Humboldt State University, located in Arcata, California Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is the successor to Berlins oldest university, the Friedrich Wilhelm University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität), founded in 1810 by the liberal Prussian educational reformer... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


Return to the Gold Coast

In the autumn of 1947 Nkrumah was invited to serve as the General Secretary to the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) under Joseph B. Danquah. This political convention was exploring paths to independence. Nkrumah accepted the position and set sail for the Gold Coast. After brief stops in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the Ivory Coast, he arrived in the Gold Coast in December 1947. The United Gold Coast Convention was a political party who aim was to bring about Ghanian independence from British rule after the Second World War. ... Joseph Kwame Kyeretwi Boakye Danquah (December 1895 – 4 February 1965), Ghanaian statesman, was one of the primary opposition leaders to Ghanaian president and independence leader Kwame Nkrumah. ... Côte dIvoire (often called Ivory Coast in English; see below about the name) is a country in West Africa. ... Gold Coast may refer to: // Gold Coast (British colony), British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa Brandenburger Gold Coast, former German colony Danish Gold Coast, former Danish colony Dutch Gold Coast, former Dutch colony Portuguese Gold Coast, former Portuguese colony Swedish Gold Coast, former Swedish colony Gold...


In February 1948 police fired upon a protest by African ex-servicemen who were protesting the rapidly rising cost of living. The shooting spurred a series of riots in Accra, Kumasi and elsewhere. The government suspected the UGCC was behind the protests and therefore arrested Nkrumah and other leading members of the party. Realizing their error, the British soon released the convention leaders. After his imprisonment by the colonial government, he emerged as the leader of the youth movement in 1948. Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ... The United Gold Coast Convention was a political party who aim was to bring about Ghanian independence from British rule after the Second World War. ...


After his release Nkrumah began to hitchhike around the countryside. In community after community he proclaimed that the Gold Coast needed "self-government now." He built a large power base. The cocoa farmers rallied to his cause because they disagreed with British policy concerning the containment of swollen shoot disease. He appealed to women to be a part of the political process at a time when women's suffrage was new to Western Democracy. The trade unions also allied with his movement. By 1949 he had organized these groups into a new political party; The Convention People's Party. For other uses, see Hitch hike. ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...


Making moves towards self-government, the British called for the drafting of a New Constitution that gave some responsibility for policy decisions. Under the new Constitution, drawn up by a selected commission of middle class Africans, wage and property requirements were the basis for suffrage. Nkrumah brought together his own "People's Assembly" composed of representatives of party members, youth organizations, trade unions, farmers, and veterans. Their proposals called for a universal franchise without property qualifications, a separate house of chiefs, and self-governing status under the Statute of Westminster. These amendments, known as the Constitutional Proposals of October 1949, were rejected by the colonial administration.


The colonial administration's rejection of the People's Assembly's recommendations led directly to Nkrumah’s call for "Positive Action" in January 1950. Positive Action included civil disobedience, non-cooperation, boycotts, and strikes. The colonial administration arrested Nkrumah and many of his supporters in the CPP. Nkrumah was sentenced to three years in prison. For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... This page is about boycott as a form of protest. ...


Facing international protests and internal resistance, the British decided to leave the Gold Coast. Britain organized the first general election to be held in Africa under universal franchise; it was held on 5-10 February 1951. Though in jail, Nkrumah won the election by a landslide: his party gained 34 out of 38 seats in the Legislative Assembly. On 12 February Nkrumah was released from prison, and on the 13th was summoned by the British Governor Charles Arden-Clarke and asked to form a government. On 20 February the new Legilative Assembly met, with Nkrumah as Leader of Government Business and E.C. Quist as President of the Assembly. A year later, on 10 March 1952, the constitution was amended to provide for a Prime Minister, and on 21 March Nkrumah was elected to that post by a secret ballot in the Assembly, 45 to 31, with eight abstentions. On 10 July 1963 he presented his "Motion of Destiny" to the Assembly, which approved it, requesting independence within the British Commonwealth "as soon as the necessary constitutional arrangements are made". Sir Charles Noble Arden-Clarke (1898 - British colonial administrator. ... Sir Emmanuel Charles Quist, Kt. ... For other uses, see Commonwealth (disambiguation). ...


