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Encyclopedia > Kushana
Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. 150

The Kushan Empire (c. 1st- 3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105 - 250, stretched from Tajikistan to the Caspian Sea to Afghanistan and down into the Ganges river valley. The empire was created by Tocharians from modern Xinjiang, China. They had diplomatic contacts with Rome, Sassanian Persia and China, and for several centuries were at the center of exchange between the East and the West. Kushan Map Boundary of the Kushan empire at its greatest extent, ca. ... Kushan Map Boundary of the Kushan empire at its greatest extent, ca. ... For other uses, see number 150. ... (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ... -1... Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Decades: 200s - 210s - 220s - 230s - 240s - 250s - 260s - 270s - 280s - 290s - 300s Years: 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 Events Crisis of the Third Century End of Yayoi era and beginning of Kofun period, the first part of the... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea or Mazandaran Sea is a landlocked sea between Asia and Europe (European Russia). ... The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) (Devanagiri गंगा) is a major river in northern India. ... The Tocharians, (also spelled Tokharians), originally nomads, lived in todays Xinjiang; they spoke the Indo-European Tocharian languages. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, East Turkestan (Turkestan also spelled Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ... Location within Italy The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma) is the capital city of Italy and of its Latium region. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ...

Contents

Origins

The name Kushan derives from the Chinese term Guishuang (Ch:貴霜) that described one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi (Ch:月氏), a loose confederation of Indo-European peoples speaking versions of the Tocharian language. They were the easternmost Indo-Europeans, who had been living in the arid grasslands of the Tarim Basin in modern-day Xinjiang, until they were driven west by the Xiongnu in 176-160 BCE. The five Yuezhi tribes are known in Chinese history as Xiūmì (Ch:休密), Guishang (Ch:貴霜), Shuangmi (Ch:雙靡), Xidun (Ch:肸頓), and Dūmì (Ch:都密). The migrations of the Yueh-Chih. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the Indo-European language group. ... Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, East Turkestan (Turkestan also spelled Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 181 BC 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC - 176 BC - 175 BC 174 BC 173... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 165 BC 164 BC 163 BC 162 BC 161 BC - 160 BC - 159 BC 158 BC 157...


The Yuezhi reached the Hellenic kingdom of Greco-Bactria, in the Bactrian territory (northernmost Afghanistan and Uzbekistan) around 135 BCE, and displaced the Greek dynasties there, who resettled in Indus basin (in present day Pakistan) in the western part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 140 BC 139 BC 138 BC 137 BC 136 BC - 135 BC - 134 BC 133 BC... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek...


A multi-cultural Empire

In the following century, the Yuezhi tribe of the Guishiang (Ch: 貴霜) gained prominence over the others, and welded them into a tight confederation. The name Guishang was adopted in the West and modified into Kushan to designate the confederation, although the Chinese continued to call them Yuezhi. (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The Roman...


Gradually wresting control of the area from the Scythian tribes, the Kushans expanded south into the region traditionally known as Gandhara (An area lying primarily in Pakistan's Pothowar, and NWFP region but going in an arc to include Kabul valley and part of Qandahar in Afghanistan) and established twin capitals near present-day Kabul and Peshawar then known as Kapisa and Pushklavati respectively. The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ... Kabul (Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... Peshāwar (known as Purushapura in Sanskrit) is a city in Pakistans North-West Frontier Province (pop. ...


The Kushans adopted many elements of the Hellenistic culture of Bactria, where they had settled. They adapted the Greek alphabet to suit their own language and soon began minting coinage on the Greek model. The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ...

Silver tetradrachm of Kushan king Heraios (1-30 CE) in Greco-Bactrian style, with horseman crowned by the Greek goddess of victory Nike.
Greek legend: TVPANNOVOTOΣ HΛOV - ΣΛNΛB - KOÞÞANOY "The Tyrant Heraios, Sanav, of the Kushans".

Coin from the COIN INDIA site [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coin from the COIN INDIA site [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Silver tetradrachm of Kushan king Heraios (1-30 CE) in Greco-Bactrian style. ... For other uses, see One (disambiguation), for the number, see Number 1. ... For alternate uses, see Number 30. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... See Nike for other meanings. ...

Heraios

Heraios was probably the first of the Kushan kings. He may have been an ally of the Greeks, and he shared the same style of coinage. Heraios was probably the father of Kujula Kadphises.


