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Encyclopedia > Kurgan
Sarmatian Kurgan 4th c. BC, Fillipovka, S.Urals, Russian Federation. Archeological dig lead by Russian Academy of Sciences Archeology Institute Prof. L.Yablonsky, Summer of 2006. First known kurgan to be completely destroyed and then rebuilt to its original appearance.
Oleg being mourned by his warriors, an 1899 painting by Viktor Vasnetsov. This burial rite, with the funerary tumulus, is typical of both Scandinavian, and Eurasian nomadic customs.
Undated unattributed unexplored kurgan on west side of Samara Bend, Russian Federation, with visible tunnel of grave robbers.
Inside view of the Thracian mound tomb at Sveshtari, Bulgaria
Inside view of the Thracian mound tomb at Sveshtari, Bulgaria

Kurgan (Russian: курга́н) is the Russian word for a latin word tumulus. Bouth are words for a type of burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, often of stone or wood.[1] The word "kurgan", and in some cases the kurgan tradition, were borrowed by most of the languages of Turkic peoples. The word kurgan ‘funerary mound’, is not only diffused in Russia, but is diffused in the whole of South-Eastern Europe. [2] Its distribution area in Eastern Europe corresponds closely to the spread area of the Pit Grave or Kurgan Culture in South-Eastern Europe,[3] whose elite are traced by R1a1 genetic marker. Image File history File links LYablonskyFilipovkaKurganR1. ... Image File history File links LYablonskyFilipovkaKurganR1. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... Image File history File links Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Image File history File links Viktor Vasnetsov. ... Prince Oleg (Old Norse name Helgi, Khazarian form: Helgu) was a Varangian ruler who moved the capital of Rus from Novgorod the Great to Kiev. ... Self-portrait 1873 Viktor Mikhailovich Vasnetsov (Виктор Михайлович Васнецов) (May 15 (N.S.), 1848—1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe. ... Image File history File links En: Pagan Sudovian cemetery in the area of SuwaÅ‚ki, Poland. ... Image File history File links En: Pagan Sudovian cemetery in the area of SuwaÅ‚ki, Poland. ... Sudovian kurhan Sudovians are a subgroup of Baltic people, living at the left coast of river Nemunas, in the region known as Sudovia. ... Motto: none Voivodship Podlaskie Municipal government Rada miejska w SuwaÅ‚kach Mayor Józef Gajewski Area 65. ... Image File history File links SamaraKurganR2. ... Image File history File links SamaraKurganR2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3026 KB) Reproduction of the Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari, National Historical Museum, Sofia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 3026 KB) Reproduction of the Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari, National Historical Museum, Sofia. ... The Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari is situated 2,5 km southwest of the village of Sveshtari, which is located 42 km northeast of Razgrad, in the northeast of Bulgaria. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli or tumuluses, from the Latin word for mound or small hill) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ... This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R1a1 (M17) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup, that is spread across Eurasia. ...


Kurgans were built in the Eneolithic, Bronze, Iron, Antiquity and Middle Age, with old traditions still smoldering in Southern Siberia and Central Asia. In time and space Kurgan Cultures are divided into a multitude of archeological cultures, most famous among them are Timber Grave, Pit Grave, Scythian, Sarmatian, Hunnish and Kuman-Kipchak cultures. The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... Middle age is that stage in life when physical decline has started but a person cannot be called old. ... Siberian Federal District (darker red) and the broadest definition of Siberia (red) arctic northeast Siberia Udachnaya pipe Siberia (Russian: , Sibir; Tatar: ) is a vast region of Russia constituting almost all of Northern Asia and comprising a large part of the Euro-Asian Steppe. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Srubna or Timber-grave culture, 16th-12th centuries BC. This is a bronze age successor to the Yamna culture, the Catacomb culture and the Abashevo culture. ... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ...


