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Encyclopedia > Kushan Empire
Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. 150
Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. 150

The Kushan Empire (c. 1st3rd centuries) was a state that at its height, about 105250, stretched from what is now Tajikistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and down into the Ganges river valley in northern India. The empire was created by the Kushan tribe of the Yuezhi confederation, an Indo-European people from the eastern Tarim Basin and Gansu, China, possibly related to the Tocharians. They had diplomatic contacts with Rome, Persia and China, and for several centuries were at the center of exchange between the East and the West. Kushan Map Boundary of the Kushan empire at its greatest extent, ca. ... Kushan Map Boundary of the Kushan empire at its greatest extent, ca. ... For other uses, see number 150. ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Decades: 200s - 210s - 220s - 230s - 240s - 250s - 260s - 270s - 280s - 290s - 300s Years: 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 Events Crisis of the Third Century End of Yayoi era and beginning of Kofun period, the first part of the... The Ganges River (Ganga in Indian languages; Ganges is the Latin form) (Devanagari गंगा) is the major river of northern India and Bangladesh. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 to 30 BCE. Yuezhi (Chinese:月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, Great Yuezhi) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Empire (Persian: Sasanian) is the name used for the fourth Iranian dynasty, and the second Persian Empire (226 - 651). ...


Today we find Kushans as a subclan among Gurjars or Gujjars. They are said to be the same Kushans as it is very much known that most of the Gurjar Clans were originated from Yuezhi. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Gujar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 to 30 BCE. Yuezhi (Chinese:月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, Great Yuezhi) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. ...

Contents


Origins

Chinese sources describe the Guishuang (Ch: 貴霜), i.e. the "Kushans", as one of the five tribes of the Yuezhi (Ch: 月氏), a loose confederation of Indo-European peoples. The Yuezhi are also generally considered as the easternmost speakers of Indo-European languages, who had been living in the arid grasslands of eastern Central Asia, in modern-day Xinjiang and Gansu, possibly speaking versions of the Tocharian language, until they were driven west by the Xiongnu in 176160 BCE. The five tribes constituting the Yuezhi are known in Chinese history as Xiūmì (Ch: 休密), Guishuang (Ch: 貴霜), Shuangmi (Ch: 雙靡), Xidun (Ch: 肸頓), and Dūmì (Ch: 都密). The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 to 30 BCE. Yuezhi (Chinese:月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, Great Yuezhi) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many in Southwest Asia, Central Asia and South Asia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia (Russian: Средняя Азия/Srednyaya Azia for Middle Asia or Центральная Азия/Tsentralnaya Azia for Central Asia; in Turkic languages Orta Asya; in Persian آسياى مرکزی; (Urdu: وسطى ايشيا)Wasti Asia; Standard Mandarin Chinese... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: æ–°ç–†; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: XÄ«njiāng Wéiwúěr ZìzhìqÅ«), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 181 BC 180 BC 179 BC 178 BC 177 BC - 176 BC - 175 BC 174 BC 173... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 165 BC 164 BC 163 BC 162 BC 161 BC - 160 BC - 159 BC 158 BC 157...


The Yuezhi reached the Hellenic kingdom of Greco-Bactria, in the Bactrian territory (northernmost Afghanistan and Uzbekistan) around 135 BCE, and displaced the Greek dynasties there, who resettled in Indus basin (in present day Pakistan) in the western part of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 140 BC 139 BC 138 BC 137 BC 136 BC - 135 BC - 134 BC 133 BC... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Greco-Indian Kingdom) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic kings[1], often in conflict with each other. ...


A multi-cultural Empire

In the following century, the Guishuang (Ch: 貴霜) gained prominence over the other Yuezhi tribes, and welded them into a tight confederation under yabgu (Commander) Kujula Kadphises. The name Guishuang was adopted in the West and modified into Kushan to designate the confederation, although the Chinese continued to call them Yuezhi. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ...


Gradually wresting control of the area from the Scythian tribes, the Kushans expanded south into the region traditionally known as Gandhara (An area lying primarily in Pakistan's Pothowar, and NWFP region but going in an arc to include Kabul valley and part of Qandahar in Afghanistan) and established twin capitals near present-day Kabul and Peshawar then known as Kapisa and Pushklavati respectively. Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in eastern Afghanistan and the north-western province of Pakistan. ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... Peshāwar (Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pai-khawar in Pashto. ...

