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Encyclopedia > Kurukshetra War
Kurukshetra War

Fought for 18 days, the Battle of Kurukshetra was one of the great battles of the Hindu Epics. Shown here is Arjuna and his charioteer Krishna between the two warring armies.
Date Various beliefs, 3000s BCE-1000s BCE[1]
Location Kurukshetra, modern-day Haryana, India
Result Pandava victory
Combatants
Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma
Commanders
Arjuna
Bhima
Yudhishthira
Nakula
Sahadeva
Bhishma
Drona
Karna
Duryodhana
Ashwatthama
Strength
7 Akshauhinis
1,530,900 soldiers
11 Akshauhinis
2,405,700 soldiers
Casualties
Almost Total
Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki
Almost Total
Only 3 survivors - Ashwatthama, Kripa, and Kritavarma

The Kurukshetra War (Devangari: कुरुक्षेत्र युद्ध) forms an essential component of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. According to Mahabharata, a dynastic struggle between sibling clans of Kauravas and the Pandavas for the throne of Hastinapura resulted in a battle in which a number of ancient kingdoms participated as allies of the rival clans. The location of the battle was Kurukshetra in the modern state of Haryana in India. Image File history File links Kurukshetrawar. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Kurukshetra may refer to: The Kurukshetra war described in the Mahabharata, an Indian epic The town and district of Kurukshetra in the Indian state of Haryana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ... Dhristadyumna was the son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi and Shikhandi in the classic epic Mahabharata. ... The term Kaurava is a Sanskrit term, that means the descendants of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... Yudhisthira was the son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Nakula (Sanskrit: नकुल, naküla) was the son of king Pandu and queen Madri. ... Sahadeva (Sanskrit: सहदेव, sahadéva) is a character in the Mahabharata. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... Duryodhana as depicted in Yakshagana popular drama from Karnataka In the Hindu epic the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Ashwatthama (Sanskrit: अश्वत्थाम, ashvatthāma) or Ashwatthaman (Sanskrit: अश्वत्थमन, ashvatthamana) was the son of guru Dronacharya. ... च् + छ = च्छ Devanagari in Unicode The Unicode range for Devanagari is U+0900 . ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... Kurukshetra may refer to: The Kurukshetra war described in the Mahabharata, an Indian epic The town and district of Kurukshetra in the Indian state of Haryana This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the town in Hoshiarpur district, see Hariana. ...


Mahabharata states that the war lasted eighteen days during which vast armies from all over ancient India fought along the sides of the two rivals. The importance given to the narration of this war is evident from the fact that while the duration of the entire story of the epic lasts centuries dealing with a number of generations of the warring families, the narration of the war forming more than a quarter of the book deals with the events of a mere eighteen days. Much of the narration describes the individual battles of the various heroes of both sides, the battle-field deaths of some of the prominent heroes, the military formations employed on each day by both armies, the war diplomacies, meetings and discussions among the heroes and commanders before the commencement of war on each day, the weapons used, etc. The chapters (Parvas) dealing with the war, from chapter six to ten, are considered amongst oldest in the entire Mahabharata. Bhagavad Gita, a sacred text of Hindu philosophy, is considered a later addition to Mahabharata which recounts the conversation between the Pandava Arjuna and Krishna arising out of Arjuna's reluctance to fight members of his own family. Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ...


Attempts have been made to date this battle based on the various astronomical and literary information from Mahabharata. According to these theories, the Kurukshetra War took place around 3100 BCE.

Contents

Background

Main article: Mahabharata

Mahabharata, one of the most important Hindu epics, is an account of the life and deeds of several generations of a ruling dynasty called the Kuru clan. Central to the epic is an account of a great war that took place between two sibling families belonging to this clan. Kurukshetra, literally land of the Kurus, was the battleground on which this war, known as the Kurukshetra War, was fought. Kurukshetra was also known as Dharamkshetra (the land of Dharma), or field of righteousness. Mahabharata tells that this site was chosen for the war because even a sin committed on this land was forgiven on account of the sanctity of this land. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ... In the Mahabharata, Kuru is a legendary king, the progenitor of the Kuru clan, to both the Kauravas and the Pandavas, the principal characters of the Mahabharata, belong. ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...


The two sides to the war were the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The dispute between the Kauravas and the Pandavas arose out of a game of dice, which the Kauravas won by deceit, forcing their Pandava cousins to go into exile for thirteen years. The dispute escalated into a full scale war when Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas, driven by jealousy, refused to restore the Pandavas to their throne even after the exile. In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... Duryodhana as depicted in Yakshagana popular drama from Karnataka In the Hindu epic the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. ...


Prior to the war however, the Pandavas, advised by Krishna, tried to find a diplomatic and peaceful solution to the conflict. Balarama, Krishna's brother advised the Pandavas to send an emissary and to get the support of the elders of the family such as Bhishma, Dhritarashtra, Drona, Karna, and even Shakuni, saying "Let us avoid armed conflict by all means possible. Only that which is accrued in peace is worthwhile. Out of war, nothing but wrong can issue".[2] While the emissary was in the Kaurava court, Pandavas continued their war preparations. They sent messages requesting assistance to a number of neighbouring kingdoms. However, their ambassador of peace was insulted and turned away by Duryodhana, who was intent on war, despite the counsel of elders such as Bhishma. After some such attempts, war seemed inevitable. The Pandavas, however, tried one last attempt at peace, when Krishna Himself went to Hastinapur on a peace mission. Bheeshma makes his vow. ... In Mahabharata Dhritarashtra was the son bore by Vichitraviryas first wife Ambika from Vyasa. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... A character in the Mahabharata, Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. ...