A plethora of placenames that include the word "kurgan" spread from Lake Baikal to the Black Sea. After establishing control over newly captured territories, a few places in Russia were not renamed, and are still called Kurgan. The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Contents

Archaeology

Kurgan type barrows were characteristic of Bronze Age nomadic peoples of the steppes, from the Altay Mountains to the Caucasus, Romania, and Bulgaria. Sometimes, burial mounds are quite complex structures with internal chambers. Within the burial chamber at the heart of the kurgan, members of the elite were buried with grave goods and sacrificial offerings, sometimes including horses and chariots. A circular burial mound constructed over a pit grave and often containing grave vessels, weapons, and the bodies of horses as well as a single human body; originally in use in the Russian Steppes but later spreading into eastern, central, and northern Europe in the third millennium BC. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... The Altay Mountains (Russian: ; Mongolian: , Altai) are a mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the great rivers Irtysh, Ob and Yenisei have their sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


Frequently the monuments of these cultures are grouped territorially and coincide with the zone of Scythian-Saka-Siberian monuments. For Scythian-Saka-Sibirian monuments they are preceding cultures, have a number of the common features, and sometimes common genetic roots.[4] Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... The Sakas were Iranian people stock who lived in what is now Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and parts of Iran, Ukraine, and Altay Mountains and Siberia in Russia, in the centuries before 300 AD. They are considered to be a branch of Scythians by most scholars. ... Siberian federal subjects of Russia Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting all of northern Asia. ... A monument is a structure built for commemorative or symbolic reasons rather than for any overtly functional use. ...


Scythian-Saka-Sibirian classification include monuments from 8th c. BC to the 3rd c. BC. This period is called Early or Ancient Nomads epoch. Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ...


"Hunnic" monuments are dated from the 3rd c. BC to the 6th century AD, and Turkic ones from the 6th century AD to the 13th century AD, leading up to the Mongolian epoch. Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...


In all periods, in the development of the kurgan structure tradition in the various ethnocultural zones, can be distinguished a presence of common components or typical features in the construction of the monuments. They are: funeral chamber, tomb, surface and underground constructions of different configurations, mound of earth, stone, with entrance or without, funeral, ritual, and other traits, a presence of altar in the chamber, stone fence, moat, bulwark, location of sacrificial site on embankments, inside the mound, inside moat, inside embankments, and in their their links, entryways, around kurgan), the presence of an entryway into the chamber, into the tomb, into the fence, into kurgan, location of fire pit in the chamber, over wooden roof under kurgan, at the top of the kurgan, around kurgan, location of stone statue, columns, poles and other objects, bypass passages inside kurgan, inside tombs, around kurgan, and funeral paths from the moat or bulwark.


Depending on combination of elements between the common components, each historical and cultural nomadic zone has its architectural peculiarities. The structures of the earlier Neolithic period from 4th - 3rd millenniums BC, and Bronze Epoch until the 1st millennium BC in comparison with the Early Iron Age from the 8th c. BC to the 3rd c. BC display continuity of the archaic forming methods driven by the common ritually-mythological ideas.