The Kushan writing system used the Greek alphabet, with the addition of the letter Sho (here in majuscule and minuscule), used to represent the Kushan sound "Sh".
The Kushan writing system used the Greek alphabet, with the addition of the letter Sho (here in majuscule and minuscule), used to represent the Kushan sound "Sh".

The Kushans adopted elements of the Hellenistic culture of Bactria. They adapted the Greek alphabet (often corrupted) to suit their own language (with the additional development of the letter Þ "sh", as in "Kushan") and soon began minting coinage on the Greek model. On their coins they used Greek language legends combined with Pali legends (in the Kharoshthi script), until the first few years of the reign of Kanishka. After that date, they used Kushan language legends (in an adapted Greek script), combined with legends in Greek (Greek script) and legends in Pali (Kharoshthi script). Image File history File links Greek_alphabet_sho. ... Image File history File links Greek_alphabet_sho. ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Sho (uppercase , lowercase ) was a letter added to the Greek alphabet in order to write the Bactrian language. ... The Hellenistic period of Greek history was the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the Greek peninsula and islands by Rome in 146 BC. Although the establishment of Roman rule did not break the continuity of Hellenistic society and culture, which... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the...


The Kushans are believed to have been predominantly Zoroastrian and later Buddhist as well. However, from the time of Wima Takto, many Kushans started adopting aspects of Indian culture like the other nomadic groups who had invaded India. The first great Kushan emperor Wima Kadphises may have embraced Saivism, as surmised by coins minted during the period. The following Kushan emperors represented a wide variety of faiths including Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and possibly Saivism. Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Taj Mahal, a popular icon of India The culture of India was moulded throughout various eras of history, all the while absorbing customs, traditions and ideas from both invaders and immigrants. ... Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ... Zoroastrianism is the name of the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathushtra, Zartosht). ... Buddhism (also known as Buddha Dharma, the teachings of the awakened one) is a religion, a practical philosophy, and arguably a psychology, focusing on the teachings of Gautama Buddha (Pali: Gotama Buddha), who lived on the Indian subcontinent in or around the fifth century BCE (review article). ... Shaivism, also Saivism, is a branch of Hinduism that worships Siva as the Supreme God. ...


The rule of the Kushans linked the seagoing trade of the Indian Ocean with the commerce of the Silk Road through the long-civilized Indus Valley. At the height of the dynasty, the Kushans loosely oversaw a territory that extended to the Aral Sea through present-day Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Pakistan into northern India. The Silk Road in the 1st century CE. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


The loose unity and comparative peace of such a vast expanse encouraged long-distance trade, brought Chinese silks to Rome, and created strings of flourishing urban centers. City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the Roman People) coordinates: 41°54′N 12°29′E Time Zone: UTC+1 Administration Subdivisions 19 municipi Province Rome Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni ( The Union ) Characteristics Area 1,285 km² Population 2,547,677 (2005 estimate) Density 1983/km...


Main Kushan rulers

Silver tetradrachm of Kushan king Heraios (1–30) in Greco-Bactrian style, with horseman crowned by the Greek goddess of victory Nike. Greek legend: ΤVΡΑΝΝΟVΟΤΟΣ ΗΛΟV - ΣΛΝΛΒ - ΚΟÞÞΑΝΟΥ "Of the Tyrant Heraios, Sanav, the Kushan" (the meaning of "Sanav" is unknown).
Silver tetradrachm of Kushan king Heraios (130) in Greco-Bactrian style, with horseman crowned by the Greek goddess of victory Nike.
Greek legend: ΤVΡΑΝΝΟVΟΤΟΣ ΗΛΟV - ΣΛΝΛΒ - ΚΟÞÞΑΝΟΥ "Of the Tyrant Heraios, Sanav, the Kushan" (the meaning of "Sanav" is unknown).

Coin from the COIN INDIA site [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coin from the COIN INDIA site [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Silver tetradrachm of Kushan king Heraios (1-30 CE) in Greco-Bactrian style. ... This article is about the year. ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... This article discusses the Greek Goddess. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Heraios (1-30)

Heraios was probably the first of the Kushan kings. He may have been an ally of the Greeks, and he shared the same style of coinage. Heraios was probably the father of Kujula Kadphises. Silver tetradrachm of Kushan king Heraios (1-30 CE) in Greco-Bactrian style. ...


