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Encyclopedia > Kurdish people
Kurds
Jalal Talabani · Şivan Perwer · Saladin
Total population

27 to 37.5 million Image File history File links Jalal_Talabani. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1476x1636, 1413 KB) Summary Şivan Perwer. ... Saladin This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní Arabic: ‎, ) (born 1933), is an Iraqi politician, who was elected President of Iraq on April 6, 2005, (sworn in the next day, April 7, and once again on April 22, 2006, by the Iraqi National Assembly. ... Şivan Perwer is a poet, a singer a performer on the tembûr (Kurdish/Turkish lute) and a leading Kurdish artist. ... Artistic representation of Saladin. ...

Regions with significant populations
     Flag of Turkey Turkey 12 to 15 million [1]
     Flag of Iran Iran 4.8 to 6.6 million [2]
     Flag of Iraq Iraq 4 to 6 million [3]
     Flag of Syria Syria 0.9 to 2.8 million [4]
 
     Flag of Afghanistan Afghanistan 200,000 [5]
     Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 150,000 [5]
     Flag of Israel Israel 100,000 [6]
     Flag of Lebanon Lebanon 80,000 [5]
      Georgia 34,000 to 60,000 [7]
     Flag of Armenia Armenia 42,139 [5]
     Flag of Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 40,000 [5]
 
     Flag of Germany Germany 0.5 million
to 0.8 million
[5]
[8]
     Flag of France France 120,000 [8]
     Flag of Sweden Sweden 100,000 [8]
     Flag of Netherlands Netherlands 70,000 [8]
     Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 60,000 [8]
     Flag of Austria Austria 50,000 [8]
     Flag of United Kingdom United Kingdom 25,000
to 80,000
[5]
[8]
     Flag of Greece Greece 20,000 to 25,000 [8]
Languages
Kurdish
Persian, Turkish or Arabic spoken widely as second languages
Swedish, German, French and English are second languages among expatriates
Religions
Predominantly Sunni Muslim
also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity
Related ethnic groups
other Iranian peoples
(Talysh · Baluch · Gilak · Bakhtiari · Persians)

The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. Kurdish communities can also be found in Lebanon, Armenia, Azerbaijan (Kalbajar and Lachin, to the west of Nagorno Karabakh) and, in recent decades, some European countries and the United States (see Kurdish diaspora). Ethnically related to other Iranian people groups[9] they speak Kurdish, an Indo-European language of the Iranian branch. Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds[1]; old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarî) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited predominantly by the Kurds. ... Map showing areas with significant Kurdish population: Kurdistan: (the largest red section) Kurdish diaspora: (smaller red sections) in Middle East. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Russia Georgia Azerbaijan (Azer. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(bordered). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... World map showing Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ« ) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... A second language is any language other than the first, or native, language learned; it is typically used because of geographical or social reasons. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... An expatriate (in abbreviated form, expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country and culture other than that of his upbringing or legal residence. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Faravahar is a prominent guardian spirit in Zoroastrianism and Iranian culture that is believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Balouchis in their National Dress, from a 1910 photograph. ... It has been suggested that Gilek be merged into this article or section. ... The Bakhtiari (or Bakhtiyari) are a group of southwestern Iranian people. ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds[1]; old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarî) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited predominantly by the Kurds. ... Kalbacar is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Lachin (Laçın) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Anthem: Azat ou Ankakh Artsakh (Free and Independent Artsakh) Capital Stepanakert (Khankendi) Official languages Armenian1 Government Unrecognized  - President Arkady Ghoukasyan  - Prime Minister Anushavan Danielyan Independence from Azerbaijan   - Referendum December 10, 1991   - Proclaimed January 6, 1992   - Recognition none[1]  Area  - Total 4,400 km² 1,699 sq mi  Population  - 2002 estimate... Map showing areas with significant Kurdish population: Kurdistan: (the largest red section) Kurdish diaspora: (smaller red sections) in Middle East. ... Faravahar is a prominent guardian spirit in Zoroastrianism and Iranian culture that is believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi. ... The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, the Americas as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ...


Historically, the Kurds have continuously sought self-determination, and have fought the Sumerians, Assyrians, Persians, Mongols, European crusaders, and Turks.[10] Estimated at about 35 million people, the Kurds make up the largest ethnic group in the world who do not have a nation-state of their own. In the 20th century, Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria have suppressed many Kurdish uprisings.[11] Sumer (or Šumer, Sumerian ki-en-gir[1], Egyptian Sanhar[2]) was one of the early civilizations of the Ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iraq) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The Persians are an Iranian people who speak the Persian language and share a common culture and history. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Estimated maximum extent of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, meaning Great Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million people. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...