Krishna's Peace Mission

As a last attempt at peace, Krishna himself travelled to Hastinapur to persuade the Kauravas for peace. This is of philosophical importance as it shows that Krishna tried to avoid war at all costs. This aspect is sometimes ignored by those who claim Krishna coaxed Arjuna into violence in the war. At Hastinapur, Krishna took his meals and stayed at the house of the Prime Minister, Vidura, who was a religious person and a devotee of Krishna. Duryodhana hence felt insulted that Krishna turned down his invitation to eat with him and stay in his royal palace. Determined to ensure that the peace mission failed, Duryodhana plotted to arrest Krishna.


At the formal presentation of the peace proposal by Krishna at the court of Hastinapur, Krishna's peace proposals were ignored, and Duryodhana publicly ordered his soldiers to arrest Krishna. Krishna laughed at his mortal attempts, and displayed his divine form, blinding the soldiers and everyone in court with his radiating light. The beautiful divine form of the Lord could be perceived only by those pure in heart, Bhishma, Drona, and Vidura. With His peace mission rejected by Duryodhana, Krishna returned to Upaplavya to inform the Pandavas that there was now no alternative to war for the upholding of the principles of virtue and righteousness.


War preparations

Krishna had one of the largest armies and was himself a great warrior. Duryodhana and Arjuna thus both went to Krishna at Dwarka to ask for his help. This is a famous part of the story, especially dear to Krishna devotees. Duryodhana arrived first, and found Krishna asleep. Being arrogant and viewing himself as equal to Krishna, Duryodhana chose a seat at Krishna's head and waited for him to rouse. Arjuna arrived later, and being a humble devotee of Krishna, chose to sit at wait at Krishna's feet. When Krishna woke up, he saw Arjuna first and gave him the first right to make his request. Krishna told Arjuna and Duryodhana that He would give His mighty Narayani sena, 'opulent, Lordly army' to one side, and himself unarmed to the other. Since Arjuna was given the first opportunity to choose, Duryodhana was worried that Arjuna would choose the mighty army of Krishna. When given the choice of either Krishna's army or Krishna Himself on their side, Arjuna on behalf of the Pandavas chose Krishna, unarmed on his own, relieving Duryodhana, who thought Arjuna to be the greatest fool. Later Arjuna requested Krishna to be his charioteer, and Krishna, being an intimate friend of Arjuna, agreed wholeheartedly, and hence became famous as Paarthasaarthy, or 'charioteer of the son of Prithaa'. Both Duryodhana and Arjuna returned satisfied.


While camping at a place called Upaplavya, in the territory of Virata, the Pandavas gathered their armies. Contingents arrived from all parts of the country and soon Pandavas had a large force of seven divisions. The Kauravas managed to raise an even larger army of eleven divisions. Many kingdoms of ancient India such as Dwaraka, Kasi, Kekaya, Magadha, Matsya, Chedi, Pandya and the Yadus of Mathura were allied with the Pandavas; while the allies of the Kauravas comprised of the kings of Pragjyotisha, Anga, Kekaya, Sindhudesa, Mahishmati, Avanti in Madhyadesa, Madras, Gandharas, Bahlikas, Kambojas (with Yavanas, Sakas, Tusharas etc) and many others. In Hindu mythology, Virata is the king in whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. ... This article tries to compile and classify all the kingdoms of ancient India mentioned in the Sanskrit/Vedic literature. ... Dwarka is a city in Gujarat, India. ... Benares (also known as Banaras, Kashi, Kasi and Varanasi (वाराणसी)) is a Hindu holy city on the banks of the river Ganga or Ganges in the modern north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... Kekaya, the land of the Pauravas (people of the Puru tribe), was one of the janapadas of ancient India. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Incarnation of Vishnu as a Fish, from a devotional text. ... Chedi kingdom (चेदि) was one among the many kingdoms ruled during early periods by Paurava kings and later by Yadav kings in the central and western India. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Yadu is the name of one of the five Aryan clans mentioned in the Rig Veda. ... , Mathura   (Hindi: मथुरा, Urdu: متھرا) is a holy city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... Map of the Mahajanapadas Earliest reference to Angas (अंग) occurs in Atharava Veda (V.22. ... Kekaya, the land of the Pauravas (people of the Puru tribe), was one of the janapadas of ancient India. ... The name may refer to one of the following. ... Madra or Madraka is the name of an ancient region and its inhabitants, located in the north-west division of ancient Indian sub-continent. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... ... Saka is also the name of a town in Hiroshima, Japan; for information on this town, see Saka, Hiroshima. ... The Tocharians were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...


Pandava army

A manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra, fought between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, recorded in the Mahabharata Epic.
A manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra, fought between the Kauravas and the Pandavas, recorded in the Mahabharata Epic.