Kujula Kadphises (30-80)

According to the Hou Hanshu: "the prince (xihou) of Guishuang (Badakhshan and the adjoining territories north of the Oxus), named Kujula Kadphises (Ch:丘就却, "Qiujiuque") attacked and exterminated the four other princes (xihou). He set himself up as king of a kingdom called Guishuang. He invaded Anxi (Parthia) and took the Gaofu (Kabul) region. He also defeated the whole of the kingdoms of Puda, and Jibin (Kapisha-Gandhara). Qiujiuque (Kujula Kadphises) was more than eighty years old when he died." The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ... Badakhshan is a region comprising parts of northeastern Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ...


These conquests probably took place sometime between 45 and 60, and laid the basis for the Kushan Empire which was rapidly expanded by his descendants.


Kujula issued an extensive series of coins and fathered at least two sons, Sadaṣkaṇa (who is known from only one inscription, and may never have ruled), and Vima Taktu. Bronze coin of Vima Takto, alias Soter Megas (r. ...


Vima Taktu (80-105)

Bronze coin of Vima Takto. Corrupted Greek legend ΒΑϹΙΛΕΥ ΒΑϹΙΛΕΥΩΝ ϹΩΤΗΡ [ΓΗΕ.] "Basileu[s] Basileuōn Sōtēr [Megas?]": "The King of Kings, [Great?] Saviour".
Bronze coin of Vima Takto. Corrupted Greek legend ΒΑϹΙΛΕΥ ΒΑϹΙΛΕΥΩΝ ϹΩΤΗΡ [ΓΗΕ.] "Basileu[s] Basileuōn Sōtēr [Megas?]": "The King of Kings, [Great?] Saviour".

Vima Takt[u] (or Tak[to]) is mentioned in the Rabatak inscription (see the reference to Sims-william's article below), which states that he was the father of Vima Kadphises, and the grandfather of Kanishka I. He expanded the Kushan Empire into the northwest of the Indian subcontinent. The Hou Hanshu says: Image File history File links VimaTakto. ... Image File history File links VimaTakto. ... Bronze coin of Vima Takto, alias Soter Megas (r. ... Bronze coin of Vima Takto, alias Soter Megas (r. ... The Rabatak inscription is an inscription written on a rock in the Bactrian language and the Greek script, which was found in 1993 at the site of Rabatak, near Surkh Kotal in Afghanistan. ... Coin of Vima Kadphises. ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ...

"His [Kujula Kadphises'] son, Yangaozhen (Vima Taktu), became king in his place. He conquered Tianzhu (Northwestern India) and installed a General to supervise and lead it. The Yuezhi then became extremely rich. All the kingdoms call [their king] the Guishuang (Kushan) king, but the Han call them by their original name, Da Yuezhi."

Vima Kadphises (105-127)

Vima Kadphises was the son of Vima Taktu and the father of Kanishka I. He issued an extensive series of coins and inscriptions. Coin of Vima Kadphises. ...


Kanishka I (127-147)

Gold coin of Kanishka I (c.120 CE).
Gold coin of Kanishka I (c.120 CE).

The rule of Kanishka I, the second great Kushan emperor, fifth Kushan king, who flourished for at least 28 years from c. 127, was administered from two capitals: Purushapura (now Peshawar in northern Pakistan) and Mathura, in northern India. The Kushans also had a summer capital in Bagram (then known as Kapisa), where the "Begram Treasure", comprising works of art from Greece to China, has been found. According to the Rabatak inscription, Kanishka was the son of Vima Kadphises, the grandson of Vima Taktu, and the great-grandson of Kujula Kadphises. Kanishka's era is now generally accepted to have begun in 127 on the basis of Harry Falk's ground-breaking research (see Reference section below). Kanishka's era was used as a calendar reference by the Kushans for about a century, until the decline of the Kushan realm. Image File history File linksMetadata KanishkaCoin3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata KanishkaCoin3. ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... Peshāwar (Urdu:پشاور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pai-khawar in Pashto. ... Mathura (मथुरा) is a city in India, located approximately 50 km north of Agra, and south of Delhi. ... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ... The Rabatak inscription is an inscription written on a rock in the Bactrian language and the Greek script, which was found in 1993 at the site of Rabatak, near Surkh Kotal in Afghanistan. ...