Pre-Scythian-Saka-Sibirian kurgans are of the following types: kurgans with surface and underground wooden or stone tombs constructed on the surface or underground and then covered with kurgan. The kurgans of Bronze culture, practically across all the Europe and Asia had to be analogous with the housing. The methods of house construction applied in the construction of the tombs.[5] Kurgan Ak-su - Aüly (12th - 11th cc. BC) with a tomb covered by a pyramidal timber roof under kurgan has space surrounded by double walls serving as a bypass corridor. This design has analogies with the following kurgans: Begazy; Sanguyr, Begasar, Dandybay, under-kurgan cysts construction.[6] These building traditions survived into the early Middle Ages, to the 8th-10th cc. AD. The Bronze Pre-Scythian-Saka-Sibirian culture developed in close similarity with the cultures of Yenisei, Altai, Kazakhstan, southern and southeast Amur regions. In the 2nd millennium BC appeared so-called "kurgans-maidans". On a prepared platform were made earthen images of a swan, a turtle, a snake, etc., with and without burials. Similar structures were found in Ukraine, in South America, and in India. Енисей Length 5,550 (4,102) km Elevation of the source m Average discharge 19,600 m³/s Area watershed 2,580,000 km² Origin  ? Mouth Arctic Ocean Basin countries Russia The Yenisei basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk... For the republic in Russia, see Altai Republic. ... The Amur River (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mayan; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is Earths eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria in China. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Some kurgans had facing or tiling. Kurgan Recruitment in Ukraine under soil filling has 29 big limestone slabs set on the end in a circle. Externallly they were decorated with carved geometrical ornament of rhombuses, triangles, crosses, and on one slab are schematical figures of peopled. Kurgan is dated by the 3rd millennium BC. Its reconstruction showed that over an ornamented cornice up to 2м in height rested a wooden cone of thick logs, and the earthen kurgan was not above, as usually, but on the inside, under the cornice and logs.


The Scythian-Saka-Sibirian kurgans in the Early Iron Age are notable for their grandiose mounds throughout all Euroasian continent. The base diameters of the kurgans reach 500 m in Siberia (Great Salbyk kurgan of the settled Tagar culture), in the neighboring China they reach 5000 m (kurgan of the first emperor of China in the 3rd c. BC near city Sian) (Mason, 1997: 71). The height of the kurgans reached astronomical marks: Great Salbyk kurgan is 22 - 27 m, i.e. the height of the 7-story building; the kurgan of the Chinese emperor is over 100 m. The presence of such structures in Siberia testifies to a high standard of living and construction culture of the nomads.


In the Bronze Age were found kurgans with stone reinforcements. Frequently some of them are believed to be Scythian burials with built-up soil, and embankments reinforced with stone (Olhovsky, 1991).


The most obvious archeological remains associated with the Scythians are the great burial mound (kurgans), some over 20m high, which dot the Ukrainian and Russian steppe belts and extend in many great chains for many kilometers along ridges and watershed. It is from them that most has been learnt about Scythian life and art.[7] Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ...


Cultural influences

The tradition of kurgan burials touched not only the peoples who buried most of all of their deceased in kurgan structures, but also neighboring peoples who are known as not having a kurgan burial tradition among general population. Various Thracian kings and chieftains were buried in elaborate mound tombs found in modern Bulgaria, Phillip II, the father of Alexander of Macedon, was buried in a magnificient kurgan in present Greece, and legendary Midas, a king of ancient Phrygians, was buried in a kurgan near his ancient capital of Gordion[8]


Kurgan hypothesis

The Kurgan hypothesis postulates that the Proto-Indo-Europeans were the bearers of the "Kurgan" (Yamna) culture of the Black Sea and the Caucasus and west of the Urals. The Kurgan hypothesis was introduced by Marija Gimbutas in 1956 in order to combine archaeology with linguistics in locating the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: Ура́льские го́ры = Ура́л) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


Marija Gimbutas introduced her Kurgan hypothesis in 1956, combining kurgan archaeology with linguistics to locate the origins of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking peoples. She tentatively named the culture "Kurgan" after their distinctive burial mounds and traced its diffusion into Europe. This hypothesis has had a significant impact on Indo-European research. Those scholars who follow Gimbutas identify a "Kurgan culture" as reflecting an early Indo-European ethnicity which existed in the steppes and southeastern Europe from the fifth to third millennia BC. Marija Gimbutas Kurgan hypothesis is opposed by Paleolithic Continuity Theory, which associates Pit Grave and Sredny Stog Kurgan cultures with Turkic peoples, and Anatolian hypothesis which denies Indo-European origin advocated by M. Gimbutas Baltic version of Chalcolithic Invasion Kurgan hypothesis, and is also opposed by Black Sea deluge theory. In Kurgan Cultures, most of the burials were in kurgans, either clan kurgans or individual. Most prominent leaders were buried in individual kurgans, now called "Royal kurgans", which attract highest attention and publicity. Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ... // Events 4860 BC - Mount Mazama in Oregon collapses, forming a caldera that later fills with water and becomes Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ... The Sredny Stog culture (named after the Ukrainian village of Serednyi Stih where it was first located, for which Sredny Stog is the conventional Russian-language designation) dates from the 4500-3500 BC. It was situated just north of the Sea of Azov between the Dnieper and the Don. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... The Black Sea deluge is a hypothesized prehistoric flood that occurred when the Black Sea rapidly filled, possibly forming the basis for some Great Flood myths. ...