Independence

Image:Nkrumah-King.jpg As a leader of this government, Nkrumah faced three serious challenges. First, he needed to learn the art of government. Second, he needed to create a unified nation of Ghana from the four territories of the Gold Coast. Third, he needed to win his nation’s independence. Nkrumah was successful at all three goals. Within nine years of his release from prison, he was the executive president of a unified nation with complete political freedom. Image File history File links Nkrumah-King. ...


At 12 a.m. on March 6, 1957 Ghana was declared independent. Nkrumah was now hailed as "Osagyefo" - which means "the victorious one" in the Akan language. is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


On 6 March 1960, Nkrumah announced plans for a new constitution which would make Ghana a republic. The draft included plans for an eventual surrender of Ghanaian soveriegnty to a union of African states. On 19, 23, and 27 April 1960 a presidential election and plebiscite on the constitution were held. The constitution was ratified and Nkrumah elected president, beating J. B. Danquah, the UP candidate, 1,016,076 to 124,623. In 1963, Nkrumah was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize by the Soviet Union. Ghana became a charter member of the Organization of African Unity in 1963. Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Joseph Kwame Kyeretwi Boakye Danquah (December 1895 – 4 February 1965), Ghanaian statesman, was one of the primary opposition leaders to Ghanaian president and independence leader Kwame Nkrumah. ... The International Stalin Prize or the International Stalin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples (renamed Russian: , the International Lenin Prize for Strengthening Peace Among Peoples as a result of destalinization) was the Soviet Unions equivalent to the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ...


Gold Coast was already one of the most wealthy and socially advanced territories in Africa, with schools, railways, hospitals, social security and an advanced economy. Under Nkrumah’s leadership, Ghana took steps towards a more socialist state. Nkrumah created a welfare system, started various community programs, and established schools. He ordered the construction of roads and bridges to further commerce and communication. In the interest of the nation’s health, he had tap water systems installed in the villages and ordered the construction of concrete drains for latrines. However, his programs must, in the end, be judged unsuccessful, since the country's fortunes declined under his administration.


Politics

He generally took a non-aligned Marxist perspective on economics, and believed capitalism's malign effects were going to stay with Africa for a long time. Although he was clear on distancing himself from the African socialism of many of his contemporaries; Nkrumah argued that socialism was the system that would best accommodate the changes that capitalism had brought, while still respecting African values. He specifically addresses these issues and his politics in a 1967 essay entitled "African Socialism Revisited": The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... African socialism is a belief in sharing economic resources in a traditional African way, as distinct from classical socialism. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ...

"We know that the traditional African society was founded on principles of egalitarianism. In its actual workings, however, it had various shortcomings. Its humanist impulse, nevertheless, is something that continues to urge us towards our all-African socialist reconstruction. We postulate each man to be an end in himself, not merely a means; and we accept the necessity of guaranteeing each man equal opportunities for his development. The implications of this for socio-political practice have to be worked out scientifically, and the necessary social and economic policies pursued with resolution. Any meaningful humanism must begin from egalitarianism and must lead to objectively chosen policies for safeguarding and sustaining egalitarianism. Hence, socialism. Hence, also, scientific socialism."[4]

Nkrumah was also perhaps best known politically for his strong commitment to and promotion of Pan-Africanism. Having been inspired by the writings and his relationships with black intellectuals like Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. DuBois, and George Padmore; Nkrumah went on to himself inspire and encourage Pan-Africanist positions amongst a number of other African independence leaders and activists from the African diaspora. With perhaps Nkrumah's biggest success in this area coming with his significant influence in the founding of the Organization of African Unity. Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ... George Padmore (1902-1959), born Malcolm Nurse was a Trinidadian communist and later a leading Pan-Africanist with anti-communist sympathies. ... The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America); Europe and Asia. ... Flag of the Organisation of African Unity, later also used by the African Union. ...


