FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Kush" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Kush

Kush civilization centered in the region of Nubia, located in what is today northern Sudan. One of the earliest civilizations to develop in the Nile River Valley, Kushite states rose to power before a period of Egyptian incursion into the area. People in Kush were called Kushites. Kushite civilization is unique in history[citation needed] for having been dominated by female empresses whose title was Kandake. The word Kush may refer to any of the following: Kush, a family of potent cannabis strains. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Origins

The first developed societies arose in Nubia before the time of the Second Dynasty of Egypt (3100-2890 BC). Around 2500 BC, Egyptians began moving south, and it is through them that most of our knowledge of Kush (Cush) comes. But this expansion was halted by the fall of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, at which time an independent kingdom developed. About 1500 BC Egyptian expansion resumed, but this time encountered organized resistance. Historians are not sure whether this resistance came from multiple city states or a single unified empire, and debate whether the notion of statehood was indigenous or borrowed from the Egyptians. The Egyptians prevailed, and the region became a colony of Egypt under the control of Thutmose I, whose army ruled from a number of sturdy fortresses. The region supplied Egypt with resources. Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Second Dynasty. ... (Redirected from 2500 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... (Redirected from 1500 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC - 1500s BC - 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC 1460s BC 1450s BC Events and Trends Stonehenge built in Wiltshire, England The element Mercury has been... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Aakheperkare Great is the Soul of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to Live Consort...


In the eleventh century BC internal disputes in Egypt caused colonial rule to collapse and an independent kingdom arose based at Napata in Nubia. This kingdom was ruled by locals who overthrew the colonial regime. Kush was a good example of cultural diffusion with Egypt. There were many of the same beliefs and gods. Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ...


Napata

This Napata based kingdom was united by Rose in the period of around 780-755 BC; Alara is universally regarded as the founder of the Kushite kingdom by his successors. The kingdom grew in influence and came to dominate the Southern Egyptian region of Elephantine and even Thebes by the reign of Kashta, Alara's successor who managed in the 8th century BC to compel Shepenupet I, half-sister of Takelot III and the serving God's Wife of Amen, to adopt his own daughter Amenirdis I as her successor. After this event, Thebes was under the de facto control of Napata. Its power reached a climax under King Piye, Kashta's successor, who conquered all of Egypt in his Year 20 and established the 25th dynasty. Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... ALARA Alara king of Nubia The unifier of Kush and grandfather of king Taharqa ... Elephantine Island, showing the nilometer (lower left) and the Aswan Museum. ... Two important places in antiquity were called Thebes: Thebes, Greece – Thebes of the Seven Gates; one-time capital of Boeotia. ... Kashta was a king of the Kushite Dynasty. ... Shepenupet I (or sometime Shapenewpet I) was the first of the hereditary Gods Wife or Divine Adoratrice of Amun to wield political power in ancient Thebes and its surrounding region. ... Usimare Setepenamun Takelot III Si-Ese was Osorkon IIIs eldest son and successor. ... The Ancient Kushite princess commonly known as Amenirdis I was the daughter of Kashta and sister of Piye [1] and Shabaka. ... Two important places in antiquity were called Thebes: Thebes, Greece – Thebes of the Seven Gates; one-time capital of Boeotia. ... Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... Piye, whose name was once transliterated as Py(ankh)i. ... The Twenty-fifth Dynasty of ancient Egypt originated in Kush at the city-state of Napata, whence they invaded and took control of Egypt under Piye (spelled Piankhi in older works). ...


When the Assyrians invaded in 671 BC, Kush became once again an independent state. The last Kushite king to attempt to regain control over Egypt was Tantamani who was firmly defeated by Assyria in 664 BC. Thereafter, the kingdom's power over Egypt declined and terminated in 656 BC when Psamtik I, founder of the 26th Saite Dynasty, reunited Egypt. In 591 BC the Egyptians under Psamtik II invaded Kush, possibly because Kush ruler Aspelta was preparing to invade Egypt, and effectively sacked and burned Napata. For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Tantamani or Tanutamani (d. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Psammetichus, or Psamtik I, was the first of three kings of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt (664 - 610 BC). ... Psammetichus II (also spelled Psammeticus, Psammetich, and Psamtik II) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (595 - 589 BC). ... Aspelta was a ruler of the kingdom of Kush (c. ... Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ...