The Kushans and Buddhism

Kushan man in the traditional costume with tunic and boots, 2nd century, Gandhara.
Kushan man in the traditional costume with tunic and boots, 2nd century, Gandhara.
A Kushan couple (man left, woman right), posing as devotees in a Buddhist frieze, 2nd century.
A Kushan couple (man left, woman right), posing as devotees in a Buddhist frieze, 2nd century.

Cultural exchanges also flourished, encouraging the development of Greco-Buddhism, a fusion of Hellenistic and Buddhist cultural elements, that was to expand into central and northern Asia as Mahayana Buddhism. Kushan Man. ... Kushan Man. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in eastern Afghanistan and the north-western province of Pakistan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (473x619, 472 KB) Summary Kushan devotee couple. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (473x619, 472 KB) Summary Kushan devotee couple. ... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ...


Kanishka is renowned in Buddhist tradition for having convened a great Buddhist council in Kashmir. Kanishka also had the original Gandhari vernacular, or Prakrit, Buddhist texts translated into the language of Sanskrit. Along with the Indian emperors Ashoka and Harsha Vardhana and the Indo-Greek king Menander I (Milinda), Kanishka is considered by Buddhism as one of its greatest benefactors. // 1st Buddhist council (5th century BC) The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ... For the dispute concerning this region, see History of the Kashmir conflict Shown in green is the region under Pakistani administration. ... The word Gāndhārī can mean more than one thing: Gāndhārī is a character in the Indian epic, the Mahabharata. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prāká¹›ta प्राकृत (from pra-ká¹›ti प्रकृति), original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... The Sanskrit language ( , ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 22 official languages of India. ... Emperor Ashoka (a possible depiction) Ashoka the Great (Devanagari: अशोक; IAST transliteration: ) (304 BC–232 BC) was the emperor of the Maurya Empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. After a number of military conquests, Ashoka reigned over most of South Asia and beyond, from present-day Afghanistan and parts of... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Greco-Indian Kingdom) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic kings[1], often in conflict with each other. ... Tetradrachm of Menander I in Greco-Bactrian style (Alexandria-Kapisa mint). ...

An early Mahayana Buddhist triad. From left to right, a Kushan devotee, the Bodhisattva Maitreya, the Buddha, the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, and a Buddhist monk. 2nd-3rd century, Gandhara.
An early Mahayana Buddhist triad. From left to right, a Kushan devotee, the Bodhisattva Maitreya, the Buddha, the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, and a Buddhist monk. 2nd-3rd century, Gandhara.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1587x970, 653 KB) Summary An early Buddhist triad. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1587x970, 653 KB) Summary An early Buddhist triad. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ... Maitreya Bodhisattva (Sanskrit), Metteyya Bodhisatta (Pāli), or Miroku Bosatsu (Japanese, kanji 弥勒) is the future Buddha in Buddhist eschatology. ... Avalokitesvara with a 1,000 arms, part of the Dazu Stone Carvings at Mount Baoding, Dazu County, Chongqing, China. ... Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in eastern Afghanistan and the north-western province of Pakistan. ...

Depiction of Kushan devotees in the art of Gandhara

The art and culture of Gandhara, at the crossroads of the Kushan hegemony, are the best known expressions of Kushan influences to Westerners. Several direct depictions of Kushans are known from Gandhara, where they are represented with a tunic, belt and trousers and play the role of devotees to the Buddha, as well as the Bodhisattva and future Buddha Maitreya. Gandhāra (also Ghandara, Ghandahra, Chandahara, and Persian Gandara) is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in eastern Afghanistan and the north-western province of Pakistan. ... Prince Siddhartha Gautama as a bodhisattva, before becoming a Buddha. ... Maitreya Bodhisattva (Sanskrit), Metteyya Bodhisatta (Pāli), or Miroku Bosatsu (Japanese, kanji 弥勒) is the future Buddha in Buddhist eschatology. ...


In the iconography, they are never associated however with the very Hellenistic "Standing Buddha" statues (See image), which might therefore correspond to an earlier historical period. The style of these friezes incorporating Kushan devotees is already strongly Indianized, quite remote from earlier Hellenistic depictions of the Buddha: Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century...

