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Encyclopedia > Kurdistan Province, Iran
Map showing Iranian province of Kurdistan.
Map showing Iranian province of Kurdistan.

Kurdistan (Persian: استان کردستان: Ostan-e Kordestan, Kurdish: Parêzgey Kurdistan) is one of the thirty provinces of Iran, not to be confused with the greater geographical area of Iranian Kurdistan. The province of Kurdistan is 28,817 km² (about one third of Iranian Kurdistan) in area and is located in the west of Iran. It is bound by Iraq on the west, the province of west Azerbaijan to its north, Zanjan to the northwest and Kermanshah to the south. The capital of Kurdistan Province is the city of Sanandaj ( Kurdish: Sinne). Other major cities of the province are Marivan, Baneh, Saqqez, Qorveh, Bijar, Kamyaran and Diwandarreh. Image File history File links province of Iran File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Persian (فارسی = Fârsi . ... The Kurdish languages (Kurdî ) belonging to the Indo-European languages family, are spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran (Persia), Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Iran consists of 30 provinces: Provinces are governed from a local center, mostly the largest local city. ... Iranian Kurdistan is a large mountainous region situated in the western and northwestern parts of Iran including the West Azerbaijan province as well as Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province, and Ilam Province. ... Iranian Kurdistan is a large mountainous region situated in the western and northwestern parts of Iran including the West Azerbaijan province as well as Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province, and Ilam Province. ... West Azarbaijan (آذربایجان غربی in Persian) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Zanjan Province ... Kermanshah (Also known as KirmaÅŸan in Kurdish) is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... Sanandaj (Kurdish: Sinne; Persian: سنندج) is the capital of the Iranian province of Kurdistan, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... The Kurdish languages (Kurdî ) belonging to the Indo-European languages family, are spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran (Persia), Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Marivan (in Kurdish: Merîwan, in Persian: مریوان) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Baneh (in kurdish: Bane, in persian: بانه) is a city in northwstern Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Saqqez or Saghez (سقز) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... view of Qorveh View of sarab lake , Qorveh The township of Qorveh (in kurdish: Qurwe, in persian: قروه) is located to the east of the Kurdistan province of Iran. ... Bijar (in kurdish: Bîcar, in persian: بیجار) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Kamyaran (in Kurdish: Kamyaran, in Persian: کامیاران) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Diwandarreh (in kurdish: Dîwandere, in persian: دیواندره) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ...

Contents


History

The house of Moshir Diwan is an example of Persian Qajarid architecture in Sanandaj (Sinne).
The house of Moshir Diwan is an example of Persian Qajarid architecture in Sanandaj (Sinne).
Pol-e Farhad Abad, a Seljukid era bridge near Qarveh.
Pol-e Farhad Abad, a Seljukid era bridge near Qarveh.

The rich, beautiful and mountainous lands of this area first encouraged Aryan tribes to settle in this region after their immigration to Iran. It was from here where the first plan to overthrow the Assyrians began, leading to their defeat in 612 BCE, and setting the stage for the commence of the Median empire. Image File history File links Photo provided by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Photo provided by Zereshk. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Sanandaj (Kurdish: Sinne; Persian: سنندج) is the capital of the Iranian province of Kurdistan, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... Image File history File links Photo provided by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Photo provided by Zereshk. ... Seljuk (in Arabic Saljūq; in Turkish Selçuk; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) was the bey (chieftain) of a branch of Oghuz Turks known as the Seljuk Turks. ... Aryan is an English word derived from the Indo-Aryan Vedic Sanskrit and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Old Persian ariya- is a cognate as well. ... The Medes were an Iranian people, who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ...


When the Islamic Arabs attacked the Sassanid empire in 634 CE, many Kurds resisted their invasion, but were eventually brought under Muslim rule. In 835 CE, one of the Kurdish leaders revolted against Al-Mu'tasim, but was eventually suppressed. The Kurds revolted against the Arab Caliphs several times but were defeated. Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) (sometimes also spelled Moslem) is an adherent of Islam. ... Abu Ishaq al-Mutasim ibn Harun (أبو إسحاق المعتصم بن هارون , 794 – January 5, 842) was an Abbasid caliph (833 - 842). ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ...