Some excavated kurgans

  • The Ipatovo kurgan revealed a long sequence of burials from the Maykop culture ca. 4000 BC down to the burial of a Sarmatian princess of the 3rd century BC, excavated 19981999.
  • Kurgan 4 at Kutuluk near Samara, Russia, dated to ca. 24th century BC, containing the skeleton of a man, estimated to have been 35 to 40 years old and about 152 cm tall. Rose, M., "Cudgel Culture", , Archaeology , March/April, 2002. Resting on the skeleton's bent left elbow was a copper object of a length of ca. 65 cm with a blade of a diamond-shaped cross-section and sharp edges, but no point, and a handle, originally probably wrapped in leather. No similar object is known from Bronze Age Eurasian steppe cultures, and the object has been compared to the vajra thunderbolt of Indian Indra.
  • Novovelichkovskaya kurgan of ca. 2000 BC on the Ponura River, Krasnodar region, southern Russia, containing the remains of 11 people, including an embracing couple, buried with bronze tools, stone carvings, jewelry, and ceramic vessels decorated with red ocher. The tomb is associated with the Novotitorovka culture nomads.
  • Issyk kurgan, in southern Kazakhstan, containing a skeleton, possibly female, ca. 4th century BC, with inscription on a silver cup, with 4.000 gold ornaments, with Scythian animal art objects and headdress reminiscent of Kazakh bridal hats, discovered in 1969.
  • Kurgan 11 of the Berel cemetery, in the Bukhtarma River valley of Kazakhstan, containing a tomb of ca. 300 BC, with a dozen sacrificed horses, preserved with their skin, hair, harnesses, and saddles intact, buried side by side on a bed of birch bark next to a funeral chamber containing the pillaged burial of two Scythian nobles, excavated in 1998.
  • Ryzhanovka kurgan, a 10 metres high kurgan 125 km south of Kiev, containing the tomb of a Scythian chieftain, 3rd century BC, excavated in 1996.
  • Solokha kurgan, Scythian, early 4th century BC.
  • Aleksandrovo kurgan, a Thracian kurgan of ca. the 4th century BC.
  • Håga Kurgan, a large Nordic Bronze Age kurgan from ca 1000 BC.
  • Pereschepino Kurgan, burial memorial of Great Bulgaria Khan Kubrat (Kurbat) from ca 660 AD.
  • Noin-Ula kurgan, a tomb of Uchjulü-Chanuy (8 BC - 13 AD), head of the Hun confederation.[9]