Seeing that there was now no hope for peace, Yudhisthira, the eldest of the Pandavas, asked his brothers to organize their army. The Pandava army was organized into seven divisions. Each of these divisions were led by Drupada, Virata, Dhristadyumna, Shikhandi, Satyaki, Chekitana and Bhima. After consulting his commanders, the Pandavas appointed Dhristadyumna as the supreme commander of the Pandava army. Mahabharata says that kingdoms from all over ancient India supplied troops or provided logistic support on the Pandava side. Some of these were: Kekaya, Pandya, Cholas, Keralas, Magadha, and many more. Image File history File links Kurukshetra. ... Image File history File links Kurukshetra. ... In the great Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhisthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti, king of Hastinapura and Indraprastha, and World Emperor. ... Drupada, also known as Yajnasena, is a character in the Mahabharata. ... In Hindu mythology, Virata is the king in whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. ... Dhristadyumna was the son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi and Shikhandi in the classic epic Mahabharata. ... Shikandi (born Shikhandini) is a character in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Satyaki, also called Yuyudhana, a powerful warrior belong to the Yadava-Vrishni dynasty of Lord Krishna. ... Chekitana was son of Dhrishtaketu, Raja of the Kekayas, and an ally of the Pandavas. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... Kekaya, the land of the Pauravas (people of the Puru tribe), was one of the janapadas of ancient India. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Pandyas were fierce warriors who took part in the Kurukshetra War. ... Chola was a powerful southern kingdom. ... Keralas or Udra Keralas were mentioned in the epic Mahabharata as a kingdom which took part in the Kurukshetra War on the side of the Pandavas. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Magadha was a kingdom ruled by Non-Vedic kings. ...


Kaurava army

Duryodhana requested Bhishma to command the Kaurava army. Bhishma accepted on the condition that, while he will fight the battle sincerely, he will however not harm the five Pandava brothers. In addition, Bhishma also said that he would not fight alongside or command Karna. It is believed by many that Bhishma's decision not to let Karna fight under his command was due to his affection towards the Pandavas - the Kauravas would be overwhelmingly powerful if both he and Karna appeared in battle simultaneously. However the excuse he used to prevent their simultaneous fighting was Karna's lower caste. Regardless, Duryodhana agreed to Bhishma's conditions and made him the supreme commander of the Kaurava army, while Karna was debarred from fighting. The army was divided into eleven divisions. Apart from the one hundred Kaurava brothers, headed by Duryodhana himself and his brother Dushasana, the second son of Dhritarashtra, the Kauravas were assisted in the battlefield by Drona and his son Ashwathama, the Kaurava's brother-in-law Jayadratha, the brahmin Kripa, Kritavarma, Shalya, Sudakshina, Bhurisravas, Bahlika, the evil Shakuni, and many more who were bound by their loyalty towards either Hastinapura or Dhritarashtra. Bheeshma makes his vow. ... Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... Dushasana (Duśśāsana in IAST transliteration, and sometimes written Duhshasana and Dushyasana) was the second son of the blind king Dhritarashtra and Gandhari in the epic Mahabharata, and the younger brother of Duryodhana. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Ashwatthama was the son of guru, Dronacharya. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Jayadratha (Sanskrit: जयद्रथ) is the king of Sindhu. ... The term Brahmin denotes both a member of the priestly class in the Hindu varna system, and a member of the highest caste in the caste system of Hindu society. ... Kripa, also often called Kripacharya, was the chief priest at the court of Hastinapura, in the Mahabharata. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... King Shalya was the brother of Madri, the mother of Nakula and Sahadeva. ... A character in the Mahabharata, Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ...


Neutrals

The kingdom of Vidarbha and its King Rukmi, as well as Krishna's brother, Balarama, were the only neutrals in this war. Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Vidarbha kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by Yadava kings in the central and western India. ...


Army divisions and weaponry

Each army consisted of several divisions; the Kauravas had 11 while the Pandavas controlled 7. A division (akshauhini) includes 21,870 chariots and chariot-riders, 21,870 elephants and riders, 65,610 horses and riders, and 109,350 foot-soldiers (in a ratio of 1:1:3:5). The combined number of warriors and soldiers in both armies was approximately 3.94 million.[3] Each Akshohini was under a commander or a general, apart from the Commander in chief or the generalissimo who was the head of the entire army. It should be noted also that in each of these large number groups (65,610, etc.), the digits add up to 18, making this a very significant number in the text. This number 18 is not only the number of days that the great war lasted, but it's also the total number of divisions fighting (7 Pandava divisions and 11 Kaurava divisions) and the number of total chapters in the Bhagavat Gita. An Akshauhini, according to Hindu mythology, consisted of several horses, elephants, rathas (or car) and the mounted warriors as well as the foot soldiers. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ...


During the Kurukshetra War, several weapons were used. The weapons, and their most notable users, included the Bow and arrows, the weapon of choice for Arjuna, Bhishma, Drona, Karna and Abhimanyu, the Mace, chosen by Bhima and Duryodhana apart from the Spear and the Dagger / Sword. This article is about the projectile weapon bow. ... Traditional target arrow and replica medieval arrow. ... Abhimanyu (Sanskrit: अभिमन्यु, abhimanyu) is a tragic hero in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... A development of the club, a mace consists of a strong, heavy wooden, metal-reinforced, or metal shaft, with a head made of stone, copper, bronze, iron or steel. ... For other uses, see Spear (disambiguation) and Spears (disambiguation). ... Bold text This article is about the weapon. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


If the text is taken as historically accurate, this war was the bloodiest war in history as most of the warriors and soldiers perished during the brief period of only eighteen days. Arjuna, in a fit of extreme anger over the death of his son Abhimanyu, alone killed one akshauhini of Kaurava soldiers in a single day. The war left an extremely large number of widows and orphans and led to an economic depression and beginning of Kali Yuga. Kali Yuga is also the title of a book by Roland Charles Wagner. ...