Contents

Origins

Main article: Origins of the Kurds

Although Kurds have inhabited their highlands for several millennia BCE, their prehistory is not very well known.[12]. Originally the Hurrians inhabited Kurdish regions (in Mesopotamia and Zagros-Taurus mountains) from 6300 to about 2600 years ago. The Hurrians spoke a language which was possibly part of the Northeast Caucasian (or the proposed Alarodian) family of languages, akin to modern Chechen and Lezgian. The Hurrians spread out and eventually dominated significant territories outside their Zagros-Taurus mountainous base. However, like the Kurds, they did not expand very far from the mountains. As they settled, the Hurrians divided into a number of clans and subgroups, founding city-states, kingdoms and empires with eponymous clan names. These included the Gutis, Kurti, Khaldi, Nairi, Mushku, Mannaeans (Mannai), Mitanni, Urartu, Lullubi and the Kassites among others. All these tribes were part of the larger group of Hurrians (Khurrites), and together helped to shape the Hurrian phase of Kurdish history.[13] These groups, except the Mitanni leadership, are thought to have been non-Indo-Europeans. Although Kurds have inhabited their highlands for several millennia BC, their prehistory is not very well known. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... The Northeast Caucasian languages, also called East Caucasian, Caspian, Nakh-Dagestanian, or Dagestanian, are a family of languages spoken mostly in the Dagestan, Chechnya, and Ingushetia regions of Russia, in Northern Azerbaijan, and in Georgia. ... The Alarodian languages are a proposed language family that encompasses two language families of the Caucasus: Northeast or Dagestan (sometimes called Avar or Lezgian which are also the names of its most major members) and North-central or Vaynakh (which includes Chechen and Ingush), as well as the extinct Hurro_Urartian... Chechen can mean: Chechen people, an ethnic group Chechen language Related to Chechnya This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Lezgian is a loose and imprecise term used to refer to a subgroup of the Northeast Caucasian languages spoken in Dagestan by the Lezgian tribes, consisting of ten dialects called the Lezgi language. ... The Zagros Mountains (In Persian:رشته‌کوه‌های زاگرس) make up Irans second largest mountain range. ... The Taurus Mountains (Taurus=bull in greek) (Turkish Toros, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in Eastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish Fırat) River descends into Syria. ... The Gutians (also: Quti, Kuti, Gurti, Qurti, Kurti) were a people of ancient Mesopotamia who lived primarily in the central Zagros Range, most probably an Aryan people. ... A kurta (or sometimes kurti, for women) is a traditional piece of clothing worn in northern India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. ... For the Urartian god of this name, see Khaldi (god). ... Nairi may refer to one of the following. ... Meshechs (Meshekhs/Mosokhs, Mushku in Akkadian, Moschoi in Greek) were an ancient, non-Indo-European and non-Semitic, indigenous tribe of Asia Minor of the 3rd-1st millennias BC. They were among the first people to introduce iron smelting there at the end of the 2nd millennium BC. They are... The Mannaeans (or Mannai, Mannae, Biblical Minni) were an ancient people of unknown origin, who lived in the territory of present-day Iranian Azerbaijan around the 10th to 7th century BC. At that time they were neighbours of the empires of Assyria and Urartu, as well as other small buffer... The Mannaeans were an ancient people of Asia Minor, occupying the region East of Assyria and South-East of Urartu, in present-day North-West Iran. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia (in what is today Syria) from ca. ... Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... An ancient group of tribes that inhabited the Zagros Mountains of Western Iran, or the language thereof. ... The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ...

Hasankeyf on the Tigris River.
Hasankeyf on the Tigris River.

Among important Indo-European tribes who settled in Kurdish mountains are Medes, Scythians and Sagarthians whose names are still preserved in some place names throughout Kurdistan. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 613 KB) Summary Hasankeyf, Kurdistan, Turkey, 2004. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 613 KB) Summary Hasankeyf, Kurdistan, Turkey, 2004. ... Hasankeyf on the Tigris River Hasankeyf is in Batman Province, southeast Turkey — an area mainly settled by Kurds. ... The Tigris River (Arabic: دجلة Dijla, Hebrew: חדקל ḥiddeqel, Kurdish: Dîjle, Pahlavi: Tigr, Old Persian: Tigrā-, Syriac: ܕܩܠܬ Deqlath, Turkish: Dicle, Akkadian: Idiqlat) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq (the name Mesopotamia...


As a general and common designation, there are numerous historical records referring to the above mentioned peoples as a whole. One of the first mentions in historical records, appears in cuneiform writings from the Sumerians dated around 3000 BCE, who referred to the "land of the Karda"[14] in Taurus-Zagros mountains of the northern and northeastern parts of Mesopotamia, The area was referred to as the land of the "Karda" or "Qarduchi" and the land of the "Guti" or "Gutium". These are described as being the same people only differing in tribal name. The Babylonians called these people "Gardu" and "Qarda". In neighbouring area of Assyria, they were "Qurti" or "Guti". When the Greeks entered the territory, they referred to these people as either "Kardukh", "Carduchi", "Gordukh", Kyrti(oi), Romans as Cyrti. The Armenians called the Kurds "Gortukh" or "Gortai-kh" and the Persians knew them as "Gord" or "Kord". In the Syriac, Hebrew and Chaldean languages they were, respectively, "Qardu", "Kurdaye" and "Qurdaye". In Aramaic and Nestorian they were "Qadu".[15] Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Look up Chaldean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ...


It is assumed that this people's original language was influenced and/or gradually replaced by the northwest Iranic, with the arrival of the Medes to Kurdistan.[16]


These groups, except the Mitanni leadership, are thought to have been non-Indo-Europeans. Kurds consider themselves Indo-European as well as descendants of the groups mentioned above. According to the Encyclopaedia Kurdistanica, Kurds are the descendants of all those who have historically settled in Kurdistan, not of any one particular group. A people such as the Guti (Kurti), Mede(Mard), Carduchi(Gordyene), Adiabene, Zila and Khaldi signify not the ancestor of the Kurds but only one ancestor.[17] Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds[1]; old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarî) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited predominantly by the Kurds. ... Guti can refer to: José María Gutiérrez, usually known as Guti, Spanish football (soccer) player Guti, people in ancient Mesopotamia. ... The Medes were an Iranian people of Aryan origin who lived in the western and north-western portion of present-day Iran. ... Adiabene (In Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ) was an ancient Assyrian kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbela. ... For the Urartian god of this name, see Khaldi (god). ...


History

Main article: History of the Kurds

The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ...