some kurhans in Poland Ipatovo kurgan refers to kurgan 2 of the Ipatovo barrow cemetery 3, a cemetary of kurgan burial mounds, located near Ipatovo, some 120 km north-east of Stavropol, Stavropol Krai, Russia. ... The Maykop culture, ca. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. // The Pyramid of the Moon, one of several monuments built in Teotihuacán Early 3rd century BC or later - Theater, Epidauros is built. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Samara (Russian: ), from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev (), is a major city situated on the Volga River in the southeastern part of European Russia, Volga Federal District, the administrative center of Samara Oblast. ... // Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. ... Vajrasattva holds the vajra in his right hand and a bell in his left hand. ... Indra (Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र, indra) is the god of weather and war, and lord of Svargaloka in Hinduism. ... (Redirected from 2000 BC) (21st century BC - 20th century BC - 19th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2000 BC -- Farmers and herders travel south from Ethiopia and settle in Kenya. ... 19th century photo depicting Kuban Cossacks obelisk in Krasnodar Krasnodar (Russian: ) is a city in Southern Russia on the Kuban River. ... Novotitorovka culture, 3300—2700 BC, a bronze age archaeological culture of the south Caucasus immediately to the north of and largely overlapping portions of the Maykop culture facing the Sea of Azov, running from the Kerch Strait eastwards, almost to the Caspian, roughly coterminous with the modern Krasnodar Krai region... drawing of the Issyk inscription The Issyk kurgan, in south-eastern Kazakhstan, less than 20 km east from the Talgar alluvial fan, near Issyk, was discovered in 1969. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC. // Overview Events Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC - 300s BC - 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC Years: 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC - 300 BC - 299 BC 298 BC... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. // The Pyramid of the Moon, one of several monuments built in Teotihuacán Early 3rd century BC or later - Theater, Epidauros is built. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The Solokha comb, found in the lateral grave of the Solokha kurgan in 1913. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC. // Overview Events Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... main chamber fresco The Aleksandrovo kurgan is a Thracian Bulgaria, dated to ca. ... Thrace is a historical and geographic area in south-east Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, north-eastern Greece, and European Turkey. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 4th century BC started on January 1, 400 BC and ended on December 31, 301 BC. // Overview Events Bust of Alexander the Great in the British Museum. ... The HÃ¥ga Kurgan, the HÃ¥ga Mound (HÃ¥gahögen) or King Björns Mound (Kung Björns hög) is a large Nordic Bronze Age kurgan on the western outskirts (59°50′N 17°35′E) of Uppsala, Sweden. ... Map of the Nordic Bronze Age culture, ca 1200 BC The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age) is the name given by Oscar Montelius (1843-1921) to a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history, ca 1800 BC - 600 BC, with sites that reached as far... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... Kubrats Great Bulgaria and adjacent regions, c. ... Noin-Ula kurgan is located in the northern Mongolia hills north of Ulaanbaatar on the Selenga River near Lake Baikal and dated by the 1st century AD. Noin-Ula kurgan contained a lacquer cup inscribed with the name of its Chinese maker and dated September 5, 13 AD. It was... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ...

  • Unetice_culture#Burials 14 kurgans form 2000 - 1800 BC (more PL}
  • Trzcinica http://teams.karpaty.edu.pl/trzcinica/ogolnie.htm
  • Krasnik Neolitic(stone age) kurhans http://www.krasnik.lubelskie.pl/pliki/hist_mogila2.htm
  • 'Na Plesniku' http://monika.univ.gda.pl/~literat/grafika/mogily.htm
  • Trawiasta Buczyna hundreds of stone kurhans 1200-1000 bc
  • Skalbmierz 4000bc http://www.kwiatek.krakow.pl/skalbmierz/main2.htm
  • Zambrow http://www.ugzambrow.pl/zdjecia/kurhan_z_xi_w_pod_cieciorkami.jpg
  • more http://forum.gazeta.pl/forum/72,2.html?f=12217&w=22873085&v=2&s=0
  • Jawczyce Described by Bishop Nankerus 1322 ad. Late kurgan from XI c ad. Old man with arm . Excavated by Sikora from UJ. [1]
  • Łubno, pow. Sieradz "Trzciniec Culture" ~1500 BC contains man and woman buried at the same time. "she folow him to the grave"
  • kurgans inhumation Łubna-Jakusy (51,59035;18,49461), kurgan cremation Guciów (50,57859°;23,08208° of Trzciniec culture ~1500 bc
  • kopiec Krakusa [2], Where people gather for spcial customs from prohistory til today.
  • 'kopiec Wandy' doughter of Krakus [3]
  • Piłakno near Mrągowo digout in 1988 "west balltic kurhan culture" [4]
  • Bełchatow pagan Polish "church" on top of kurgan Odkrywca nr1(25) 01.2001
  • 'Kopiec Tatarski' Przemyśl [5]. Triangle shaped, 10m mound, narowest angle facing east. Dig in 1869 by T.Żebrawski found bones and late coins. Digs in 1958 by A.Kunysz fond on nother side scools and bones and medieval ceramc. On the top was erected arond 1534 'Templum s. Leonardi' destroy in WW2.
  • Kopiec Esterki XIV c erected by Casimir III of Poland for his decesed love.
  • Kopiec Władysław III of Poland after 1444 in Varna [6]
  • Kopiec Kościuszki build 09/15/1820 [7] another 2 in Olkusz for 44 aniversary in 1861. Destroy in 1964 and rebuild in 1917. 3 in Busko.
  • Kopiec Unii Lubelskiej, 06/28/1869 in Lviv to celebrate 300 universary of Union of Lublin [8].
  • Kopiec Adam Mickiewicz 1898 [9]
  • Kopiec Wyzwolenia 07/20/1930 [10]
  • Kopiec Piłsudskiego 8/6/1934 [11]