Contacts with Rome

A Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel, Begram, 2nd century.
A Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel, Begram, 2nd century.

Several Roman sources describe the visit of ambassadors from the Kings of Bactria and India during the 2nd century, probably referring to the Kushans. Download high resolution version (600x800, 115 KB)Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel. ... Download high resolution version (600x800, 115 KB)Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel. ... Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...


Historia Augusta, speaking of Emperor Hadrian (117138) tells: The Augustan History (Lat. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76–July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117–138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... // Events Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ...

"Reges Bactrianorum legatos ad eum, amicitiae petendae causa, supplices miserunt"
"The kings of the Bactrians sent supplicant ambassadors to him, to seek his friendship."

Also in 138, according to Aurelius Victor (Epitome‚ XV, 4), and Appian (Praef., 7), Antoninus Pius, successor to Hadrian, received some Indian, Bactrian (Kushan) and Hyrcanian ambassadors. Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... Sextus Aurelius Victor, prefect of Pannonia about 360 ( xxi. ... Appian (c. ... Emperor Antoninus Pius Sestertius of Antoninus Pius, with the personification of Italia on reverse. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76–July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117–138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ...


The Chinese Historical Chronicle of the Hou Hanshu also describes the exchange of goods between northwestern India and the Roman Empire at that time: "To the west (Tiazhu, northwestern india) communicates with Da Qin (the Roman Empire). Precious things from Da Qin can be found there, as well as fine cotton cloths, excellent wool carpets, perfumes of all sorts, sugar loaves, pepper, ginger, and black salt." The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Daqin refers to: Daqin Pagoda Memorial of the Propagation in China of the Luminous Religion from Daqin Daqin Hui Township (大秦回族乡), Kongtong District, Pingliang City (平涼市崆峒區), Gansu Province This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The summer capital of the Kushan in Begram has yielded a considerable amount of goods imported from the Roman Empire, in particular various types of glassware. Aromatic vials in the shape of Greek gods, Begram, 2nd century. ...


Contacts with China

The Kushan Buddhist monk Lokaksema, first known translator of Buddhist Mahayana scriptures into Chinese, circa 170.
The Kushan Buddhist monk Lokaksema, first known translator of Buddhist Mahayana scriptures into Chinese, circa 170.

During the 1st and 2nd century, the Kushan Empire expanded militarily to the north and occupied parts of the Tarim Basin, their original grounds, putting them at the center of the profitable Central Asian commerce with the Roman Empire. They are related to have collaborated militarily with the Chinese against nomadic incursion, particularly when they collaborated with the Chinese general Ban Chao against the Sogdians in 84, when the latter were trying to support a revolt by the king of Kashgar. Around 85, they also assisted the Chinese general in an attack on Turfan, east of the Tarim Basin. Yuezhi Buddhist monk Lokaksema (c. ... Yuezhi Buddhist monk Lokaksema (c. ... Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan). ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Ban Chao (班超, 32-102 CE) was a Chinese general and cavalry commander in charge of the administration of the Western Regions (Central Asia) during the Eastern Han dynasty. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Events Possible date of Battle of Mons Graupius (83 or 84) Pliny the Younger was sevir... Location of Kashgar Kashgar (Uyghur: قەشقەر/K̢ǝxk̢ǝr; Chinese: 喀什; Hanyu Pinyin: , 39°28′N 76°03′E), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Events Roman Empire Dacians under Decebalus engaged in two wars against the Romans from this year to AD 88 or 89. ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: Tǔlǔfán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In recognition for their support to the Chinese, the Kushans requested, but were denied, a Han princess, even after they had sent presents to the Chinese court. In retaliation, they marched on Ban Chao in 86 with a force of 70,000, but, exhausted by the expedition, were finally defeated by the smaller Chinese force. The Yuezhi retreated and paid tribute to the Chinese Empire during the reign of the Chinese emperor Han He (89106). The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝; Simplified Chinese: 汉朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Events Roman Empire Domitian introduces the Capitoline Games. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 Events First year of Yongyuan era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... For other uses, see number 106. ...