Ancient period

The present-day home of the Kurds, the high mountain region south and south-east of Lake Van between Persia and Mesopotamia, was in the possession of Kurds before the time of the ancient Greek historian Xenophon, and was known as the country of the Carduchi, Cardyene or Cordyene. Xenophon referred to the Kurds in the Anabasis as "Kardukhi...a fierce and protective mountain-dwelling people" who attacked Greek armies in 400 BCE.[18] A Kurdish kingdom named Corduene, situated to the east of Tigranocerta[19] (east and south of present-day Diyarbakır, Turkey) became a province of the Roman Empire in 66 BCE and was under Roman control for four centuries until 384 CE.[20] Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: ÕŽÕ¡Õ¶Õ¡ Õ¬Õ«Õ³) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years. ... A historian is someone who writes history, and history is a written accounting of the past. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , c. ... Corduene, also known as Cordyene, Cardyene and Gordyene, was a province of the Roman Empire located in the northern mesopotamia. ... Anabasis is the most famous work of the Greek writer Xenophon. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... Tigranocerta (also spelled Dikranagerd) was the capital of the Armenian Empire that Tigranes the Great founded (95‑56BC) south of the present city of Diyarbakır, Turkey. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Diyar-i Bekr دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Arabic[1]; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in southeastern Turkey situated on the banks of the River Tigris, and the seat of Diyarbakır Province. ... The Roman Empire is the name given to both the domain obtained by the city-state of Rome and also the corresponding phase of that civilization, characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... Events Roman Republic Consuls: Manius Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Volcacius Tullus Catiline accused of conspiring against the Roman Republic with Autronius and the younger Sulla. ... Forum of Theodosius I built in Constantinople. ...


The Roman historian Pliny, has considered Cordueni (inhabitants of Corduene) as descendants of Carduchis. He has stated, Joining on to Adiabene are the people formerly called the Carduchi and now the Cordueni, past whom flows the river Tigris....[21] Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ... Adiabene (In Syriac: ܚܕܝܐܒ) was an ancient Assyrian kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbela. ...


Other small Kurdish kingdoms were Kavosids during Sassanid era.


Medieval period

Kurdish Cavalry in the passes of the Caucasus mountains (The New York Times, January 24, 1915).
Kurdish Cavalry in the passes of the Caucasus mountains (The New York Times, January 24, 1915).

In the seventh century, the Arabs possessed the castles and fortifications of the Kurds. The conquest of the cities of Zoor and Aradbaz took place in the year 644 AC. Image File history File links Kurdish_Cavalry. ... Image File history File links Kurdish_Cavalry. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ...


In 846 AC, one of the leaders of the Kurds in Mosul city revolted against the Caliph Al Mo'tasam who sent the famous commander Aitakh to combat against him. In this war, Aitakh proved victorious and killed many of the Kurds. In 903 AC, during the period of Almoqtadar, the Kurds revolted again. Eventually Arabs conquered the Kurdish regions and converted the majority of Kurds to Islam.


In the second half of the tenth century, the Kurdish area was shared amongst four big Kurdish principalities. In the North were the Shaddadid (951-1174) in parts of present-day Armenia and Arran, and the Rawadid (955-1221) in Tabriz and Maragheh. In the East were the Hasanwayhids (959-1015) and the Annazid (990-1117) in Kermanshah, Dinawar and Khanaqin. In the West were the Marwanid (990-1096) of Diyarbakır. After these, the Ayyubid (1171-1250) of Syria and the Ardalan dynasty (fourteenth century to 1867) were established in present-day Khanaqin, Kirkuk and Sinne. The Kurdish areas were ruled by several Kurdish principalities up to the last century. The Shaddadids were a Kurdish dynasty, who ruled in various parts of Armenia, including Arran from 951-1174 or 1199 A.D. They were established Dvin. ... Events Allat the Maharana of Mewar come to powers. ... Events Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China. ... Arran can refer to: arran is the term for a boy with a fat body, a small dick, and a craving to have sexual intercourse with parrots. ... Rawadid (also Rawwadid or Ravvadid), (955-1227), was a Kurdish principality ruling Azerbaijan from the 10th to the early 13th centuries, centered around Tabriz and Maragheh(Maragha). ... Events August 10 - Otto I the Great defeats Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld Edwy becomes King of England. ... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor ChÅ«kyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... Tabriz City Hall, built in 1934, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Maragheh or Maraghah is a town in the East Azarbaijan Province of Iran, on the Safi River. ... Hasanwayhid,(959-1015), was a Kurdish principality centered at Dinawar (northeast of present-day Kermanshah). ... Events October 1 - Edwy, king of England dies and is succeeded by his brother Edgar. ... Events August: Canute the Great invades England. ... The Annazid or Banu Annaz,(990-1116), were a Kurdish dynasty that ruled a territory on the present-day Iran-Iraq frontier that included Kermanshah, Hulwan, Dinawar (all in western Iran), Sharazour, Daquq, Daskara, Bandanijin(Mandali), and Nomaniya(in north-eastern Iraq). ... Events Construction of the Al-Hakim Mosque begins in Cairo. ... Events May 3 - Merton Priory (Thomas Becket school) consecrated. ... Hercules Statue, carved about 153 B.C. Kermanshah (Persian: کرمانشاه, Gorani Kurdish: کرماشان), is the capital city of Kermanshah Province, located 525 kilometers (324 miles) from Tehran in the western part of Iran. ... Iraq map with Khanaqin Khanaqin (Arabic خانقين, Kurdish خانه قين Xaneqîn, also transliterated as Khanakin, Xanaqin) is an arab city in north-eastern Iraq. ... Marwanid, (990-1085), was a Kurdish dynasty in northren mesopotamia centered around the city of Diyarbakir. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Diyar-i Bekr دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Arabic[1]; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in southeastern Turkey situated on the banks of the River Tigris, and the seat of Diyarbakır Province. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Events Saladin abolishes the Fatimid caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... Ardalan or (Erdelan) is the name of a semi-independent state in north-western Iran which ruled an area encompassing present day Iranian province of Kurdistan from medieval period up to mid 19th century. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Iraq map with Khanaqin Khanaqin (Arabic خانقين, Kurdish خانه قين Xaneqîn, also transliterated as Khanakin, Xanaqin) is an arab city in north-eastern Iraq. ... Location of Kirkuk in Iraqi map Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كركوك ; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq. ... Sinne (Sanandaj in persian)is the capital of the Kurdistan province of iran, which is situated in the western part of Iran bordering Iraq. ...