Unetice, or more properly ÚnÄ›tice, culture, (German: Aunjetitz) is the name given to an early Bronze Age culture, preceded by the Beaker culture and followed by the Tumulus culture. ... Trzciniec culture is an archaeological culture in Central Europe, that existed between 1700 BCE and 1200 BCE. Its remnants have been found in Kujawy, MaÅ‚opolska, Mazowsze, Podlasie and in western Ukraine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hessen, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw III of Varna. ... The Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral in Varna The Stoyan Bachvarov Dramatic Theatre Varna (Bulgarian: ) is the largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, and 79th-largest in the European Union, with a population of 357,752([1]). Varna, commonly referred... Tadeusz KoÅ›ciuszko Andrzej Tadeusz Bonawentura KoÅ›ciuszko ( ; 1746 – 1817) was a Polish and Lithuanian national hero, general and a leader of 1794 uprising (which bears his name) against the Russian Empire. ... Motto: Semper fidelis Location Map of Ukraine with Lviv. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... Adam Mickiewicz. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays...

Gallery

Contemporary kurgans

Kurgan building tradition is alive in Poland. The Polish word for kurgan is kopiec. The next one for Pope John Paul II is hotly debated Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as Pope of the Catholic...


In Russia, the memorial connotation of the word "kurgan" has survived through the centuries, and in the post-WWII period was resuscitated as an architectural device in building numerous WWII memorials (Glory Kurgan, Mamayev Kurgan). The 52-meter-tall monument The Motherland Calls! — the tallest statue in the world when erected in 1967 Mamayev Kurgan (Russian: Мамаев Курган) is a dominant height overlooking the city of Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad) in southern Russia. ...