Military formations

At various times during battle, the supreme commander of either army ordered special formations ("vyuhas"). Each formation had a specific purpose; some were defensive while others were offensive. Each formation had its specific strengths and weaknesses. Mahabharata list the following Krauncha vyuha (heron formation), Makara vyuha (crocodile formation), Kurma vyuha (tortoise or turtle formation), Trishula vyuha (the trident formation), Chakra vyuha (wheel or discus formation) and the Kamala vyuha or Padma vyuha (Lotus formation). The Chakravyuha is an army formation mentioned in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. ...


It is not clear what the formations actually indicate. They may be formations bearing resemblance to animals, or they may be names given to strategies and formations.[4]


Rules of engagement

The two supreme commanders met and framed "rules of ethical conduct", dharmayuddha, for the war. The rules included: Dharmayuddha is a Sanskrit word made up of two roots: dharma meaning righteousness, and yuddha meaning warfare. ...

  • Fighting must begin no earlier than sunrise and end exactly at sunset.
  • Multiple warriors may not attack a single warrior.
  • Two warriors may "duel," or engage in prolonged personal combat, only if they carry the same weapons and they are on the same mount (no mount, a horse, an elephant, or a chariot).
  • No warrior may kill or injure a warrior who has surrendered.
  • One who surrenders becomes a prisoner of war and a slave.
  • No warrior may kill or injure an unarmed warrior.
  • No warrior may kill or injure an unconscious warrior.
  • No warrior may kill or injure a person or animal not taking part in the war.
  • No warrior may kill or injure a warrior whose back is turned away.
  • No warrior may attack a woman.
  • No warrior may strike an animal not considered a direct threat.
  • The rules specific to each weapon must be followed. For example, it is prohibited to strike below the waist in mace warfare.
  • Warriors may not engage in any "unfair" warfare whatsoever.

Most of these laws were broken at least once by both sides.


Course of war

The Kurukshetra War lasted eighteen days. The war was fought only during daylight hours and fighting ceased at sunset. The armies met on a vast field in Kurukshetra and each day of the battle was characterised by numerous individual combats as well as mass raids against entire enemy divisions. The victor or the vanquished on each day was determined not by any territories gained, but by the body count. This was a war to the death. The victor was the survivor.


Before the battle

On the first day of the war, as would be on all the other days as well, the Kaurava army stood facing west and the Pandava army stood facing east. The Kaurava army was formed such that it faced all sides: elephants formed its body; the kings, its head; and the steeds, its wings. Bhishma, in consultation with his commanders Drona, Bahlika and Kripa. The Kurukshetra war detailed in the Hindu epic Mahabharata was between the ancient Hindu clans of Kaurava and Pandava and lasted eighteen days. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Bactria (Bactriana, also Bhalika in Indian languages) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra (now Balkh), was located in what is now northern Afghanistan, southern Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan. ... Kripa, also often called Kripacharya, was the chief priest at the court of Hastinapura, in the Mahabharata. ...


The Pandava army was organised by Yudhisthira and Arjuna in the Vajra formation. Because the Pandava army was smaller than the Kaurava's, they decided to employ the tactic of each warrior engaging as many enemies as possible. This involved an element of surprise with the bowmen showering arrows from hidden behind the frontal attackers. The attackers in the front were equipped with short-range weapons like the maces, battle-axes, swords, lances etc.


Ten divisions (Akshauhinis) of the Kaurava army were arranged in a formidable phalanx. The eleventh was put under the immediate command of Bhishma, partly to protect him. The safety of the supreme commander Bhishma was centre to Duryodhana's strategy as he had placed all his hope on the great warrior's abilities. Dushasana, the brother of king Duryodhana, was the military officer in-charge for Bhishma's protection. Duryodhana as depicted in Yakshagana popular drama from Karnataka In the Hindu epic the Mahabharata, Duryodhana (दुर्योधन) is the eldest son of the blind king Dhritarashtra by Queen Gandhari, the eldest of the one hundred Kaurava brothers, and the chief antagonist of the Pandavas. ... Dushasana (Duśśāsana in IAST transliteration, and sometimes written Duhshasana and Dushyasana) was the second son of the blind king Dhritarashtra and Gandhari in the epic Mahabharata, and the younger brother of Duryodhana. ...

Lord Krishna shows his Vishwarupa to Arjuna on the Kurukshetra war field. Krishna gives the discourse of the Bhagavad Gita

When the war was declared and the two armies were facing each other, Arjuna realised that he would have to kill his own dear great-granduncle (Bhishma) on whose lap he had played as a child, and his own respected teacher (Drona) who had held his hand and taught him how to hold the bow and arrow, making him the greatest archer in the world. Arjuna hence felt weak and sickened at the prospect of killing his entire family, including his 100 cousins, and friends such as Ashvatthaamaa. Despondent and confused about what is religious, what is right and what is wrong, Arjuna turned to Krishna for divine advice and teachings. Krishna, who was chosen as the charioteer of Arjuna, advised him of his duty. This conversation forms the Bhagavad Gita, one of the most respected religious and philosophical texts. In the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna instructs Arjuna to not yield to degrading impotence and fight his kin, for that was the only way to righteousness. He also reminded him that this was a war between righteousness and unrighteousness (dharma and adharma), and it was Arjuna's duty to slay anyone who supported the cause of unrighteousness, or sin. Krishna then revealed his divine form and explained that he is born on earth in each aeon, whenever evil rises its head. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Vishvarupa (Sanskrit for having all shapes, universal form) may refer to: The Universal form revealed by Krishna in the Bhagavad Gita A name of Shiva Trisiras The yoked horses of Brhaspati One of the seven tongues of fire Category: ... For other uses, please see Arjun. ... Combatants Pandavas led by Dhristadyumna Kauravas led by Bhishma Commanders Arjuna Bhima Yudhishthira Nakula Sahadeva Bhishma Drona Karna Duryodhana Ashwatthama Strength 7 Akshauhinis 1,530,900 soldiers 11 Akshauhinis 2,405,700 soldiers Casualties Almost Total Only 7 survivors - the five Pandavas, Krishna, and Satyaki Almost Total Only 3 survivors... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...