Language

Main article: Kurdish language

The Kurdish language belongs to the north-western sub-group of the Iranian languages, which in turn belongs to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. Kurdish may have borrowed heavily from Caucasian and Aramaic languages given certain peculiarities which make it distinct from other Iranian languages. Most of the ancestors of the Kurds spoke various languages of the Indo-European family. The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family with an estimated 150-200 million native speakers today. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, the Americas as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family with an estimated 150-200 million native speakers today. ...


The original language of the Kurds was Hurrian, a non Indo-European language belonging to the Caucasian family. This older language was replaced by the Indo-European around 850 BCE, with the arrival of the Medes to Kurdistan.[22] Nevertheless, Hurrian influence on Kurdish is still evident in its ergative grammatical structure and toponyms.[23] Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... An ergative-absolutive language (or simply ergative) is one that treats the agent of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ...


Most Kurds are bilingual or polylingual, speaking the languages of the surrounding peoples such as Arabic, Turkish and Persian as a second language. Kurdish Jews and some Kurdish Christians (not be confused with ethnic Assyrians of Kurdistan) usually speak Aramaic (for example: Lishana Deni) as a first language. Aramaic is a Semitic language related to Hebrew and Arabic rather than Kurdish. The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Persian (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī ) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... A second language is any language other than the first, or native, language learned; it is typically used because of geographical or social reasons. ... Kurdish Jews (יהדות כורדיסתאן Jews of Kurdistan, Standard Hebrew Yehudi Kurdistan) are the ancient Jewish communities inhabiting the region today known as Kurdistan, roughly covering parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, and Syria. ... Kurdish Christians are the ancient Christian communities inhabiting the region today known as Kurdistan. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Lishana Deni is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


The Kurdish language is comprised of two major dialects and several sub-dialects:[24][25] The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ...

Commenting on the differences between the "dialects" of Kurdish, Kreyenbroek clarifies that in some ways, Kurmanji and Sorani are as different from each other as English and German, giving the example that Kurmanji has grammatical gender and case-endings, but Sorani does not, and observing that referring to Sorani and Kurmanji as "dialects" of one language is supported only by "their common origin...and the fact that this usage reflects the sense of ethnic identity and unity of the Kurds"[26] Kurmanji (Kurdish: kurmancî or kirmancî) is the major Kurdish dialect spoken in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, the ex-Soviet states and by Kurds living in Central Asia. ... Sorani is a group of Central Kurdish dialects and as such is part of the Iranian languages. ... Gorani, sometimes also called Hewrami, is a dialect of Kurdish. ... Zazaki (Zazakî, Zazaish) or Dimli is a language closely related to the Persian and , spoken by the Zaza in eastern Anatolia Zazaland Zazaistan, (Turkey), an ethnic minority related to the Iranians. ... Hercules Statue, carved about 153 B.C. Kermanshah (Persian: کرمانشاه, Gorani Kurdish: کرماشان), is the capital city of Kermanshah Province, located 525 kilometers (324 miles) from Tehran in the western part of Iran. ...


Genetic and ethnic origins

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, "The Persians, Kurds, and speakers of other Indo-European languages in Iran are descendants of the Aryan tribes that began migrating from Central Asia into what is now Iran in the second millennium BC."[27] According to the Columbia Encyclopedia, the Kurds, as well as other migrant ethnic groups of the region, are of the "least mixed descent of the original Iranians."[28] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Faravahar is a prominent guardian spirit in Zoroastrianism and Iranian culture that is believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi. ... 1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... Aryan () is an English language word derived from the Sanskrit and Iranian terms ārya-, the extended form aryāna-, ari- and/or arya- (Sanskrit: आर्य, Persian: آریا). Beyond its use as the ethnic self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Iranians, the meaning noble/spiritual has been attached to it in Sanskrit and... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ...


According to the Encyclopedia of Islam, the classification of Kurds as Aryan is mainly based on linguistic and historical data and does not prejudice the fact there is a complexity of ethnical elements incorporated in them.[29]


According to a study in 2001 on Turkish population, the ancestors of the "Kurds, Armenians, Iranians, Jews, and other (Eastern and Western) Mediterranean groups seem to share a common ancestry" and were from an old Mediterranean substratum, i.e. Hurrian and Hittite groups and that these peoples have no connection with an Aryan invasion which was supposed to have happened about 1200 BCE. The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Hittite can refer to either: The ancient Anatolian people called the Hittites; or The Hittite language, an ancient Indo-European language they spoke. ...


"It is concluded that this invasion, if occurred, had a relatively few invaders in comparison to the already settled populations, i.e. Anatolian Hittite and Hurrian groups (older than 2000 BCE). These may have given rise to present-day Kurdish, Armenian and Turkish populations."[30]


In 2001, a team of Israeli, German, and Indian scientists discovered that among the various Jewish communities, the Ashkenazi Jews showed a closer relationship to the Muslim Kurds than to the Semitic-speaking population further south in the Arabian peninsula, while the Jewish Kurds and Sephardic Jews seemed to be closely related to each other. Most of the ninety-five Kurdish Muslim test subjects came from northern Iraq. Moreover, according to another study, the CMH ("Cohen Modal Haplotype") is a genetic marker from the northern Middle East which is not unique to Jews.[31] 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the... A haplotype, a contraction of the phrase haploid genotype, is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, please see Introduction to genetics. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


In another study, Kurdish Jews were found to be close to Muslim Kurds, but so were Ashkenazim and Sephardim, suggesting that much if not most of the genetic similarity between Jewish and Muslim Kurds descends from ancient times.[32] Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... In the strictest sense, a Sephardi (ספרדי, Standard Hebrew Səfardi, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardî; plural Sephardim: ספרדים, Standard Hebrew Səfardim, Tiberian Hebrew Səp̄ardîm) is a Jew original to the...