Kujula Kadphises

At the beginning of the 1st century, during the reign of Kujula Kadphises, the Kushans suffered a strong setback, as a large part of their empire was invaded by the Parthians. The Parthian leader Gondophares established an Indo-Parthian Kingdom that was to last until the end of the century. By around 75, however, the Kushans had regained most of their territory. (1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century - other centuries) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 99. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthians. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... For other uses, see number 75. ...


Kanishka I

Gold coin of Kushan emperor Kanishka I (c.100-126) with a Hellenistic representation of the Buddha (except for the feet spread apart, Kushan style), and the word "Boddo" in Greek script.

The rule of Kanishka I, the fourth Kushan emperor, who flourished for at least 28 years from c. 127, was administered from two capitals: Purushapura (now Peshawar in northern Pakistan) and Mathura, in northern India. The Kushans also had a summer capital in Bagram(then known as Kapisa), where the "Begram Treasure", comprising works of art from Greece to China, has been found. According to the Rabatak inscription, Kanishka was the son of Vima Kadphises, the grandson of Vima Taktu, and the great-grandson of Kujula Kadphises. This image from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This image from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... -1... Events First year of the Yongjian era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... A stone image of the Buddha. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... Peshāwar (known as Purushapura in Sanskrit) is a city in Pakistans North-West Frontier Province (pop. ... Mathura (मथुरा) is a city in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and south of Delhi. ... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ...


The rule of the Kushans linked the seagoing trade of the Indian Ocean with the commerce of the Silk Road through the long-civilized Indus Valley. At the height of the dynasty, the Kushans loosely oversaw a territory that extended to the Aral Sea through present-day Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan into northern India. The Silk Road (Traditional Chinese: 絲綢之路; Simplified Chinese: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sī chóu zhī lù) was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Changan, China with Antioch, Syria, as well as other points. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...

Kushan man in the traditional costume with tunic and boots, 2nd century, Gandhara.

The loose unity and comparative peace of such a vast expanse encouraged long-distance trade, brought Chinese silks to Rome, and created strings of flourishing urban centers. Kushan Man. ... Kushan Man. ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ... Location within Italy The Roman Colosseum Rome (Italian and Latin: Roma) is the capital city of Italy and of its Latium region. ...


Cultural exchanges also flourished, encouraging the development of Greco-Buddhism, a fusion of hellenist and Buddhist cultural elements, that was to expand into central and northern Asia as Mahayana Buddhism. Kanishka is renowed in Buddhist tradition for having convened a great Buddhist council in Kashmir. This council is attributed with having marked the official beginning of the pantheistic Mahayana Buddhism and its scission with Nikaya Buddhism. Kanishka also had the original Gandhari vernacular, or Prakrit, Mahayana Buddhist texts translated into the high literary language of Sanskrit. Along with the Indian king Ashoka, the Indo-Greek king Menander I (Milinda), and Harsha Vardhana, Kanishka is considered by Buddhism as one of its greatest benefactors. Greco-Buddhism, sometimes spelled Græco-Buddhism, is the cultural syncretism between the culture of Classical Greece and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 800 years in Central Asia in the area corresponding to modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, between the 4th century BCE and the 5th century... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Nikaya Buddhism is a general term for those schools of Buddhism that accept only the class of sutras collected in the Pāli Canon as authentic. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prakrta: natural, usual, vulgar) refers to the broad family of the Indic languages and dialects spoken in ancient India. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... Emperor Ashoka (a possible picturisation) Ashoka the Great (also Asoka, Aśoka, pronounced as Ashok-uh, not Ashokaa) was the ruler of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. A convert to Buddhism, Ashoka reigned over most of the Indian subcontinent, from present day Pakistan to Bengal and as... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... Menander I ( also known as Milinda in Sanskrit, Pali), was one of the Greek kings of the Indo-Greek Kingdom in northern India from 160 to 135 BC. A renowned Indo-Greek king His territories covered the eastern dominions of the divided Greek empire of Bactria(from the areas of... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ...


The art and culture of Gandhara, at the crossroads of the Kushan hegemony, are the best known expressions of Kushan influences to Westerners. Buddhas First Sermon at Sarnath, Kushan Period, ca. ...


Contacts with Rome

Several Roman sources describe the visit of ambasssadors from the Kings of Bactria and India during the 2nd century CE, probably referring to the Kushans:

A Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel, Begram, 2nd century.

Aelius Spartianus, speaking of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 CE) in his Historia Augusta writes: Download high resolution version (600x800, 115 KB)Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 115 KB)Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel. ... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ... Emperor Hadrian Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 - July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117 - 138, and member of the gens Aelia Hadrian was born in Italica, Hispania, to a well-established settler family. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ...