Before the battle began, Yudhisthira did something unexpected. He suddenly dropped his weapons, took off his armour and started walking towards the Kaurava army with folded hands in prayer. The Pandava brothers and the Kauravas looked on in disbelief, thinking Yudhisthira was surrendering even before the arrow was shot. Soon Yudhisthira's purpose was clear as he fell on Bhishma's feet to seek his blessing for his success. Bhishma, grandfather to both Pandavas and the Kauravas, blessed Yudhisthira. Yudhisthira returned to his chariot and the battle was ready to commence.


Bhishma's havoc

When the battle commenced, Bhishma went through the Pandava army and wreaked havoc wherever he went. Abhimanyu, Arjuna's son, seeing this went straight at Bhishma, defeated Bhishma's bodyguards and directly attacked the commander of the Kaurava forces. The Pandavas suffered numerous losses and were defeated at the end of the first day. Virata's sons Uttara and Sweta were slain by Shalya and Bhishma. Krishna consoled the distraught Yudhisthira saying that eventually victory would be his. Abhimanyu (Sanskrit: अभिमन्यु, abhimanyu) is a tragic hero in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... In Hindu mythology, Virata is the king in whose court the Pandavas spent a year in concealment during their exile. ... Uttara in Hindu mythology is the name of the son of King Virata who went into battle with Arjuna, in disguise, as his charioteer. ... King Shalya was the brother of Madri, the mother of Nakula and Sahadeva. ... Bheeshma makes his vow. ...


Arjuna-Bhishma duel

The second day of the war commenced with a confident Kaurava army facing the Pandavas. Arjuna, realising that something needed to be done quickly to reverse the Pandava losses, decided that he must try and kill Bhishma. Krishna skillfully located Bhishma's chariot and steered Arjuna toward Bhishma. Arjuna tried to engage Bhishma in a duel, but the Kaurava soldiers placed around Bhishma to protect him attacked Arjuna to try and prevent him from directly engaging Bhishma. Arjuna and Bhishma fought a fierce battle and it raged for hours. Drona and Dhristadyumna similarly engaged in a duel and Drona broke Dhristadyumna's bow numerous times. Bhima intervened and rescued Dhristadyumna. Duryodhana sent the Kalinga forces to attack Bhima and most of them lost their lives at his hands. Bhishma immediately came to relieve the battered Kalinga forces.Satyaki, who was assisting Bhima, shot at Bhishma's charioteer and killed him. Bhishma's horses, with no one to control them, bolted carrying Bhishma away from the battle field. The Kaurava army had suffered great losses at the end of the second day. The Kurukshetra war detailed in the Hindu epic Mahabharata was between the ancient Hindu clans of Kaurava and Pandava and lasted eighteen days. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Dhristadyumna was the son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi and Shikhandi in the classic epic Mahabharata. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Kalinga forms the southern part of Orissa state. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Satyaki, also called Yuyudhana, a powerful warrior belong to the Yadava-Vrishni dynasty of Lord Krishna. ...


Krishna's anger

On the third day Bhishma arranged the Kaurava forces in the formation of an eagle with himself leading from the front while Duryodhana's forces protecting the rear. Bhishma wanted to be sure of avoiding any mishap. The Pandavas countered this by using the crescent formation with Bhima and Arjuna at the head of the right and the left horns respectively. The Kauravas concentrated their attack on Arjuna's position. Arjuna's chariot was soon covered with arrows and javelin. Arjuna with amazing skills built a fortification around his chariot with the unending stream of arrows from his bow. Abhimanyu and Satyaki combined to defeat the Gandhara forces of Shakuni. Bhima and his son Ghatotkacha attacked Duryodhana in the rear. Bhima's arrows hit Duryodhana who swooned in his chariot. His charioteer immediately drove them out of danger. Duryodhana's forces however saw their leader fleeing the battlefield soon scattered. Bhishma seeing this came to them and soon restored order, Duryodhana soon came back to lead the army. He was however angry at Bhishma at what he saw as leniency towards the five Pandava brothers and spoke harshly at his commander. Bhishma, stung by this unfair charge, fell on the Pandava army with renewed vigour. It was as if there were more than one Bhishma on the field.[5] The Pandava army soon began to retreat in chaos. The Kurukshetra war detailed in the Hindu epic Mahabharata was between the ancient Hindu clans of Kaurava and Pandava and lasted eighteen days. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... Abhimanyu (Sanskrit: अभिमन्यु, abhimanyu) is a tragic hero in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... Gandhara is a kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. ... A character in the Mahabharata, Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. ... In the Mahabharata, Ghatotkacha is the son of Bhima and Hidimbi. ...