Genetic distance comparisons in another study have revealed that the Turkic and Turkmen speaking peoples in the Caspian area cluster with the Kurds, Greeks and Iranis (Ossetians). In this study, the Persian speakers are genetically remote from these populations; they are, however, close to the Parsis who migrated from Iran to India at the end of the seventh century CE.[33] The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... The Ossetians (oss. ... Persian (local name: Fārsī or Pārsī ) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... a person from Pars (the middle-Persian word for Fars), a region now within the geographical boundaries of Iran, and is roughly the original homeland of the Persian people. ...


Population

Kurdish-speaking areas.
Kurdish-speaking areas.

The exact number of Kurdish people living in the Middle East is unknown, due to both an absence of recent census analysis and the reluctance of the various governments in Kurdish-inhabited regions to give accurate figures. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1066x887, 182 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1066x887, 182 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The exact number of Kurdish people living in the Middle East is unknown, due to both an absence of recent and extensive census analysis, and the reluctance of the various governments in Kurdish-inhabited regions to give accurate figures. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


According to the CIA Factbook, Kurds comprise 20% of the population in Turkey, 15-20% in Iraq, perhaps 8% in Syria,[34] 7% in Iran and 1.3% in Armenia. In all of these countries except Iran, Kurds form the second largest ethnic group. Roughly 55% of the world's Kurds live in Turkey, about 20% each in Iran and Iraq, and a bit over 5% in Syria.[35]. These estimates place the total number of Kurds at somewhere between 27 and 36 million.


There are other sources which report a higher population for Kurds than mentioned above. Furthermore it is estimated that Kurds especially in Turkey have a birth rate still higher than their main neighboring ethnic groups whose birth rate is slowly decreasing.[citation needed]


Modern history

Kurds in Iraq

Kurds led by Mustafa Barzani were engaged in heavy fighting against successive Iraqi regimes from 1960 to 1975. In March 1970, Iraq announced a peace plan providing for Kurdish autonomy. The plan was to be implemented in four years.[36] However, at the same time, the Iraqi regime started an Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin.[37] The peace agreement did not last long, and in 1974, Iraqi government began a new offensive against the Kurds. Moreover in March 1975, Iraq and Iran signed the Algiers Pact, according to which Iran cut supplies to Iraqi Kurds. Iraq started another wave of Arabization by moving Arabs to the oil fields in Kurdistan, particularly those around Kirkuk.[38] Between 1975 and 1978, two-hundred thousand Kurds were deported to other parts of Iraq.[39] Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Capital Arbil Largest city Erbil Kurdish, Arabic, (Assyrian (Syriac)) and (Iraqi Turkmen) Government Parliamentary Democracy  - Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani  - President Masoud Barzani Formation of Autonomous Region    - Autonomy Accord Agreement is Signed March 11, 1970   - Autonomy Accord Collapses March 1974   - Gained de facto... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Al-Anfal Campaign. ... Mustafa Barzani (March 14, 1903–March 1, 1979) was a Kurdish nationalist leader and President of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... Location of Kirkuk in Iraqi map Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كركوك ; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq. ... Iraq map with Khanaqin Khanaqin (Arabic خانقين, Kurdish خانه قين Xaneqîn, also transliterated as Khanakin, Xanaqin) is an arab city in north-eastern Iraq. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Location of Kirkuk in Iraqi map Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كركوك ; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


During the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s, the regime implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out. Iraq was widely-condemned by the international community, but was never seriously punished for oppressive measures such as the mass murder of hundreds of thousands of civilians, the wholesale destruction of thousands of villages and the deportation of thousands of Kurds to southern and central Iraq. The campaign of Iraqi government against Kurds in 1988 was called Anfal ("Spoils of War"). The Anfal attacks led to destruction of two thousand villages and death of between fifty and one-hundred thousand Kurds.[40] Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Abolhassan Banisadr Ali Shamkhani Mostafa Chamran† Saddam Hussein Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Baseej militia 1,000 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 65 aircraft 720 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 4,500... The 1980s refers to the years of 1980 to 1989. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The President of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, meeting with U.S. officials in Baghdad, Iraq, on April 26, 2006.
The President of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, meeting with U.S. officials in Baghdad, Iraq, on April 26, 2006.

After the Kurdish uprising in 1991 (Kurdish:Raperîn) led by the PUK and KDP, Iraqi troops recaptured the Kurdish areas and hundreds of thousand of Kurds fled to the borders. To alleviate the situation, a "safe haven" was established by the Security Council. The autonomous Kurdish area was mainly controlled by the rival parties KDP and PUK. The Kurdish population welcomed the American-led invasion in 2003 by dancing in the streets.[citation needed] The area controlled by peshmerga was expanded, and Kurds now have effective control in Kirkuk and parts of Mosul. By the beginning of 2006, the two Kurdish areas were merged into one unified region. A series of referenda are scheduled to be held in 2007, to determine the final borders of the Kurdish region. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2464x1632, 1331 KB)From left U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Zalmay Khalilzad, Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice meet with Iraqi President Jalal Talabani in Baghdad, Iraq, on April 26, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2464x1632, 1331 KB)From left U.S. Ambassador to Iraq Zalmay Khalilzad, Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice meet with Iraqi President Jalal Talabani in Baghdad, Iraq, on April 26, 2006. ... Jalal Talabani (Kurdish: / Celal Talebanî / Jelal Talebaní Arabic: ‎, ) (born 1933), is an Iraqi politician, who was elected President of Iraq on April 6, 2005, (sworn in the next day, April 7, and once again on April 22, 2006, by the Iraqi National Assembly. ... Baghdad (Arabic ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (est 1975) (Kurdish: Yakêtî Nîştimanî Kurdistan) is a Sunni political party in Iraqi Kurdistan. ... The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP; Kurdish: Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê or PDK) is a Kurdish political party led by Massoud Barzani. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peshmerga, pesh merga, peshmarga or peshmerge Kurdish: pêşmerge) is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. ... Location of Kirkuk in Iraqi map Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, KirkÅ«k; Kurdish: كركوك ; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Kurds in Turkey