Economics

Main article: Economy of Ghana

Nkrumah attempted to move Ghana's economy toward a more industrial model. His reasoning was that moving Ghana out of the colonial trade system by reducing its dependence on foreign capital, technology, and material goods would allow it to become truly independent. Unfortunately, he moved to industrialization at the expense of his country’s cocoa growing sector, which had been a strong economic sector until then. In the end, the various economic projects that he undertook were generally unsuccessful and, especially in the case of the Akosombo Dam, hugely expensive. (However, even today, Ghana still relies on the hydroelectric power produced by the Akosombo Dam for most of its electricity). Nor did they remove Ghana from dependence on Western imports. By the time he was deposed in 1966, Ghana had gone from being one of the richest countries in Africa to one of the poorest. Palm oil is a food crop and export of Ghana By West African standards, Ghana has a diverse and rich resource base. ... In general, the word colonial means of or relating to a colony. In United States history, the term Colonial is used to refer to the period before US independence. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... The Akosombo Dam is a hydroelectric dam in southeastern Ghana. ...


Decline and fall

The year 1954 was a pivotal year in the life of Kwame Nkrumah. In that year, he won the Independence Election with an astonishing (but quite legitimate) 80% of the vote. However, that same year saw the beginning of his ultimate political demise. In 1954 the world price of cocoa rose from £150 to £450 per ton. Rather than allowing cocoa farmers to use the benefit from this windfall themselves, Nkrumah decided to use the additional profit to national development. This new policy caused him to fall into disfavor with one of the major constituencies that had helped him originally come to power. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2576x1932, 1328 KB) Summary Nkrumah Hall at the University of Dar es Salaam in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2576x1932, 1328 KB) Summary Nkrumah Hall at the University of Dar es Salaam in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... The University of Dar es Salaam is a university in the Tanzanian city of Dar es Salaam. ... Dar es Salaam (دار السلام), formerly Mzizima, is the largest city (pop. ...


The year 1958 saw the introduction of two pieces of legislation that would restrict the freedoms of the people of Ghana. In the wake of the Gold Miners' Strike of 1955, Nkrumah introduced the Trade Union Act, which made strikes illegal. In reaction to a suspected plot on the part of an opposition member of parliament, the Preventive Detention Act made it possible to arrest and detain anyone charged with treason without the involvement of the nation’s court system.


When the railway workers went on strike in 1961, Nkrumah ordered strike leaders and opposition politicians arrested under the Trade Union Act of 1958. Though Nkrumah himself had organized strikes a few years before, there was no longer any place for them in his plan for rapid industrial development. He told the unions that their days as advocates for the safety and just compensation of miners was over. Their new job was to work with management in the mobilization of human resources. Wage incentives must give way to patriotic duty. In his eyes, the good of the nation as a whole superseded the good of individual workers.


The Preventive Detention Act led to widespread disaffection with Nkrumah’s administration. Some of his men used the law to have innocent people arrested so that they could acquire their political offices and business assets. Advisers close to Nkrumah became reluctant to discuss Ghana’s true situation for fear that they might be seen as being critical. When the nation’s clinics ran out of pharmaceuticals, no one notified him. Some people believed he no longer cared, the advisers trembled, and the police came to resent their role in society. Meanwhile, a quite justifiable fear of assassination meant Nkrumah became less accessible. Ghana was declared a one-party state with Nkrumah as Life President in 1964. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system and form of government where only a single political party dominates the government and no opposition parties are allowed. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Nkrumah's commitment to industrial development at any cost led to his decision to construct a hydroelectric power plant, the Akosombo Dam on the Volta River in northern Ghana. American companies would build the dam for Nkrumah, but they would also place numerous restrictions on what could be produced using the power that it generated. It was a bad deal, but Nkrumah did not back away from it. He used borrowed money to build the dam, placing Ghana in serious debt. Financing the debt required higher taxation of the cocoa farmers in the south. This accentuated regional differences and jealousy. The dam project was completed and officially opened by Nkrumah amidst world publicity on January 22, 1966. Nkrumah appeared to be at the zenith of his power. In reality, the end of his regime was only days away. The Akosombo Dam is a hydroelectric dam in southeastern Ghana. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


Nkrumah wanted Ghana to have modern armed forces. He acquired aircraft and ships and introduced conscription.