Arjuna and Krishna attacked Bhishma trying to restore order. Arjuna and Bhishma again engaged in a fierce duel, however Arjuna's heart was not in the battle as he did not like the idea of attacking his great-uncle. When arrows were showered by Bhishma on Arjuna, one arrow hit Krishna. This enraged him and he took out his discus to kill Bhishma. Bhishma at once fell at his feet and requested Krishna to kill him,as there would be nothing greater than attaining death in the hands of the supreme lord himself. Seeing this Krishna calmed down and smiled and the battle between Arjuna and Bheeshma continued. They both resumed their attack on the Kaurava forces and killed numerous soldiers.


Bhima's valour

The fourth day battle was noted for the valour shown by Bhima. Bhishma commanded the Kaurava army to move on the offensive from the outset. Arjuna's son Abhimanyu was surrounded by a number of Kaurava princes and was attacked. Arjuna, joined the fray in aid of Abhimanyu. Bhima appeared on the scene at this juncture with his mace aloft and started attacking the Kauravas. Duryodhana seeing this sent a huge force of elephants at Bhima. When Bhima saw the mass of elephants approaching, he got down from his chariot and attacked them single handedly with his iron mace. They scattered and stampeded into the Kaurava forces killing many. Duryodhana seeing this ordered an all-out attack on Bhima. Bhima withstood all that was thrown at him and attacked Duryodhana's brothers and killed eight of them. He was however soon struck by an arrow on the chest and sat down in his chariot dazed. Ghatotkacha seeing this, fell upon the Kaurava army in anger. Bhishma realizing this no one could stand against the angry Ghatotkacha, sounded retreat. Duryodhana was distraught at the loss of his brothers. The Kurukshetra war detailed in the Hindu epic Mahabharata was between the ancient Hindu clans of Kaurava and Pandava and lasted eighteen days. ... In the Mahabharata, Ghatotkacha is the son of Bhima and Hidimbi. ...


Continuing carnage

Duryodhana, overwhelmed by sorrow at the loss of his brothers, went to Bhishma at the end of day four of the battle, and asked his commander how could Pandavas facing a superior force against them, still prevail and win. Bhishma replied saying that the Pandavas had justice on their side and advised Duryodhana to seek peace. When the battle resumed on the fifth day, the slaughter continued. Pandava army again suffered against Bhishma's attacks. Bhima was at the head of the Pandava army with Shikhandi and Dhristadyumna at his sides. Satyaki bore the brunt of Drona's attacks and soon could not withstand it. Bhima went to his aid leaving Shikhandi to attack Bhishma. As Shikhandi was once a woman, Bhishma refused to fight him and turned away. This was to prove to be cause for Bhishma's ultimate death in the battlefield. Elsewhere Satyaki destroyed a large army sent to attack him. A battle soon ensued between him and Bhurisravas and Satyaki was soon in distress. Bhima soon drove by and rescued Satyaki. Arjuna fought and killed thousands of soldiers sent by Duryodhana to attack him. Shikandi (born Shikhandini) is a character in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... Dhristadyumna was the son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi and Shikhandi in the classic epic Mahabharata. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... In the Mahabharata epic, Satyaki, also called Yuyudhana, a powerful warrior belong to the Yadava-Vrishni dynasty of Lord Krishna. ...


The unimaginable carnage continued during the ensuing days of the battle. The sixth day was especially marked by a prodigious slaughter. Drona caused immeasurable loss of life on the Pandava side. The formations of both the armies were broken. On the eighth day Bhima killed eight of Dhritarashtra's sons. Arjuna's son Iravan was killed by the Kauravas. On the ninth day Krishna once again overcome by anger at the apparent inability of Arjuna to defeat Bhishma, rushed towards the Kaurava commander. Arjuna again stopped Krishna. In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... Iravan: In Hindu mythology Son of Uloopi, and Arjun Can be considered King of the Nagas Fell on the 7th day of the Mahabharat ...


Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Bhishma's end

Bhishma on a deathbed of arrows, from a collection of the Smithsonian Institute

On the tenth day the Pandavas, unable to withstand Bhishma's prowess, decided to put Shikhandi in front of Bhishma, as Bhishma has taken a vow not to attack Shikhandi as he was once a woman, Shikhandi's arrows fell on Bhishma without hindrance. Arjuna positioned himself behind Shikhandi, thus protecting himself from Bhishma's attack, aimed his arrows at the weak points on Bhishma's armour. Soon with arrows sticking from every part of his body, the great warrior fell from his chariot. His body did not touch the ground held aloft by the arrowheads from his body. Both the Kauravas and Pandavas gathered around him. On Bhishma's request Arjuna placed three arrows under Bhisma's head to support it. Bhishma had promised his father King Shantanu that he will live till Hastinapur is secured from all directions,hence to keep his promise he used the boon given by his father to him of 'self wished death',and after the war was over,Hastinapur became safe from all sides,after that after giving last lessons on politics to Pandavas,he left his for heavens. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (869x500, 250 KB) Summary A depiction of death of Bhisma, a character of the Mahabharata from the following link of the Smithsonian Institute: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (869x500, 250 KB) Summary A depiction of death of Bhisma, a character of the Mahabharata from the following link of the Smithsonian Institute: http://www. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... Shikandi (born Shikhandini) is a character in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ...