About half of all Kurds live in Turkey. According to the CIA Factbook they account for 20 percent of the 70 million people of Turkey, thus numbering about 15 million people.[41] Other estimates vary between 12 to 15 million. They are predominantly distributed in the southeastern corner of the country.[42] About half of all Kurds live in Turkey, numbering some 15 million where they comprise an estimated 20%[1] of the total population of Turkey and are predominantly distributed in the southeastern corner of the country. ... Turkish Kurdistan (Turkish: Türkiye Kürdistanı or Kuzey Kürdistan (Northern Kurdistan) or Kuzeybatı Kürdistan [4] (Northwestern Kurdistan), Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê [5] or Bakurê Kurdistanê [6] (North of Kurdistan) or Kurdistana Bakûr [7] (Northern Kurdistan) ) is an unofficial name for the southeastern part of Turkey densely inhabited... Turkey is a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights and the Turkish Constitution guarantees basic human rights to all Turkish citizens. ... One of the PKK logos (used 1995-2000) The Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: or PKK, Turkish: ), also known as KADEK and Kongra-Gel, is an armed militant group, whose stated aim is to create an independent Kurdish state in a territory (sometimes referred to as Kurdistan) that consists of parts...


The best available estimate of the number of persons in Turkey speaking a Kurdish-related language is about five million (1980). There are about one million speakers of Dimli (Southern Zaza), and about 140,000 speakers of Kirmanjki (Northern Zaza), which has about 70 percent lexical similarity with Dimli. These estimates are from 1999 in the case of Dimli and 1972 in the case of Kirmanjki. About 3,950,000 others speak Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji) (1980).[43] While population increase suggests that the number of speakers has grown, it is also true that use of the language has been discouraged in Turkish cities, and that many fewer ethnic Kurds live in the countryside where the language has traditionally been used. The number of speakers is clearly less than the 15 million or so persons who identify themselves as ethnic Kurds. The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Zazaki (Zazakî, Zazaish) or Dimli is a language closely related to the Persian and Kurdish languages, spoken by the Zaza in eastern Anatolia (Turkey), an ethnic minority related to the Iranians and Kurds. ... Zazaki (Zazaish) is a language spoken by Zazas in eastern Anatolia (Turkey). ... Kurmanji (Kurdish: kurmancî or kirmancî) is the major Kurdish dialect spoken in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, the ex-Soviet states and by Kurds living in Central Asia. ...


From 1915 to 1918, Kurds struggled to end Ottoman rule over their region. They were encouraged by Woodrow Wilson's support for non-Turkish nationalities of the empire and submitted their claim for independence to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The Treaty of Sèvres stipulated creation of an autonomous Kurdish state in 1920, but the subsequent Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 failed to mention Kurds. In 1925 and 1930 Kurdish revolts were forcibly suppressed. In 1937 and 1938, the Turkish state used aerial bombardment, poison gas and artillery to reduce Kurdish strongholds.[44] 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States. ... The Paris Peace Conference of 1919 was a conference organized by the victors of World War I to negotiate the peace treaties between the Allied and Associated Powers and the defeated Central Powers. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, was a peace treaty between the Entente and Associated Powers[1] and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Government, but Sultan Mehmed VI never signed that treaty. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ...


Following these events, the existence of distinct ethnic groups like Kurds in Turkey was officially denied and any expression by the Kurds of their ethnic identity was harshly repressed. Until 1991, the use of the Kurdish language – although widespread – was illegal. As a result of reforms inspired by the EU, music, radio and television broadcasts in Kurdish are now allowed albeit with severe time restrictions (for example, radio broadcasts can be no longer than sixty minutes per day nor constitute more than five hours per week while television broadcasts are subject to even greater restrictions). Additionally, education in Kurdish is now permitted though only in private institutions.

Coffee shop in Diyarbakır, 1909.

As late as 1994, however, Leyla Zana, the first female Kurdish representative in Turkey's Parliament, was charged for making "separatist speeches" and sentenced to fifteen years in prison. At her inauguration as an MP, she reportedly identified herself as a Kurd. Amnesty International reported that "[s]he took the oath of loyalty in Turkish, as required by law, then added in Kurdish, 'I shall struggle so that the Kurdish and Turkish peoples may live together in a democratic framework.' Parliament erupted with shouts of 'Separatist!', 'Terrorist!', and 'Arrest her!'".[45] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (879x647, 425 KB)Turkish people in Diyarbakir. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (879x647, 425 KB)Turkish people in Diyarbakir. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Diyar-i Bekr دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Arabic[1]; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ամիդ Amid) is a major city in southeastern Turkey situated on the banks of the River Tigris, and the seat of Diyarbakır Province. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Leyla Zana (born May 3, 1961), is a female Kurdish politician in Turkey, who was imprisoned for speaking Kurdish in the Turkish parliament and for her political actions which were considered against the unity of Turkey. ... Amnesty International symbol Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) comprising a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights.[1] Essentially it compares actual practices of human rights with internationally accepted standards and demands compliance where these have not... The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ...


The Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan (PKK), also known as KADEK and Kongra-Gel, is considered by the US and EU to be a terrorist organization dedicated to creating an independent Kurdish state in a territory (traditionally referred to as Kurdistan) consisting of parts of southeastern Turkey, northeastern Iraq, northeastern Syria and northwestern Iran. It is an ethnic secessionist organization using force and threat of force against both civilian and military targets for the purpose of achieving its political goal. The Congress for Freedom and Democracy in Kurdistan (Kadek), formerly known as the Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan, PKK ) was one of several militant groups fighting for the creation of an independent Kurdish state in southern Turkey, northern Iraq, Northern Syria and western Iran. ... Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds[1]; old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarî) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited predominantly by the Kurds. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Secession is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or political entity. ...