During the next few hundred years, Kurdistan became the arena of conflict between various invaders, including the Mongols and Timurids. Its steady decline began in the 16th century, when sea traffic replaced the famous Silk Road. Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Silk Road (Traditional Chinese: 絲綢之路; Simplified Chinese: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sÄ« chóu zhÄ« lù, Persian راه ابریشم Râh-e Abrisham, Turkish: Ä°pekyolu, Kyrgyz: Jibek Jolu,) was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Changan (todays Xian), China, with Antioch, Asia...


Upon the order of Sultan Muhammad Khodabandeh (Uljaitu), a small town by the name of Soltanabad Chamchal was constructed in Bisutun region to function as the official and political center of Kurdistan in the middle ages. It remained the capital for nearly one-and-a-half centuries, until, in 1372 CE, the government moved to Hassanabad fort, 6 km south of Sanandaj(Sinne). Around 14th century, people from Ardalan tribe established themselves in Sinne(Sanandaj) as the rulers of this region. Sanandaj (Kurdish: Sinne; Persian: سنندج) is the capital of the Iranian province of Kurdistan, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... Sinne (Sanandaj in persian)is the capital of the Kurdistan province of iran, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Sinne (Sanandaj in persian)is the capital of the Kurdistan province of iran, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... Sanandaj (Kurdish: Sinne; Persian: سنندج) is the capital of the Iranian province of Kurdistan, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ...


According to Sharafnama written by Sharaf-al-Din Bitlisi, the earliest known leader of the tribe, Bawa Ardalan, was a descendant of "Ahmad b. Marwan", who ruled in Diyarbakir. He settled down among the Gorans in Kurdistan and toward the end of the Mongol period took over the "Şare Zor"(Sharazur) region, where he established himself as an absolute ruler. He is considered to be the founder of the Ardalan principality. The territories of Zardiawa (Karadagh), Khanaqin, Kirkuk, and Kifri, which were already the homelands of the Goran-Kurds, all belonged to this principality. The capital city of the principality was first in Sharazour, but was moved to Sinne later on. During the reign of Shah Ismail I, the founder of Safavid dynasty, Sunni Kurds (among them the Ardalans) were supported by Ottoman Caliphs against the Shi'ite government of the Safavids. When Soleiman Khan Ardalan came to power in 1630 CE, the throne was transferred to Sanandaj (Sinne), and, from then on, the rulers contributed to the flourishing and development of the area. Diyarbakir (Syriac: ܐܡܝܕ; Greek: Amida; Turkish spelling: Diyarbakır) is a city in Turkey, situated on the banks of the River Tigris. ... Gorani could be the name of: Gorani, a village in the prefecture of Laconia Gorani, people and the English name of their language (actually Goranski) living in Kosovo and Metohia, a province of Serbia Gorani, a small group of Kurds and their dialect of the Kurdish language in Iran and... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Khanaqin (arabic خانقين ChanaqÄ«n, kurdish خانه قين khaneqîn, also transliterated as Khanakin, Xanaqin) is a Kurdish city outside the Kurdish Autonomous Region in north-eastern Iraq. ... Kirkuk city centre. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Sinne (Sanandaj in persian)is the capital of the Kurdistan province of iran, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Events February 22 - Native American Quadequine introduces Popcorn to English colonists. ... Sinne (Sanandaj in persian)is the capital of the Kurdistan province of iran, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ...


The Ardalan Dynasty continued to rule the region until the Qajar monarch Nasser-al-Din Shah(1848-1896) ended their rule in 1867 CE. Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Nasser-al-Din Shah Nasser-al-Din Shah Qajar (sometimes called Nassereddin) (1831 1896) was the Shah of Persia from September 13, 1848 until his death on May 1, 1896. ... 1867 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1946, coincident with the occupation of Iran by the Allies, Ghazi Mohammed (Qazi Muhammad) formed the Peoples Republic of Kurdistan (often referred to as the Republic of Mahabad) with the help of Russians. However, after complete evacuation of Iran by the Allies, and the sending of Iranian army forces to Azarbaijan and Kurdistan, the republic disintegrated. Qazi Muhammad was the legendary leader of the first modern Kurdish state in the Middle East. ... The first modern independent kurdish state, in 20th century, lead by Qazi Muhammad as the president and Mustafa Barzani as the defence minister. ...