Move to Meroë

It is clear from various historical records that Aspelta's successors moved their capital to Meroë, considerably farther south than Napata. The exact date this change was made is uncertain but some historians believe it was during Aspelta's reign, in response to the Egyptian invasion of Lower Nubia. Other historians believe it was the attraction of iron working that drove the kingdom south: around Meroë, unlike Napata, there were large forests that could fire the blast furnaces. The arrival of Greek merchants throughout the region also meant that Kush was no longer dependent on trade along the Nile. Instead, it could export its goods to the Red Sea and the Greek trading colonies there. Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ... Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... Lower Nubia is the northern portion of Nubia, downstream on the Nile from Upper Nubia. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ... Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Merchants function as professional traders, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


An alternate theory is that two separate but closely linked states developed, one based at Napata and the other at Meroë. The Meroë-based state gradually eclipsed the northern one. No royal residence has been found north of Meroë and it is possible Napata had only been the religious headquarters. But Napata clearly remained an important center, with the kings being crowned and buried there for many centuries, even when they lived at Meroë. Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ... Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ...


In about 2004 B.C. the move to Meroë was made more complete when the monarchs began to be buried there, instead of at Napata. One theory is that this represents the monarchs breaking away from the power of the priests at Napata. Diodorus Siculus tells a story about a Meroitic ruler named Ergamenes who was ordered by the priests to kill himself, but broke tradition and had the priests executed instead. Some historians think Ergamenes refers to Arrakkamani, the first ruler to be buried at Meroë. However, a more likely transliteration of Ergamenes is Arqamani, who ruled many years after the royal cemetery was opened at Meroë. Another theory is that the capital had always been based at Meroë. Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ... This article treats the generic title monarch. ... Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ... Diodorus Siculus (c. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ...


Kush continued for several centuries, yet there is little information available. Earlier Kush had used Egyptian hieroglyphics, but Meroë developed a new script and began to write in the Meroitic language, which has not been fully deciphered. The state seems to have prospered, trading with its neighbours and continuing to build monuments and tombs. In 23 BC the Roman governor of Egypt, Petronius, invaded Nubia in response to a Nubian attack on southern Egypt, pillaging the north of the region and sacking Napata (22 BC) before returning north. A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroë. Meroë is the name of an ancient city on the east bank of the Nile 16. ... Meroitic funerary stela of Waleye son or daughter of Kadeye, from Sai, now at the British Museum. ... Events Imperator Caesar Augustus becomes Roman Consul for the eleventh time. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... For the Star Wars planet, see Nubia (Star Wars). ... Napata was a city on the west bank of the Nile river, some 400 km north of the present capital of Sudan. ...


Decline

The decline of Kush is a hotly debated topic. A diplomatic mission in Nero's reign travelled to Meroë; (Pliny the Elder, N.H. 6.35). After the second century AD the royal tombs began to shrink in size and splendor, and the building of large monuments seems to have ceased. The royal pyramid burials halted altogether in the middle of the fourth century AD. The archeological record shows a cultural shift to a new society known as the X-Group, or Ballana culture. For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ...


This corresponds closely to the traditional theory that the kingdom was destroyed by the invasion by Ezana of Axum from the Ethiopian kingdom of Axum around 340. However, the Ethiopian account seems to be describing the quelling of a rebellion in lands they already controlled. It also refers only to the "Noba," (in Latin "Nobatae") and makes no mention of the rulers of Meroë. Ezana of Axum (Geez ዔዛና Ê¿Ä’zānā unvocalized ዐዘነ Ê¿zn. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum, Geez አክሱም), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca. ...


The last ruler of Meroë was a man known as Sect Lie; his exact name has been lost. Not much is known about him, but a few stories still survive in folk telling. Apparently he was a strongly disliked man, who lusted for gold and women. This possibly helped cause the invasion of Meroë.


Apparently his behavior displeased the people to the point that they rebelled and took control of the area. Also it is not quite sure where his tomb is. Some say that it has disappeared in history, that it has either been destroyed or plundered. The people then lived in small tribes and became strong warriors, who fought Romans for control of the area of Nubia, and the lower Nile River Delta.


Many historians theorize that these Nuba are the same people the Romans called the Nobatae. Procopius reports that when the Roman empire withdrew from northern Nubia in 272, they invited the Nobatae to fill the power vacuum. Procopius of Caesarea (in Greek Προκόπιος, c. ...


The other important elements were the Blemmyes, likely ancestors of the Beja. They were desert warriors who threatened the Roman possessions and thereby contributed to the Roman withdrawal to more defensible borders. At the end of the fourth century AD they had managed to control a part of the Nile valley around Kalabsha in Lower Nubia. One of the Blemmyes, from a 1544 woodcut illustrating the Cosmographia by Sebastian Münster. ... The Beja people are an ethnic group dwelling parts of North-Eastern and Eastern Africa including the area of the Horn of Africa. ... New Kalabsha is an area located by the Aswan High Dam, south of Aswan in Egypt. ...