"Reges Bactrianorum legatos ad eum, amicitiae petendae causa, supplices miserunt" ("The kings of the Bactrians sent supplicant ambassadors to him, begging for his friendship").


Also, in 138, Antoninus Pius, succeessor to Hadrian, received according to Aurelius Victor (Épitomé‚ XV, 4), and Appian (Praef., 7), some Indian, Bactrian (Kushan) and Hyrcanian ambassadors. Emperor Antoninus Pius Titus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86 - March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Appian (Gr. ...


The Chinese Historical Chronicle of the Hou Hanshu also describes the exchange of goods between northwestern India and the Roman Empire at that time: "To the west (Tiazhu, northwestern india) communicates with Da Qin (the Roman Empire). Precious things from Da Qin can be found there, as well as fine cotton cloths, excellent wool carpets, perfumes of all sorts, sugar loaves, pepper, ginger, and black salt." The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ... Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. ... Daqin refers to: Daqin Pagoda Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin Daqin Hui Township (大秦回族乡), Kongtong District, Pingliang City (平涼市崆峒區), Gansu Province This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The summer capital of the Kushan in Begram has yielded a considerable amount of goods imported from the Roman Empire, in particular various types of glassware. Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ...


Contacts with China

During the 1st and 2nd century, the Kushan Empire expanded militarily to the north and occupied parts of the Tarim Basin, their original grounds, putting them at the center of the profitable Central Asian commerce with the Roman Empire. They are related to have collaborated militarily with the Chinese against nomadic incursion, particularly when they collaborated with the Chinese general Ban Chao against the Sogdians in 84 CE, when the latter were trying to support a revolt by the king of Kashgar. Around 85 CE, they also assisted the Chinese general in an attack on Turfan, east of the Tarim Basin. Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ... Roman Empire between AD 60 and 400 with major cities. ... Ban Chao (班超, 32-102 CE) was a Chinese general and cavalry commander in charge of the administration of the Western Regions (Central Asia) during the Eastern Han dynasty. ... For other uses, see number 84. ... Kashgar, (Uyghur: قەشقەر/K̢ǝxk̢ǝr; Chinese: 喀什; pinyin: ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 Events Dacians under Decebalus engaged in two wars against the Romans from this year to AD... Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: Tǔlǔfán; Ancient Chinese 高昌, Pinyin Gāochāng, Wade-Giles: Kao-chang) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

The Kushan Buddhist monk Lokaksema, first translator of Buddhist scriptures into Chinese.

In recognition for their support to the Chinese, the Kushans requested, but were denied, a Han princess, even after they had sent presents to the Chinese court. In retaliation, they marched on Ban Chao in 86 CE with a force of 70,000, but, exhausted by the expedition, were finally defeated by the smaller Chinese force. The Yuezhi retreated and paid tribute to the Chinese Empire during the reign of the Chinese emperor Han He (89-106). Yuezhi Buddhist monk Lokaksema (c. ... Yuezhi Buddhist monk Lokaksema (c. ... Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan). ... Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉; Traditional: 漢; Pinyin: hàn) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... For other uses, see number 86. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


Later, around 116 CE, the Kushans under Kanishka established a kingdom centered on Kashgar, also taking control of Khotan and Yarkand, which were Chinese dependencies in the Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang. They introduced the Brahmi script, the Indian Prakrit language for administration, and expanded the influence of Greco-Buddhist art which developed into Serindian art. Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... Kashgar, (Uyghur: قەشقەر/K̢ǝxk̢ǝr; Chinese: 喀什; pinyin: ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Khotan or Hotan (Uyghur: خوتەن/Hotǝn; Chinese: 和田; pinyin: , formerly: Simplified Chinese: 和阗; Traditional Chinese: 和闐; pinyin: ) is an oasis town and a prefecture in the Taklamakan desert that was part of the southern silk road. ... Yarkand (modern Chinese name 叶城, pinyin ye cheng, also Chokkuka, anciently Suoju 莎車 (also written Shache and Suoche), was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located between Pishan and Kashgar on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Categories: China geography stubs | Geography of China ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, East Turkestan (Turkestan also spelled Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ... Brahmi refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 5th century BC. The best known inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka, c. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prakrta: natural, usual, vulgar) refers to the broad family of the Indic languages and dialects spoken in ancient India. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Categories: Asian art | Stub ...