See also

A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... The Ashvamedha ( horse sacrifice) is one of the most important royal rituals of Vedic religion, described in detail in the Yajurveda (TS 7. ... The 52-meter-tall monument The Motherland Calls! — the tallest statue in the world when erected in 1967 Mamayev Kurgan (Russian: Мамаев Курган) is a dominant height overlooking the city of Volgograd (formerly Stalingrad) in southern Russia. ... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Binomial name Equus ferus Boddaert, 1785 The Tarpan, Equus ferus, was the Eurasian wild horse. ... The anthropomorphic stone stelae found in the Ukrainian steppe, with some finds extending the area to Moldavia, the northern Caucasus (Southern Federal District) and and the area north of the Caspian (western Kazakhstan), date from the Copper Age (ca. ... Typical Yamna burial with the skeleton in supine position, with bent knees. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "kurgan." Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002. http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com (14 Oct. 2006).
  2. ^ Ru. kurgán, ORu. kurganu, Ukr. kurhán, BRu. kurhan, Pol. kopiec, kurhan, kurchan, tumy; Rumanian gurgan, dial. Hung. korhány), Turkic [Tatar]: OTc. kurgan ‘fortification’, Tat., Osm., Kum. kurgan, Kirg. and Jagat. korgan, Karakirg. korgon, all from Turkotat. kurgamak ‘fortify’, kurmak ‘erect’.
  3. ^ Mario Alinei 'Interdisciplinary and linguistic evidence for Paleolithic continuity of Indo-European, Uralic and Altaic populations in Eurasia', 2003
  4. ^ Akishev K.A., Kushaev G.A., 'Ancient culture of Sakas and Usuns in the valley of river Ili', Alma-Ata, Kazakh SSR Academy of Sciences publication, 1963 (pp 121 - 136)
  5. ^ Margulan A.N., "Architecture of the ancient period" in the "Architecture of Kazakhstan", 1956, Alma-Ata, (pp 9-95)
  6. ^ Margulan A.N., "Architecture of the ancient period" in the "Architecture of Kazakhstan", 1956, Alma-Ata, (pp 9-95)
  7. ^ John Boardman, I.E.S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, N.G.L. Hammond. The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. (Jan 16, 1992), p.550
  8. ^ http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/research/Exp_Rese_Disc/Mediterranean/Midas/intro.shtml
  9. ^ http://www.hostkingdom.net/siberia.html#Hsiung-Nu

Literature

  • "Proto-Türkic rune-like inscription on silver cup (Issyk Inscription)" by A.S. Amanjolov, in "History Of Ancient Türkic Script", Almaty 2003
  • "In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth" by J. P. Mallory, ISBN 0-500-27616-1
  • "The Kurgan Culture and the Indo-Europeanization of Europe: Selected Articles Form 1952 to 1993" von Marija Gimbutas u.a., ISBN 0-941694-56-9
  • "Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture" ed. James Mallory, D. Q. Adams, ISBN 1-884964-98-2
  • D. Ya. Telegin et al., Srednestogovskaya i Novodanilovskaya Kul'tury Eneolita Azovo-Chernomorskogo Regiona. Kiev: Shlyakh, 2001. Reviewed by J.P. Mallory, JIES vol. 32, 3/4, p. 363–366.
  • "Reconstruction Of The Genofond Peculiarities Of The Ancient Pazyryk Population (I-II Millennium BC) From Gorny Altai According To The mtDNA Structure" Voevoda M.I., Sitnikova V.V., Romashchenko A.G., Chikisheva T.A., Polosmak N.V., Molodin V.I http://www.bionet.nsc.ru/bgrs/thesis/99/.
  • O.Ismagulov 'Population of Kazakhstan from Bronze Epoch to Present (Paleoanthropological research)', Science, Alma-Ata, 1970

Altaj Sarsenovič Amanžolov (Алтай Сарсенович Аманжолов; Altay Sersenulı Amanjolov, born 1934 in Almaty, Kazakh SSR) is a Kazakhi Turkologist. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kommersant - Russia's Daily Online (1857 words)
Kurgan Region is one of the smallest regions in the Urals, extending 430 km from west to east and 290 km from north to south.
Kurgan Region is situated at the intersection of the Tran-Siberian Railway with transportation routes to the major centers of the European and Asian parts of the country, especially with the Urals.
Kurgan Region borders on the oil- and gas-bearing districts of Tyumen Region and is also close to similar districts in Tomsk Region.
Kurgan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (961 words)
Kurgan is a Türkic word for tumulus, burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, or a kurgan cenotaph.
Kurgans were characteristic of Bronze Age nomadic peoples of the steppes, from the Altay Mountains to the Caucasus and Romania.
Kurgan 11 of the Berel cemetery, in the Bukhtarma River valley of Kazakhstan, containing a tomb of ca.
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