Between 1984 and 1999, the PKK and the Turkish military engaged in open war, and much of the countryside in the southeast was depopulated, with Kurdish civilians moving to local defensible centers such as Diyarbakır, Van, and Şırnak, as well as to the cities of western Turkey and even to western Europe. The causes of the depopulation included PKK atrocities against Kurdish clans they could not control, the poverty of the southeast, and the Turkish state's military operations.[46] Human Rights Watch has documented many instances where the Turkish military forcibly evacuated villages, destroying houses and equipment to prevent the return of the inhabitants. An estimated 3,000 Kurdish villages in Turkey were virtually wiped from the map, representing the displacement of more than 378,000 people.[47][48][49][50] Diyarbakır (Ottoman Diyar-i Bekr دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Arabic[1]; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in southeastern Turkey situated on the banks of the River Tigris, and the seat of Diyarbakır Province. ... Van (Kurdish: Wan, Armenian ) is a city in eastern Turkey and the seat of Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. ... The Turkish province of Şırnak Şırnak is a Turkish province in southeastern Anatolia. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Kurds in Iran

Main articles: Iranian Kurdistan and History of the Kurds

The Kurds constitute approximately 7% of Iran's overall population. Some Iranian Kurds have resisted the Iranian government's efforts, both before and after the revolution of 1979, to assimilate them into the mainstream of national life [citation needed]. Along with Kurds in the regions of Iraq and Turkey, there have been separatist movements in support of establishment of an independent Kurdish state.[51] Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana Îranê [1] or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan) [2] or Rojhilatê Kurdistan (East of Kurdistan) [3]) is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. ... The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... Assimilation, from Latin assimilatio meaning to render similar, is used to describe various phenomena: The process of assimilating new ideas into a schema (cognitive structure). ...


In the seventeenth century, a large number of Kurds were deported by Shah Abbas I to Khorasan in Eastern Iran and forcibly resettled in the cities of Quchan and Birjand. The Kurds of Khorasan, numbering around 700,000, still use the Kurmanji Kurdish dialect[52][53]. During nineteenth and twentieth centuries, successive Iranian governments crushed Kurdish revolts led by Kurdish notables such as Shaikh Ubaidullah (against Qajars in 1880) and Simko (against Pahlavis in the 1920s).[54] Shah Abbas I (شاه عباس اول) (January 27, 1571?-January 19, 1629?) was the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Quchan (also Quchon and Kuchan) is a Kurdish-dominated city in the north-east of Iran. ... Birjand (persian: Storm city) is the capital of South Khorasan province (formerly a subprovince named Birjand or Ghahestan, a part of Khorasan province) in east Iran, known for its saffron, barberry, rug and handmade carpet exports. ... Kurmanji (Kurdish: kurmancî or kirmancî) is the major Kurdish dialect spoken in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, the ex-Soviet states and by Kurds living in Central Asia. ... The Qajar dynasty was the ruling family of Persia from 1796 to 1925. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


In 1946, the Soviet-backed Republic of Mahabad was established in Iranian Kurdistan as part of series of soviet puppet states, but only lasted eleven months. State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Qazi Mohammad, president of the Republic of Kurdistan The Republic of Mahabad (Kurdish: Komarî Mehabad, Persian: جمهوری مهاباد ), officially Republic of Kurdistan, established in Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived, Soviet backed Kurdish state of the 20th century after the Republic of Ararat in Turkey. ...


After the military coup in 1953, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi became more autocratic and suppressed most opposition including ethnic minorities such as Kurds. He also prohibited any teaching of the Kurdish language.[55] A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran (Persian: ‎) (October 16, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shāhanshāh (King of Kings) and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans), was the monarchial ruler of Iran from September 16, 1941 until the Iranian...

Firing squad in Sanandaj, Iran, August 27, 1979.
Firing squad in Sanandaj, Iran, August 27, 1979.

In recent years, intense fighting occurred between Kurds and the Iranian state between 1979 and 1982. In August 1979, Ruhollah Khomeini declared a "holy war" against the Kurds.[56] An image of a firing squad of Revolutionary Guards executing Kurdish prisoners around Sanandaj gained international fame and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1980. The Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps fought to reestablish government control in the Kurdish regions; as a result, around ten thousand Kurds were killed.[57] Since 1983, the Iranian government has maintained control over the area which the Kurds inhabit.[58] Frequent unrest and the occasional military crackdown have occurred since the 1990s.[59] Image File history File links Firing_squad_in_iran. ... Image File history File links Firing_squad_in_iran. ... Sanandaj or Senna (Kurdish: Sine;) (Persian: سنندج) is the capital of the province Kurdistan, which is situated in the Kurdish dominated western part of Iran It had an estimated population of 358,084 in 2006 [1] The city of Sanandaj is the capital of the province, and lies at a distance... Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی Rūḥollāh MÅ«savÄ« KhomeynÄ« Arabic: روح الله الموسوي الخميني) (May 17, 1900[1] – June 3, 1989) was a Shi`i Muslim cleric and marja, and the political leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution of Iran which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah... Sanandaj or Senna (Kurdish: Sine;) (Persian: سنندج) is the capital of the province Kurdistan, which is situated in the Kurdish dominated western part of Iran It had an estimated population of 358,084 in 2006 [1] The city of Sanandaj is the capital of the province, and lies at a distance... The gold medal awarded for Public Service in Journalism The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical compositions. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (Persian: سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی - Sepah-e Pasdaran-e Enghelab-e Islami), often shortened to Revolutionary Guards, or called by its Persian name Sepah or Pasdaran, is a military organization of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


