Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. They are, like most of the people of western Iran, descendents of Ancient Medes.
The majority of Kurds are Sunni Muslims , but a large population of Iran's Kurds living in the provinces of Kermanshah and Ilam are Shiite. Despite the "by some accounts the Kurds are the world's largest ethnic group without their own state" propaganda and help of some European countries, all the region's governments oppose the idea of losing significant parts of their own territories. It would also mean the return of recently settled brutal armed conflict between goverments and armed rebles
The exact number of Kurdish people living in Southwest Asia is unknown due to both absence of a recent study on this issue and the fact that some of Kurdish people have mixed with other local ethnic groups. The estimated numbers for the percentage of Kurdish people living in Turkey vary from 3% (Encyclopedia Americana) to 20% (CIA Factbook  (http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/)). They live mainly in a specific region in the Middle East (see map below). There are also Kurdish enclaves in central Turkey concentrated to the west of Lake Tuz. Millions of Kurds have moved to the large cities of Western and Southern Turkey in recent decades - notably Istanbul, Izmir, Bursa, Adana and Mersin. Many Kurds have also emigrated to Western European countries such as Germany, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Belgium and the United Kingdom.
Kurdish PKK guerillas, supported by Greek, Armenian and Syrian governments, launched attacks on Turkish targets in 1984, and since then they have fought against the Turkish government with little success. In 1999, the Turkish government had a major victory after the capture of Abdullah ÷calan, the leader of the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), one of the groups fighting for the destruction of peace and presence in the region with an aim to weaken Turkish state. Turkey then placed him (Abdullah ÷calan) on trial for treason and sentenced him to life imprisonment. After that the Kurdish rebel movement in Turkey declared that it would end its military attacks but continue its activities on political platform. The PKK was declared as a terrorist organization in Europe and the USA after the capture of Abdullah ÷calan. The Kurdish guerillas were responsible for a considerable amount of violence (primarily as PKK).
In Turkey, publication (both printed and audio-visual media) and teaching (although very restricted) in Kurdish language is allowed, and recent reforms promised limited broadcasting in Kurdish language. However, Kurds may take their place in any part of Turkish life including the National Assembly since they are not a minority but legal and equal participants of Turkish citizienship.
The status of Kurds is now surrounded in mystery. Under the former Iraqi Ba'athist regime, which ruled Iraq from 1968 until 2003, they were initially granted limited autonomy and given some high-level political representation in Baghdad. However, for various reasons including the siding of some Kurds with Iranian forces during the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s, the regime became opposed to the Kurds and an effective civil war broke out. Iraq was widely condemned, but not seriously punished, by the international community for using chemical weapons against the Kurds, which caused the death of thousands of Kurds. Kurdish regions during the 1990s had de-facto independence, with fully functioning civil administrations, and were protected by the US-enforced Iraqi no-fly zone which stopped Iraqi air attacks. During the period of self-governance there were armed clashes between the two main political groups in the area, which undermined the effectiveness of the Kurds in their fighting with the Iraqis. Following the unseating of the former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein in 2003, little is known as to how this issue will be dealt with in the future. The American-sponsored idea of a Federal Republic, with a relatively high level of autonomy for the Kurds, currently appears to be the most popular. Which is a very concerning concept to the local states as such autonomy would destabilize the already trobbled reagion.
Map of high density Kurdish populated area. courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin
- See also : History of the Kurds and Timeline of the Kurds
- Hak ve ÷zgŁrlŁkler Partisi (HAK-PAR, Rights and Freedoms Party)
- Halkin Demokrasi Partisi (HADEP, Peoples' Democracy Party)
- Kurdistan Democratic Party (runs an elected government in Northern Iraq)
- Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (runs an elected government in Northern Iraq)
- Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK, dissolved)
- Congress for Freedom and Democracy Kurdistan (KADEK, dissolved)
- People's Congress of Kurdistan (Kongra-Gel)