Geography

Kurdistan Province is entirely a mountainous region that can be divided into two western and eastern sections from topographical points of view which are located in the east and west of Sanandaj(Sinne). Kurdistan province, being predominantly covered by mountains and hills, has many rivers, lakes, natural ice-stores and caves, which render it rather picturesque. Consequently, Kurdistan has always attracted a large number of tourists and fans of mountaineering, ski and water-sports.


Zarrinehorood, 302 km long, is one of the longest rivers of this province. Its banks offer great opportunities for recreation and the river's plentiful water renders itself ideal for water sports. This river runs northwards and ultimately pours into Lake Urmia. Sirvan river is another prominent river in this province. It runs over a long distance, eventually to join the Tigris in Iraq. The banks of this river, too are remarkably attractive and pleasing. Ghezel Ozoon and Saminerhrood are two other important rivers in this province. A large number of marine species and birds live on the banks of the province's numerous rivers which they seem to find ideal habitats. Lake Urmia from space, October 1984 Satellite image of Lake Urmia, taken in November 2003 Lake Urmia (37. ... Tigris River in Mosul, Iraq The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigrā-, Pahlavi: Tigr, Syriac: ܕܩܠܬ; Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة; Dijla, Turkish: Dicle, Hebrew: חדקל; ḥiddeqel) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


Lake Zarivar is the most beautiful waters of the province which lies at the feet to high mountains, providing a delightfully picturesque sight. Its water is sparkingly fresh. The lake has a maximum depth of 50 m and an average depth of 3 m. It is surrounded by thick forests. The whole collection of the lake, the mountains and forests a fascinating panorama. This lake, which has a length of 5 km and a maximum which width of 1.7 km, lies to the west of Marivan. Lake Vahdat's dam, to the north of Sanandaj (Sinne), provides excellent opportunities for fishing and water-sports. Lake Zarivar is a lake in the province of Kurdistan Province, Iran. ...


Kurdistan has the benefit of many resourceful mineral water springs. The most outstanding of these are: Govaz to the northwest of Kamyaran, Abetalkh close to Bijar and Baba Gargar to the north of Ghorveh.


Cave Kereftoo, close to Divandarreh, is a unique natural and at the same time archeological site. Inside the cave there are a number of ancient buildings known as the Temple of Heraclius, because the name of this Greek god is carved on the ceiling of one of the halls. Cave Shoovi, 267 m long, is another prominent cave, which lies near the city of Baneh.


Mount Charkhaln 3,330 m high, mount Chehelcheshmeh, 3,173 m, Mount Hossein Bak, 3,091 m, and Mount Masjede Mirza, 3,059 m, are the other large mountains of Kurdistan.


Kurdistan has vast forests and refuges, where many animals and birds live, safely from the harms of the human beings: the leopard, ram, wild goat, hyena, jackal, wolf, fox, sable, wesel and such birds as the partridge, wild duck, stork, parrot and eagle.


Climate

Kurdistan is one of the most mountainous regions in Iran and has a generally mild and quite pleasant climate throughout the spring and summer. Winters are long and can be very cold with heavy snowfalls.


People and culture

The population of the province in 1996 was 1,346,383 of which 52.42% were urban dwellers and 47.58% rural dwellers. The sex ratio of the province is 104. The Kurdish people are the majority population in this province, and they speak Sorani-Kurdish which is a northwestern Iranian language. The region's historical name is Ardalan. The Kurds are a middle-eastern ethnic group inhabiting a mountainous area of the Middle-East that includes parts of Iraq, Turkey, Iran, Syria i. ... Sorani is a group of Central Kurdish dialects and as such is part of the Iranian languages. ... The Kurdish languages (Kurdî ) belonging to the Indo-European languages family, are spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran (Persia), Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ...