Attempts to capture Yudhisthira

With Bhishma down, Karna returned to the battle field, much to Duryodhna's joy. He made Drona the supreme commanders of the Kaurava forces. Karna and Duryodhana wanted to capture Yudhisthira alive. Killing Yudhisthira in battle would only enrage the Pandavas more, whereas with Yudhisthira as a hostage would be strategically more useful to them. Drona formulated his battle plans for the eleventh day to this aim. He cut down Yudhisthira's bow and the Pandava army feared that their leader was taken prisoner. Arjuna came on the scene and with a flood of arrows made Drona retreat. In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ...


With his attempts to capture Yudhisthira failed, Drona confided to Duryodhna that it would be difficult as long as Arjuna was around. The king of Trigartadesa,Susharma along with his 3 brothers and 35 sons who were fighting on the Kaurava side made a pact that they would kill Arjuna or die. They went into the battle field on the twelfth day and challenged Arjuna. Arjuna gave them a fierce fight in which the brothers fell dead after fighting a brave fight. Drona continued to try and capture Yudhisthira. The Pandavas however fought hard and delivered severe blows to the Kaurava army. Then Duryodhana summoned King Bhagadatta, the monarch of Prajayogastha (modern day Assam, India). Bhagadatta was the son of Narakasur, a mighty demon who was slain by Krishna many years before. Bhagadatta had thousands of mammoth, gigantic elephants in his stable. He was the strongest warrior on this planet in elephant warfare. On the 12th day, after Arjuna killed the Trigartadesa brothers, Bhagadatta attacked Arjuna with his gigantic elephant. It was a fierce battle in which Bhagadatta matched Arjuna astra for astra. On the other side of the Kurukshetra battlefield, the remaining four Pandavas & their allies were finding it impossible to break Dronacharya's Padmavyuh formation. As Arjuna was busy fighting with the Trigartadesa princes and the Prajayogastha monarch on the other side of the battlefield, he could not be summoned to break the Chakravyuh formation. The Chakravyuh formation could only be broken by entering the formation and exiting the formation. Then king Yudhisthira instructed Abhimanyu, one of Arjuna's sons to break the Chakravyuh formation, as apart from Arjuna, only Abhimanyu knew the secret of entering the Chakravyuh formation, but not knowing how to exit it. This led to his death. Abhimanyu (Sanskrit: अभिमन्यु, abhimanyu) is a tragic hero in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ...


Arjuna's vow, death of Jayadratha and Ghatotkacha

Knowing the death of his son Abhimanyu, Arjuna vowed to kill Jayadratha on the morrow before the battle ended at sunset, otherwise he would throw himself into the fire. During searching Jayadratha in the crowd, Arjuna slew a whole akshouhini, or hundreds of thousands (109,350) of Kaurava soldiers. However, the Kaurawa army had protected Jayadratha very tight hence Arjuna could not attack him. Finally in late afternoon Arjuna found Jayadratha, but was guarded by Karna and five other great warriors. Seeing his friend's plight, in this critical moment Lord Krishna, his charioteer, raised his Sudarshana Chakra to cover the Sun, faking a sunset, thus all took off their arms believing the day had ended and Jayadratha was exposed. As the sun shone last ray Arjuna shot a powerful arrow decapitating Jayadratha. Abhimanyu (Sanskrit: अभिमन्यु, abhimanyu) is a tragic hero in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Jayadratha (Sanskrit: जयद्रथ) is the king of Sindhu. ... An Akshauhini, according to Hindu mythology, consisted of several horses, elephants, rathas (or car) and the mounted warriors as well as the foot soldiers. ... This article is about the Hindu deity. ... Sudarshana Chakra (Sanskrit: सुदर्शण चक्रम्) is a spinning disc like weapon with very sharp edge, which is one of the weapons in the Hindu God Vishnus hands. ...


However the battle continued past sunset. When the bright moon rose, Ghatotkacha, son of Bhima slaughtered numerous warriors, attacked while flying in the air. Karna went against him and both fought fiercely until Karna released the Indrastra, a celestial dart gifted to him by Indra. Ghatotkacha fell down and died. In the Mahabharata, Ghatotkacha is the son of Bhima and Hidimbi. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ...


Drona's end and Karna's rise as commander

After King Drupada was slain by Drona, Bhima and Dhristadyumna fought him on the fifteenth day. Because Drona was very powerful and unconquerable, Krishna hinted Yudhisthira that Drona would give up his arms if his son Ashwathama was dead. Thus Bhima proceeded to kill an elephant named Ashwathama, and loudly proclaimed that Ashwathama was dead. Drona approached Yudhisthira to seek the truth to confirm the news. Yudhisthira told him, "Ashwathama is dead...", then, "..the elephant", but this last part was drowned out by the sound of trumpets being sounded as if in triumph, on Krishna's instruction. Drona was disheartened, and laid down his weapons. He was then killed by Dhristadyumna to avenge his father. Drupada, also known as Yajnasena, is a character in the Mahabharata. ... In the epic Mahabharata, Drona (Sanskrit: द्रोण, droNa) or Dronacharya (द्रोणाचार्य, droNāchārya) is the royal guru to the Kauravas and the Pandavas. ... A motif depicting Bheema in the battle ready posture. ... Dhristadyumna was the son of Drupada and brother of Draupadi and Shikhandi in the classic epic Mahabharata. ...