Later, around 116, the Kushans under Kanishka established a kingdom centered on Kashgar, also taking control of Khotan and Yarkand, which were Chinese dependencies in the Tarim Basin, modern Xinjiang. They introduced the Brahmi script, the Indian Prakrit language for administration, and expanded the influence of Greco-Buddhist art which developed into Serindian art. Events Roman Emperor Trajan completes his invasion of Parthia by capturing the cities of Seleucia, Ctesiphon and Susa, marking the high-water mark of the Roman Empires eastern expansion. ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgar (Uyghur: قەشقەر/K̢ǝxk̢ǝr; Chinese: 喀什; Hanyu Pinyin: , 39°28′N 76°03′E), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... Yarkand or Yecheng (modern Chinese name 叶城, pinyin: Yèchéng, also Chokkuka, anciently Suoju 莎車, also written Shache and Suoche; alt. ... Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Xinjiang (Uyghur: (Shinjang); Chinese: 新疆; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى (Shinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni); Simplified Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; Traditional Chinese: 新疆維吾爾自治區; Pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwúěr Zìzhìqū), is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Brāhmī refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prākṛta प्राकृत (from pra-kṛti प्रकृति), original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... Gandhara Buddha, 1st-2nd century CE. Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century... Categories: Asian art | Stub ...


The Kushans are again recorded to have sent presents to the Chinese court in 158159 during the reign of the Chinese emperor Han Huan. Events Change of era name from Yongshou to Yangxi of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 158 ... Events Births Gordian I, Roman emperor Deaths Categories: 159 ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


Following these interactions, cultural exhanges further increased, and Kushan Buddhist missionaries, such as Lokaksema, became active in the Chinese capital cities of Loyang and sometimes Nanjing, where they particularly distinguished themselves by their translation work. They were the first recorded promoters of Hinayana and Mahayana scriptures in China, greatly contributing to the Silk Road transmission of Buddhism. Lokaksema (Ch: 支谶, Zhi Chan). ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: 洛阳; Traditional Chinese: 洛陽; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a city in Henan province, China. ... Nanjing (Chinese: 南京 [ ]; Romanizations: NánjÄ«ng (Pinyin) , Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal System Pinyin) ) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... Blue-eyed Central Asian and East-Asian Buddhist monks, Bezaklik, Eastern Tarim Basin, 9th-10th century. ...


Decline

Gold dinar of Kushan king Kanishka II (200–220)
Gold dinar of Kushan king Kanishka II (200220)

From the 3rd century the Kushan empire began to fragment. Coin from the COIN INDIA site [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Coin from the COIN INDIA site [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first...


Around 225 Vasudeva I died and the Kushan empire was divided into western and eastern halves. Around 224240, the Sassanids invaded Bactria and Northern India, where they are known as the Indo-Sassanians. Events Zhuge Liang pacifies Nan Zhong Births January 20 - Gordian III, Roman emperor Deaths Categories: 225 ... Vasudeva I was a Kushan emperor around 164-200 AD (See: Vasudeva coin) External links: Coins of late Kushan emperors Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Events Shah Artashir I wins Persian independence from Parthia and establishes the Sassanid dynasty. ... For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... It has been suggested that Ta-Hsia be merged into this article or section. ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ...


Around 270, the Kushans lost their territories on the Gangetic plain, where the Gupta Empire was established around 320 and to the Sassanians during Shapur II's reign, notably the area that comprises of Afghanistan. Events Quintillus briefly holds power over the Roman Empire, and is succeeded by Aurelian Vandals and Sarmatians driven out of Roman territory Romans leave Utrecht after regular invasions of Germanic people. ... The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... This article is about the year 320 AD. For the aircraft, see Airbus A320. ... Shapur II was king of Persia (310 - 379). ...


During the middle of the 4th century a Kushan vassal in Pakistan, named Kidara, rose to power and overthrew the old Kushan dynasty. He created a kingdom known as the Kidarite Kingdom, although he probably considered himself a Kushan, as indicated by the Kushan style of his coins. The Kidarite seem to have been rather prosperous, although on a smaller scale than their Kushan predecessors. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ...


These remnants of the Kushan empire were ultimately wiped out in the 5th century by the invasions of the White Huns, and later the expansion of Islam. Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Hephthalites, also known as White Huns, were a nomadic people who lived across northern China, Central Asia, and northern India in the fourth through sixth centuries. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ...