The Kushans are again recorded to have sent presents to the Chinese court in 158-159 CE during the reign of the Chinese emperor Han Huan. Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


Following these interactions, cultural exhanges further increased, and Kushan Buddhist missionaries, such as Lokaksema, became active in the Chinese capital cities of Loyang and sometimes Nanjing, where they particularly distinguished themselves by their translation work. They were the first recorded promoters of Hinayana and Mahayana scriptures in China, greatly contributing to the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism. Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan). ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a city in Henan province, China. ... Nanjing (Chinese: 南京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Nan-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Nanking, formerly Jinling 金陵, Jiangning 江宁, and Tianjing 天京) is the central city of downstream Yangtze Basin and is a renowned historical and cultural city. ... Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ...


Decline

Gold dinar of Kushan king Kanishka II (200-220 )

From the 3rd century the Kushan empire began to fragment. Coin from the COIN INDIA site [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coin from the COIN INDIA site [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Events Han Xiandi abdicated, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the China. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ...


Around 225 Vasudeva I died and the Kushan empire was divided into western and eastern halves. Around 224-240, the Sasanians invaded Bactria and Northern India. Around 270, the Kushans lost their territories on the Gangetic plain. Births January 20 - Gordian III, Roman emperor Categories: 225 ... Vasudeva I was a Kushan emperor around 164-200 AD (See: Vasudeva coin) External links: Coins of late Kushan emperors Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Events Quintillus briefly holds power over the Roman Empire, and is succeeded by Aurelian Vandals and Sarmatians driven out of Roman territory Romans leave Utrecht after regular invasions of Germanic people. ...


Remants of the Kushan empire were ultimately wiped out in the 5th century by the invasions of the White Huns, and later the expansion of Islam. (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Main Kushan rulers



Silver tetradrachm of Kushan king Heraios (1-30 CE) in Greco-Bactrian style. ... For other uses, see One (disambiguation), for the number, see Number 1. ... For alternate uses, see Number 30. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... For alternate uses, see Number 30. ... For other uses, see number 80. ... Bronze coin of Vima Takto, alias Soter Megas (r. ... For other uses, see number 80. ... -1... Vima Kadphises (coin) was a Kushan emperor from around 90-100 AD. External links: Coins of Vima Kadphises Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... -1... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... Events First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 147 ... Events Mytilene and Smyrna are destroyed by an earthquake. ... For other uses, see number 155. ... Huvishka was a Kushan emperor around 126-164 AD (See: Huvishka coin) Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... For other uses, see number 155. ... Events Rebellion of Zhang Chun and Zhang Ju. ... Vasudeva I was a Kushan emperor around 164-200 AD (See: Vasudeva coin) External links: Coins of late Kushan emperors Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Events Serapion of Antioch becomes Patriarch of Antioch. ... Births January 20 - Gordian III, Roman emperor Categories: 225 ... Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Events: Accession of Wei Mingdi as emperor of the Kingdom of Wei of China. ... For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Vashishka was a Kushan emperor around 232-246 AD. Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Kanishka III was a Kushan emperor 255 - 275 AD. Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Events Births Deaths Wuqiu Jian, general of the Kingdom of Wei Categories: 255 ... Events Eutychian elected pope (probable date) September 25 - Marcus Claudius Tacitus appointed emperor by the senate Births Eusebius of Caesarea (approximate date) Saint George, soldier of the Roman Empire and later Christian martyr (or 280, approximate date). ... Vasudeva II was a Kushan emperor around 246-256 AD (See: Vasudeva II coin) External links: Coins of late Kushan emperors Categories: People stubs | Kushan empire ... Events Jin Hui Di succeeds Jin Wu Di as emperor of China Births Pachomius, Christian monk (approximate date) Deaths Categories: 290 ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea _ first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Shaka I was a Kushan emperor around 325-345AD (See: Shaka I coin) External links: Coins of late Kushan emperors Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea _ first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Events Births John Chrysostom, Christian bishop and preacher Deaths Pachomius, early monasticist (approximate date) Bishop Nicholas of Myra, Roman priest (or 352). ... Events January 18 - Magnentius proclaimed Emperor by the army in Autun. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ...

MIDDLE KINGDOMS OF INDIA
Timeline: Northern empires Southern Kingdoms Foreign kingdoms

6th century BCE
5th century BCE
4th century BCE

3rd century BCE
2nd century BCE

1st century BCE
1st century CE


2nd century CE
3rd century CE
4th century CE
5th century CE
6th century CE
7th century CE
8th century CE
9th century CE
10th century CE Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India in the 6th century BC through the 6th century AD. Kingdoms and Empires The following account relies on the accuracy of the Aryan Invasion Theory (AIT) which believes that a nomadic race known as the Aryans invaded India from... Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ...






Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Nanda dynasty was established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Mauryan empire (321 to 185 BCE), at its largest extent around 230 BCE. The Mauryan empire was Indias first great unified empire. ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates are of... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...



Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414-455 CE). ... The Pratiharas, also called the Gurjara-Pratiharas were an Indian dynasty who ruled kingdoms in Rajasthan and northern India from the sixth to the eleventh centuries. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... The Solanki were a Hindu Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...





Kalinga was an ancient kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... The Cheras were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern tip of the peninsula of India for most of its early history. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ...


(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... The Rashtrakutas were a dynasty which ruled the Deccan during the 8th-10th centuries. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greek kingdom



Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ...

  • Indo-Hephthalites



(First islamic conquests) Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka ( Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in India. ...



See also

  • Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan
  • Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
  • Indo-Greek Kingdom
  • Indo-Scythians
  • Indo-Parthian Kingdom
  • Greco-Buddhism

Prehistory Archaeological exploration began in Afghanistan in earnest after World War II and proceeded until the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan disrupted it in December of 1979. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Maximum extent of Indo-Greek territory circa 175 BCE. The Indo-Greeks (or sometimes Greco-Indians) designate a series of Greek kings, who invaded and controlled parts of northwest and northern India from 180 BCE to around 10 BCE. They are the continuation of the Greco-Bactrian dynasty of Greek... The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Greco-Buddhism, sometimes spelled Græco-Buddhism, is the cultural syncretism between the culture of Classical Greece and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 800 years in Central Asia in the area corresponding to modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, between the 4th century BCE and the 5th century...

External links

  • Metropolitan Museum capsule history (http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm)
  • New documents help fix controversial Kushan dating (http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/kushan/kushan.html)
  • Antique Indian Coins (http://home.comcast.net/~pankajtandon/home.html)
  • Chronology of the Kushans (http://www.kushan.org/general/chronology.htm)

References

  • Falk, Harry. 2001. “The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuşâņas.” Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, pp. 121-136.
  • Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra (commentaire à un chaptaire de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901, pp. 322-369.
  • Hargreaves, H. (1910-11): "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī"; Archaeological Survey of India, 1910-11, pp. 25-32.
  • Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Paris, UNESCO Publishing.
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation.[1] (http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/hhshu/hou_han_shu.html)
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [2] (http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/weilue/weilue.html)
  • Konow, Sten. Editor. 1929. Kharoshthī Inscriptions with Exception of those of Asoka. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. II, Part I. Reprint: Indological Book House, Varanasi, 1969.
  • Litvinsky, B. A., ed., 1996. History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Paris, UNESCO Publishing.
  • Liu, Xinru 2001 “Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies.” Journal of World History, Volume 12, No. 2, Fall 2001. University of Hawaii Press, pp. 261-292. [3] (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/jwh/).
  • Sarianidi, Victor. 1985. The Golden Hoard of Bactria: From the Tillya-tepe Excavations in Northern Afghanistan. Harry N. Abrams, New York.
  • Spooner, D. B. 1908-9. "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī."; Archaeological Survey of India, 1908-9, pp. 38-59.
  • Watson, Burton. Trans. 1961. Records of the Grand Historian of China: Translated from the Shih chi of Ssu-ma Ch'ien. Chapter 123: The Account of Ta-yüan, p. 265. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231081677

There is also an unrelated Kushan Empire in the PC game series "Homeworld." The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Sima Qian (circa 145—90 BC) was a Prefect of the Grand Scribes (太史令) of the Han Dynasty. ... The Ta-Yuan (in Ferghana) was one of the three advanced civilizations of Central Asia around 130 BCE, together with Parthia and Greco-Bactria (Han Shu, Former Han Chinese Chronicles). ... In computer games, the Kushan refers to the protoganists in all three games of the Homeworld series, developed by Relic Entertainment and Barking Dog Studios and produced by Sierra Entertainment. ... One of the first PCs from IBM - the IBM PC model 5150. ... In many works of science fiction, a beings homeworld is their planet of origin. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Buddhism of the Kushana Empire (683 words)
The Kushana Empire was established during the first century CE when various peoples living in the area around Gandhara and Bactria were brought together under King Kadphises (see map of Gandhara).
The documents of the Kushana are written in the Gandhari language, one of the Indic languages which developed from Sanskrit, and in an ancient script called Kharosthi.
The Buddhism of the Kushanas derives from the Buddhism of Northern India.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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