Arjuna-Karna duel

Afterwards, on the sixteenth day Karna became the supreme commander of Kaurava army and all day long, countless warriors were slain. On the seventeenth day, Karna got duelling with Arjuna. At first, Karna succeeded to break Arjuna's Gandiva bow string . Observing the rules of warrior conduct, Karna waited till arjuna re-strung his bow & resumed battle. Afterwards Karna's chariot wheel was struck in the mud and Karna asked for a pause. But Krishna reminded Arjuna about Karna's ruthlessness onto Abhimanyu while he was similarly left without chariot and weapons. Hearing his son's fate, Arjuna shot his arrow and decapitated Karna. Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central figures in Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... In the Mahabharata, the gandiva is a magical bow given to Arjuna by Agni, God of Fire. ...


On the same day, Bhima swung his mace and shattered Dushasana's chariot. Bhima seized Dushasana and killed him, thus fulfilling his vow when Draupadi was humiliated. Draupadi. ...


End of the War

On the 18th day, king Shalya as commander of Kauravas, was slain by Yudhishthira and Sahadeva overthrew Shakuni, the gambler, meanwhile Bhima killed all Duryodhana's brethren. King Shalya was the brother of Madri, the mother of Nakula and Sahadeva. ... Sahadeva (Sanskrit: सहदेव, sahadéva) is a character in the Mahabharata. ... A character in the Mahabharata, Shakuni was the brother of Gandhari. ...


At the end of the 18th day, only ten warriors survived the war, the five Pandavas, Yuyutsu, Satyaki, Ashwattama, Kripacharya and Kritvarma. Yudhisthira was crowned king of Hastinapur. He renounced the throne after ruling for more than 30 years, passing on the crown to Arjuna's grandson Parikshit. He then left for the Himalayas with Draupadi and his brothers in what was to be their last journey. Draupadi and all four of the Pandavas, except Yudhisthira died during the journey. Yudhisthira however, being of pious heart, was invited by Dharma to enter the heavens as a mortal. For the movie Himalaya, see Himalaya (film). ... For other uses, see Dharma (disambiguation). ...


Historicity of the Kurukshetra War

Attempts have been made to find the exact date for the occurrence of this war based on astronomical and literary records, such as the Mahabharata and later literature. There have been a number of theories put forward[6]:

  • Dr. S. Balakrishna concluded a date of 2559 BCE using consecutive lunar eclipses.
  • Prof. I.N. Iyengar concluded a date of 1478 BCE using double eclipses and Saturn+Jupiter conjunctions.
  • Dr. B.N. Achar states a date of 3067 BCE using planetary positions listed in the Mahabharata.
  • Shri P.V. Holey states a date of November 13, 3143 BCE using planetary positions and calendar systems.
  • Dr. P.V.Vartak calculates a date of October 16, 5561 BCE using planetary positions.[7]

Other scholars discount such dating as speculative. John L Brockington offers a possible date of around 900 BCE.[8] Battle of the Ten Kings, a battle between the Bharata king named Sudas and a confederation of ten tribes mentioned in Rigveda, is believed to be seed from which the mythology of the Kurukshetra war evolved.[9] Attempts have also been made by Indian archaeologists to link Mahabharata events to archaeological records of early India such as the Painted Gray Ware pottery found in the Ganges basin. However, radiocarbon datings of the artifacts have suggested a period of 800 - 350 BCE. For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Combatants Trtsu (Indo-Aryans) Alinas (Nuristanis?) Anu (Kashmiris) Bhrigus (Indo-Aryans) Bhalanas (Khorasans) Dasa (Dahae?) Druhyus (Ghandaris) Matsya (Indo-Aryans) Parsu (Persians?) Purus (Indo-Aryans) Panis (Parni?) Commanders King Sudas Vasishtha The Ten Kings Vishvamitra Strength Unknown but less More than 6,666 Casualties Unknown but less 6,666 (Mandala... Rig veda is the oldest text in the world. ...


External links

  • Kurukshetra (town)
  • Dating the Kurukshetra War

Notes and references

  1. ^ http://www.hindunet.org/saraswati/colloquium/colloquium01.htm
  2. ^ C. Rajagopalachari, Mahabharata, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 1994
  3. ^ C. Rajagopalachari, Mahabharata, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. 1994 pp 183
  4. ^ C Rajagopalachari, Mahabharata, 19954
  5. ^ C. Rajagopalachar, Mahabharata, pp 215
  6. ^ Among other references, a list of nine pre-1950 papers for the astronomical dating of the War is found in R. C. Majumdar and A. D. Pusalker (editors): The history and culture of the Indian people. Volume I, The Vedic age. Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951, p.320 (fn.4)
  7. ^ The Scientific Dating of the Mahabharat War
  8. ^ John L Brockington, The Sanskrit Epics (1998) Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 9004026428
  9. ^ S.S.N. Murthy, School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, The Questionable Historicity of the Mahabharata
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Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... The ancient Sanskrit epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, laid the cornerstone for much of Hindu religion. ...


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Kurukshetra war - Information at Halfvalue.com (4426 words)
Kurukshetra, literally land of the Kurus, was the battleground on which this war, known as the Kurukshetra War, was fought.
The dispute degraded into a full scale war when Duryodhana, the eldest of the Kauravas, driven by jealousy, refused to restore the Pandavas to their throne even after the exile.
The war left an extremely large number of widows and orphans and led to an economic depression and beginning of Kali Yuga.
Kurukshetra War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3995 words)
Kurukshetra, literally land of the Kurus, was the battleground on which this war, known as the Kurukshetra War, was fought.
This war was perhaps the bloodiest war in history as most of the warriors and soldiers perished during the brief period of only eighteen days.
The war left an extremely large number of widows and orphans and led to an economic depression and beginning of Kali Yuga.
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