The Kurdish language is categorized under the Indo-European group of languages, with a distinctive grammatical form. This language has various branches in Iran, such as the Sorani, Hewrami and Kurmanji. Majority of the people in Kurdistan province speak variants of Sorani Kurdish, sometimes called as "Ardalani" dialect. Hewrami Kurdish is also spoken around Marivan, in a region called "Hewramanî Text"(The Flat Hawraman). Kurds in eastern parts of the province including Bijar and Qorveh can also speak Azeri. The Indo-European languages include some 443 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects, including most of the major language families of Europe, as well as many languages of Southwest and South Asia, which belong to a single superfamily. ... Sorani is a group of Central Kurdish dialects and as such is part of the Iranian languages. ... Hewrami or Hawrami is an archaic branch of Kurdish language. ... Kurmanji (Kurdish: kurmancî or kirmancî) is the major Kurdish dialect spoken in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, the ex-Soviet states and by Kurds living in Central Asia. ... Sorani is a group of Central Kurdish dialects and as such is part of the Iranian languages. ... Hewrami or Hawrami is an archaic branch of Kurdish language. ... Marivan (in Kurdish: Merîwan, in Persian: مریوان) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Bijar (in kurdish: Bîcar, in persian: بیجار) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... view of Qorveh View of sarab lake , Qorveh The township of Qorveh (in kurdish: Qurwe, in persian: قروه) is located to the east of the Kurdistan province of Iran. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of Republic of Azerbaijan. ...


Kurdistan Province today

Economy

The major activities of the inhabitants are agriculture and modern livestock farming. Wheat, barley, grains and fruits are the major agricultural products. The chemical, metal, textile, leather and food industries are the main industrial activities in this province.


Colleges and universities

Sanandaj (Sinne) Congregation Mosque, 1812 CE.
Sanandaj (Sinne) Congregation Mosque, 1812 CE.
  • Kordestan University of Medical Sciences
    • Tohid Medical Center
  • University of Kordestan
  • Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj

Image File history File links Photo provided by Zereshk. ... Image File history File links Photo provided by Zereshk. ...

Attractions

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 211 sites of historical and cultural significance in Kordestan province. Some, such as Ghal'eh Kohneh in Bijar date back to the Sassanid era. For more info, see the provincial Cultural Heritage Organization website linked at the bottom of this page. Bijar (in kurdish: Bîcar, in persian: بیجار) is a city in Kurdistan Province of Iran. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate...


See also

Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... Iranian Kurdistan is a large mountainous region situated in the western and northwestern parts of Iran including the West Azerbaijan province as well as Kurdistan Province, Kermanshah Province, and Ilam Province. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Kurdish languages (Kurdî ) belonging to the Indo-European languages family, are spoken in the region loosely called Kurdistan including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran (Persia), Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... This article focuses on ethnic minorities in Iran and their related political issues and current realities. ...

External links

  • Sharafnama: History of the Kurdish Nation
  • Kordestan Provincve Cultural Heritage Organization


Provinces of Iran Flag of Iran
Ardabil | Bushehr | Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari | East Azerbaijan | Isfahan | Fars | Guilan | Golestan | Hamadan | Hormozgan | Ilam | Kerman | Kermanshah | Khuzestan | Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad | Kurdistan | Lorestan | Markazi | Mazandaran | North Khorasan | Qazvin | Qom | Razavi Khorasan | Semnan | Sistan and Baluchistan | South Khorasan | Tehran | West Azerbaijan | Yazd | Zanjan

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kurdistan - Academic Kids (1112 words)
Kurdistan is an area in the Middle East, inhabited mainly by the Kurds, covering parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, and Syria.
Its borders are hard to define, as none of the states in question acknowledge Kurdistan as a demographic or geographical region, but it is generally held to include those regions with large Kurdish populations.
The capital of the Kurdistan Autonomous Region is Arbil (also known as Hewler in Kurdish), although the main Kurdish parties have indicated their preference for Kirkuk as the capital of an eventual Kurdish state.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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