Main Kushan rulers



Silver tetradrachm of Kushan king Heraios (1-30 CE) in Greco-Bactrian style. ... This article is about the year. ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. ... Events The Sermon on the Mount (according to proponents of the 33 theory) April 7 - Crucifixion of Jesus (suggested date, but it is also suggested that he died on April 3, AD 33) Births Quintus Petillius Cerialis, brother-in-law of Vespasian Deaths April 7 - Judas Iscariot, disciple of Jesus... Events By place Roman Empire The Emperor Titus inaugurates the Flavian Amphitheatre with 100 days of games. ... Bronze coin of Vima Takto, alias Soter Megas (r. ... Events By place Roman Empire The Emperor Titus inaugurates the Flavian Amphitheatre with 100 days of games. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... Coin of Vima Kadphises. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... Gold coin of Kanishka I with a representation of the Buddha (c. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... Events First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 147 ... Events Mytilene and Smyrna are destroyed by an earthquake. ... Events Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius starts a new war against the Parthians Pope Anicetus succeeds Pope Pius I First year of Yongshou era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Dio Cassius, Roman historian Cao Cao, future ruler of the Kingdom of Wei Deaths July 11 - Pope Pius I Saint Polycarp... Gold coin of the Kushan emperor Huvishka (126-164). ... Events Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius starts a new war against the Parthians Pope Anicetus succeeds Pope Pius I First year of Yongshou era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Dio Cassius, Roman historian Cao Cao, future ruler of the Kingdom of Wei Deaths July 11 - Pope Pius I Saint Polycarp... Events Rebellion of Zhang Chun and Zhang Ju. ... Vasudeva I was a Kushan emperor around 164-200 AD (See: Vasudeva coin) External links: Coins of late Kushan emperors Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Events Serapion of Antioch becomes Patriarch of Antioch. ... Events Pope Pontian succeeds Pope Urban I Patriarch Castinus succeeds Patriarch Ciriacus I as Patriarch of Constantinople Births Deaths Categories: 230 ... Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Events: Accession of Wei Mingdi as emperor of the Kingdom of Wei of China. ... For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Vashishka was a Kushan emperor around 232-246 AD. Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... For alternate uses, see Number 240. ... Events Diophantus writes Arithmetica the first systematic treatise on algebra. ... Kanishka III was a Kushan emperor 255 - 275 AD. Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Events Births Deaths Wuqiu Jian, general of the Kingdom of Wei Categories: 255 ... Events Eutychian elected pope (probable date) September 25 - Marcus Claudius Tacitus appointed emperor by the senate Births Eusebius of Caesarea (approximate date) Saint George, soldier of the Roman Empire and later Christian martyr (or 280, approximate date). ... Vasudeva II was a Kushan emperor around 246-256 AD (See: Vasudeva II coin) External links: Coins of late Kushan emperors Categories: People stubs | Kushan empire ... Events Jin Hui Di succeeds Jin Wu Di as emperor of China Births Pachomius, Christian monk (approximate date) Deaths Categories: 290 ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... Shaka I was a Kushan emperor around 325-345AD (See: Shaka I coin) External links: Coins of late Kushan emperors Categories: Stub | Kushan empire ... Events May 20 - First Council of Nicaea - first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church: The Nicene Creed is formulated, the date of Easter is discussed. ... // Events James was happy for once hehe what Births John Chrysostom, Christian bishop and preacher Deaths Pachomius, early monasticist (approximate date) Bishop Nicholas of Myra, Roman priest (or 352). ... Events January 18 - Magnentius proclaimed Emperor by the army in Autun. ... Events The Huns invade Europe. ...

MIDDLE KINGDOMS OF INDIA
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Kingdoms Foreign Kingdoms

 6th century BCE
 5th century BCE
 4th century BCE

 3rd century BCE
 2nd century BCE

 1st century BCE
 1st century


 2nd century
 3rd century
 4th century
 5th century
 6th century
 7th century
 8th century
 9th century
10th century
11th century Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ...






Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Maurya Empire at its largest extent. ... The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ...



The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ...



It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chera dynasty. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...



Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ...


(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


The Chalukya Dynasty was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of Pulakesi... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks



(Islamic invasion of India)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Greco-Indian Kingdom) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic kings[1], often in conflict with each other. ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires in India) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...