By the sixth century, new states had formed in the area once been controlled by Meroë. It seems almost certain that the Nobatae evolved into the state of Nobatia, and were also behind the Ballana culture and the two other states that arose in the area, Makuria and Alodia were also quite similar. The Beja meanwhile were expelled back into the desert by the Nuba kings around 450 AD. These new states of Nubia inherited much of Kush, but were also quite different. They spoke Old Nubian and wrote in a modified version of the Coptic alphabet; Meroitic and its script seemed to disappear completely. Unlike their predecessors, they were armed with weapons that far surpassed Kush technology. Nobatia was a kingdom in Christian Lower Nubia. ... Christian Nubia in the three states period. ... Alodia is the least known of the Christian Nubian kingdoms. ... A page from an Old Nubian translation of Liber Institutionis Michaelis Archangelis from the 9th-10th century AD, found at Qasr Ibrim, now at the British Museum. ... The Coptic alphabet is an alphabet used for writing the Coptic language. ...


The origin of the Nuba/Nobatae who replaced Meroë is uncertain. They may have been nomadic invaders from the west who conquered and imposed their culture and language on the settled peoples. P.L. Shinnie has speculated that the Nobatae were in fact indigenous and were natives of the Napata region who had been dominated by Meroitic leaders for centuries, and that the word Nobatae is directly related to Napata.


In the Bible

The name given this civilization comes from the Old Testament where Cush (Hebrew: כוש) was one of the sons of Ham who settled in Northeast Africa. In the Bible and archaically, a large region covering northern Sudan, modern day southern Egypt, and parts of Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Somalia were known as Cush. The Bible refers to Cush on a number of occasions. Moses wife, Tzipporah, is described as a Kushite in the book of Numbers. Some contend that this Cush was in southern Arabia. See Biblical Cush for a full discussion. Modern Hebrew retains the name "Kushim" for Black people in a somewhat allegorical manner. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Note: Judaism... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Ham (חָם, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , , Geez Kam), according to the Genealogies of Genesis, was a son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Zipporah or Tzipora (צִפּוֹרָה Bird, Standard Hebrew Ẓippora, Tiberian Hebrew Ṣippôrāh), mentioned in the Book of Exodus, is Mosess wife. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ...


Some scholars speculate that Cush is the same person as Lugalbanda in the Epic of Gilgamesh. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also

This is an incomplete list of kings of Kush. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Merowe High Dam, also known as Merowe Multi-Purpose Hydro Project or Hamdab Dam, is a large construction project in northern Sudan, about 350km north of the capital Khartoum. ...

References

  • Jean Leclant. "The empire of Kush: Napata and Meroe" UNESCO General History of Africa
  • A. Hakem with I. Hrbek and J. Vercoutter. "The civilization of Napata and Meroe" UNESCO General History of Africa
  • P.L. Shinnie. "The Nilotic Sudan and Ethiopia c. 660 BC to c. AD 600" Cambridge History of Africa - Volume 2 Cambridge University Press, 1978.

External links

  • Ancient Gold Center Discovered on the Nile
  • On Kush
  • (French) Voyage au pays des pharaons noirs Travel in Sudan : pictures and notes on the nubian history
  • Scholars Race to Recover a Lost Kingdom on the Nile from the New York Times.
  • http://www.jstor.org/view/00030279/ap020043/02a00660/0 The Biblical Nimrod and the Kingdom of Eanna]
  • [1] Kush Gum - The Cotton Mouth Cure!
The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Civilizations in Africa: Kush (640 words)
Their capital city was Kerma and it served as the major trading center for goods travelling north from the southern regions of Africa.
   Kush attained its greatest power and cultural energy between 1700 and 1500 BC during the Third Intermediate period in Egypt.
The domination of Egypt by the Hyksos allowed Kush to come out from under the hegemony of Egypt and flower as a culture; this period ended, however, when the New Kingdom kings, having thrown the Hyksos out of Egypt, reconquered Kush and brought it under Egyptian colonial rule.
Hindu Kush - LoveToKnow 1911 (2029 words)
The Hindu Kush is, in fact, but the face of a great upheaved mass of plateau-land lying beyond it northwards, just as the Himalaya forms the southern face of the great central tableland of Tibet, and its general physiography, exhibiting long, narrow, lateral valleys and transverse lines of "antecedent" drainage, is XIII.
Hindu Kush is the Caucasus of Alexander's historians.
Baber always calls the range Hindu Kush, and the way in which he speaks of it shows clearly that it was a range that was meant, not a solitary pass or peak (according to modern local use, as alleged by Elphinstone and Burnes).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m