He also gave military support to those fighting the Smith administration. In February 1966 while Nkrumah was away on a state visit to Vietnam, his government was overthrown in a CIA backed military coup.[5][6][7] Today, Nkrumah is still one of the most respected leaders in African history. In 2000 he was voted Africa's man of the millennium by listeners to the BBC World Service. The Rt Hon Ian Smith, Prime Minister of Rhodesia, 1964 (official portrait) Ian Douglas Smith GCLM ID (born 8 April 1919) was the Premier of the British Crown Colony of Southern Rhodesia from 13 April 1964 to 11 November 1965, and Prime Minister of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) from 11 November... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters of radio programming, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world. ...

Memorial to Kwame Nkrumah in Accra
Memorial to Kwame Nkrumah in Accra
Kwame Nkrumah on the 1989 USSR commemorating stamp
Kwame Nkrumah on the 1989 USSR commemorating stamp

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x872, 80 KB) Description: Kwame Nkruma memorial. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1152x872, 80 KB) Description: Kwame Nkruma memorial. ... Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 425 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (547 × 772 pixels, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 425 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (547 × 772 pixels, file size: 113 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Exile, death and tributes

Nkrumah never returned to Ghana, but he did continue to push for his vision of African unity. Nkrumah went into exile in Conakry, Guinea where he was the guest of Ahmed Sékou Touré, who made him honorary co-president of Guinea. He spent his time reading, writing, corresponding, gardening, and entertaining guests. Despite his retirement from public office, his fear of western intelligence agencies did not abate. When his cook died, he began to fear that someone would poison him and he took to hoarding food in his room. He suspected that foreign agents were going through his mail. He lived in constant fear of abduction and assassination. In failing health, he was flown to Bucharest, Romania for medical treatment in August 1971. He died of skin cancer in April 1972 at the age of 62. He was buried in Ghana in a tomb (still present) at the village of his birth, Nkroful, but his remains were later transferred to a large national memorial tomb and park in Accra. Conakry or Konakry (Malinké: KÉ”nakiri) is the capital and largest city of Guinea. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km²  (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. ... Nkroful is the village, near Axim in the Western Region (Ghana) of Ghana, where Kwame Nkrumah, founder and first president of independent Ghana, was born September 21, 1909 and reared, and where he was buried after his death in 1972 -- temporarily, it turned out, because his body was later moved... Accra, population 1,970,400 (2005), is the capital of Ghana. ...


Works by Kwame Nkrumah

  • "Negro History: European Government in Africa," The Lincolnian, April 12, 1938, p. 2 (Lincoln University, Pennsylvania)[2]
  • Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (1957) ISBN 0-901787-60-4
  • Africa Must Unite (1963) ISBN 0-901787-13-2
  • African Personality (1963)
  • Neo-Colonialism: the Last Stage of Imperialism (1965) ISBN 0-901787-23-X
  • Axioms of Kwame Nkrumah (1967) ISBN 0-901787-54-X
  • African Socialism Revisited (1967)
  • Voice From Conakry (1967) ISBN 90-17-87027-3
  • Handbook for Revolutionary Warfare (1968)
  • Consciencism: Philosophy and Ideology for De-Colonisation (1970) ISBN 0-901787-11-6
  • Class Struggle in Africa (1970) ISBN 0-901787-12-4
  • The Struggle Continues (1973) ISBN 0-901787-41-8
  • I Speak of Freedom (1973) ISBN 0-901787-14-0
  • Revolutionary Path (1973) ISBN 0-901787-22-1

Further reading

  • Birmingham, David. Kwame Nkrumah: The Father of African Nationalism (Athens: Ohio University Press), 1998.
  • Tuchscherer, Konrad. "Kwame Francis Nwia Kofie Nkrumah", Encyclopedia of Modern Dictators, ed. by Frank J. Coppa (New York: Peter Lang), 2006, pp. 217-220.