See also

  • Yuezhi
  • Pre-Islamic period of Afghanistan
  • Greco-Bactrian Kingdom
  • Indo-Greek Kingdom
  • Indo-Scythians
  • Indo-Parthian Kingdom
  • Indo-Sassanian
  • Greco-Buddhism

The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 to 30 BCE. Yuezhi (Chinese:月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, Great Yuezhi) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. ... Archaeological exploration began in Afghanistan in earnest after World War II and proceeded until the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan disrupted it in December of 1979. ... Approximate extent of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom circa 220 BCE. The Greco-Bactrians were a dynasty of Greek kings who controlled Bactria and Sogdiana, an area comprising todays northern Afghanistan and parts of Central Asia, the easternmost area of the Hellenistic world, from 250 to 125 BCE. Their expansion... The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Greco-Indian Kingdom) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic kings[1], often in conflict with each other. ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ... The Buddha, in Greco-Buddhist style, 1st-2nd century CE, Gandhara. ...

External links

References

  • Falk, Harry. 2001. “The yuga of Sphujiddhvaja and the era of the Kuşâņas.” Silk Road Art and Archaeology VII, pp. 121–136.
  • Falk, Harry (2004). "The Kaniṣka era in Gupta records." Harry Falk. Silk Road Art and Archaeology X , pp. 167–176.
  • Foucher, M. A. 1901. "Notes sur la geographie ancienne du Gandhâra (commentaire à un chaptaire de Hiuen-Tsang)." BEFEO No. 4, Oct. 1901, pp. 322–369.
  • Hargreaves, H. (1910–11): "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī"; Archaeological Survey of India, 1910–11, pp. 25–32.
  • Harmatta, János, ed., 1994. History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume II. The development of sedentary and nomadic civilizations: 700 B.C. to A.D. 250. Paris, UNESCO Publishing.
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation.[1]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [2]
  • Konow, Sten. Editor. 1929. Kharoshthī Inscriptions with Exception of those of Asoka. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, Vol. II, Part I. Reprint: Indological Book House, Varanasi, 1969.
  • Litvinsky, B. A., ed., 1996. History of civilizations of Central Asia, Volume III. The crossroads of civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Paris, UNESCO Publishing.
  • Liu, Xinru 2001 “Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies.” Journal of World History, Volume 12, No. 2, Fall 2001. University of Hawaii Press, pp. 261–292. [3].
  • Sarianidi, Victor. 1985. The Golden Hoard of Bactria: From the Tillya-tepe Excavations in Northern Afghanistan. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York.
  • Sims-Williams, Nicholas. 1998. “Further notes on the Bactrian inscription of Rabatak, with an Appendix on the names of Kujula Kadphises and Vima Taktu in Chinese.” Proceedings of the Third European Conference of Iranian Studies Part 1: Old and Middle Iranian Studies. Edited by Nicholas Sims-Williams. Wiesbaden. 1998, pp. 79-93.
  • Spooner, D. B. 1908–9. "Excavations at Shāh-jī-kī Dhērī."; Archaeological Survey of India, 1908–9, pp. 38–59.
  • Watson, Burton. Trans. 1961. Records of the Grand Historian of China: Translated from the Shih chi of Ssu-ma Ch'ien. Chapter 123: The Account of Ta-yüan, p. 265. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08167-7
  • Zürcher, E. (1968). "The Yüeh-chih and Kaniṣka in the Chinese sources." Papers on the Date of Kaniṣka. Basham, A. L., ed., 1968. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 346-393.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kushan Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2389 words)
The Kushans adopted elements of the Hellenistic culture of Bactria.
The Kushans are again recorded to have sent presents to the Chinese court in 158–159 during the reign of the Chinese emperor Han Huan.
These remnants of the Kushan empire were ultimately wiped out in the 5th century by the invasions of the White Huns, and later the expansion of Islam.
Kanishka - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2418 words)
Kanishka (Kushan language: ΚΑΝΗϷΚΙ, Ancient Chinese: 迦腻色伽) was a king of the Kushan Empire in South Asia, in the 2nd century of the common era, famous for his military, political, and spiritual achievements.
Kanishka was the successor of Vima Kadphises, as demonstrated by an impressive geneaology of the Kushan kings, known as the Rabatak inscription.
In spite of the acknowledged dominance of the Kushan empire during his reign, until recently scholars have not been able to agree on the period of his reign.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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