References

  1. ^ a b E. Jessup, John. An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Page 533.
  2. ^ Rulers - Nkrumah, Kwame. Lists of heads of state and heads of government. Rulers.org. Retrieved on 2007-03-24.
  3. ^ Asante Fordjour (6 March, 2006). Nkrumah And The Big Six. Feature Article. Ghana Home Page. Retrieved on 2007-04-30.
  4. ^ http://www.marxists.org/subject/africa/nkrumah/1967/african-socialism-revisited.htm
  5. ^ Botwe-Asamoah, Kwame. Kwame Nkrumah's Politico-Cultural Thought and Politics: An African-centered Paradigm for the Second Phase of the African Revolution. Page 16.
  6. ^ Carl Oglesby and Richard Shaull. Containment and Change. Page 105.
  7. ^ Interview with John Stockwell in Pandora's Box: Black Power (Adam Curtis, BBC Two, 22 June 1992)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stockwell John R. Stockwell is a former CIA officer who became a critic of United States government policies after serving in the Agency for thirteen years serving seven tours of duty. ... Pandoras Box was a six part 1992 BBC documentary television series written and produced by Adam Curtis, which examines the consequences of political and technocratic rationalism. ... Adam Curtis at the San Francisco International Film Festival in 2005 Adam Curtis (born 1955) is a British television documentary producer. ... For the BBC radio station, see BBC Radio 2. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...

See also

Dr. Kwame Nkrumah was the first Prime Minister and first President of Ghana. ... This is a list of Ghana Heads of state by age. ...

External links

Political offices
New title Leader of the Convention People's Party
1948 – 1966
Succeeded by
Parties banned
New title Prime Minister of the Gold Coast
1952 – 1957
Succeeded by
Ghana becomes independent
New title Prime Minister of Ghana
1957–1960
Succeeded by
Position abolished
New title President of Ghana
1960–1966
Succeeded by
Lt. Gen. Joseph A. Ankrah
Military Head of State
New title Foreign Minister
1957 – 1958
Succeeded by
Kojo Botsio
Preceded by
Ebenezer Ako-Adjei
Foreign Minister
1962 – 1963
Succeeded by
Kojo Botsio
Preceded by
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Chairperson of the Organization of African Unity
1965 – 1966
Succeeded by
Joseph Arthur Ankrah
Persondata
NAME Nkrumah, Kwame
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Ngonloma, Francis Nwia Kofi
SHORT DESCRIPTION Pan Africanist and First Prime Minister and President of Ghana
DATE OF BIRTH September 21, 1909(1909-09-21)
PLACE OF BIRTH Nkroful, Western Region, Ghana
DATE OF DEATH 27 April 1972
PLACE OF DEATH Bucharest, Romania

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kwame Nkrumah And The Whole Nine (521 words)
Not only did the life Kwame Nkrumah, first president of Ghana, embody the essence of the number nine, his entire existence was an essay on its exemplification.
Nkrumah’s plans to enter the portals of political power took 27 months to execute (2+7=9).
When Nkrumah officially transformed the Gold Coast into Ghana, the date of independence was in the third month of the year and on the sixth day of the month (3+6=9).
Kwame Nkrumah - AfroEuro (0 words)
Kwame Nkrumah became the first prime and later president of Ghana.
After his 'positive action' campaign created disturbances in 1950, Nkrumah was jailed, but when the CPP swept the 1951 elections, he was freed to form a government, and he led the colony to independence as Ghana in 1957.
Nkrumah was the motivating force behind the movement for independence of Ghana, then British West Africa, and its first president when it became independent in 1957.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m