In Iran, Kurds express their cultural identity freely, but are denied the right of self-government or administration. Similar to other parts of Iran, membership of any non-governmental political party in Kurdistan could be punishable by persecution, imprisonment and even death. Kurdish human rights activists in Iran have been threatened by Iranian authorities in connection with their work.[60][61] Following the killing of Kurdish opposition activist Shivan Qaderi and two other Kurdish men by Iranian security forces in Mahabad on July 9, 2005, six weeks of riots and protests erupted in Kurdish towns and villages throughout Eastern Kurdistan. Scores were killed and injured, and an untold number arrested without charge. The Iranian authorities have also shut down several major Kurdish newspapers and arrested editors and reporters. Among those was Roya Toloui, a womens' rights activist and head of the Rasan ("Rising") newspaper in Sine, who was tortured for two months for alleged involvement in the organization of peaceful protests throughout Kurdistan provience.[62] According to the International Crisis Group, Kurds, who live in the least developed part of Iran, pose the most serious internal problem for Iran to resolve, and their apparent success in self-rule fuels their demands for greater autonomy.[63] Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Shivan Qaderi [1] (a. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... July 9 is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 175 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Roya Toloui, (1966- ), is a prominent Kurdish journalist, human rights activist and feminist. ... Feminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on and motivated by the experiences of women. ... Sanandaj or Senna (Kurdish: Sine;) (Persian: سنندج) is the capital of the province Kurdistan, which is situated in the Kurdish dominated western part of Iran It had an estimated population of 358,084 in 2006 [1] The city of Sanandaj is the capital of the province, and lies at a distance... The International Crisis Group is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization whose mission is to prevent and resolve deadly conflicts through field-based analysis and high-level advocacy. ...


Kurds in Syria

Main article: Kurds in Syria
A statue of Saladin at the Damascus citadel.
A statue of Saladin at the Damascus citadel.

Kurds account for 10% of Syria's population, a total of around 1.9 million people[64]. This makes them the largest ethnic minority in the country. Kurds often speak Kurdish in public, unless all those present do not. Kurdish human rights activists are mistreated and persecuted.[65] No political parties are allowed for any group, Kurdish or otherwise. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up 10% of the countrys population i. ... Download high resolution version (1024x748, 178 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Saladin Categories: Public domain images ... Download high resolution version (1024x748, 178 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Saladin Categories: Public domain images ... Artistic representation of Saladin. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ...


Techniques used to suppress the ethnic identity of Kurds in Syria include various bans on the use of the Kurdish language, refusal to register children with Kurdish names, replacement of Kurdish place names with new names in Arabic, prohibition of businesses that do not have Arabic names, not permitting Kurdish private schools, and the prohibition of books and other materials written in Kurdish.[66][67] Having been denied the right to Syrian nationality, around three-hundred thousand Kurds have been deprived of any social rights, in violation of international law.[68][69] As a consequence, these Kurds are in effect trapped within Syria.[70] In February 2006, however, sources reported that Syria was now planning to grant these Kurds citizenship.[71] The Kurdish language is an Iranian language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


On March 12, 2004, beginning at a stadium in Qamishli (a largely Kurdish city in northeastern Syria), clashes between Kurds and Syrians broke out and continued over a number of days. At least thirty people were killed and more than 160 injured. The unrest spread to other Kurdish towns along the northern border with Turkey, and then to Damascus and Aleppo.[72][73] Qamishli ܩܡܫܠܝ (or Al Qamishli or Kamishli, sometimes transcribed with accents) is a city in northeast Syria on the border with Turkey and close to Iraq (Ancient Assyria). ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Old Town viewed from Aleppo Citadel Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ...


Kurds in Armenia

See also: Kurdish-Armenian relations

Between the 1930s and 1980s, Armenia was a part of the Soviet Union, within which Kurds, like other ethnic groups, had the status of a protected minority. Armenian Kurds were permitted their own state-sponsored newspaper, radio broadcasts and cultural events. now. ... The 1930s (years from 1930-1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


During the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, many non-Yazidi Kurds were forced to leave their homes. Following the end of the Soviet Union, Kurds in Armenia were stripped of their cultural privileges and most fled to Russia or Western Europe[74] Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ...


Kurds in Azerbaijan

In 1920, two Kurdish inhabited areas of Jewanshir (capital Kalbajar) and eastern Zangazur (capital Lachin) were combined to form the Kurdistan Okrug (or "Red Kurdistan"). The period of existence of Kurdish administrative unit was brief and did not last beyond 1929. Kurds subsequently faced many repressive measures, including deportations. As a result of the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh, many Kurdish areas have been destroyed and more than 150,000 Kurds have been deported since 1988[75]. Kurdistan Autonomous Oblast (1923-1929) Kurdistan Autonomous Oblast (also known colloquially as Red Kurdistan from Kurdish Kurdistana Sor, Azerbaijani Qızıl Kürdistan) was a Soviet autonomous oblast that lasted for six years from 1923 to 1929. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Kalbacar is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Lachin (Laçın) is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... Kurdistan Okrug (1923-1929) Kurdistan Okrug (also known colloquially as Red Kurdistan from Kurdish Kurdistana Sor, Azerbaijani Qızıl Kürdistan, Russian Красный Курдистан) was a Soviet administrative unit that existed for six years from 1923 to 1929. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kurdish diaspora

According to a report by the Council of Europe, approximately 1.3 million Kurds live in Western Europe. The earliest immigrants were Kurds from Turkey, who settled in Germany, Austria, the Benelux countries, Great Britain (especially in London), Switzerland and France during the 1960s. Successive periods of political and social turmoil in the Middle East during 1980s and 1990s brought new waves of Kurdish refugees, mostly from Iran and Iraq under Saddam Hussein, came to Europe. [76]. The Palais de lEurope in Strasbourg Council of Europe Flag: used by the Council of Europe The Council of Europe (French: , German: ) is an international organization of 46 member states in the European region (with Azerbaijan, Armenia, Turkey, Georgia and Cyprus also extending into Southwest Asia and Russia into... A common understanding of Western Europe in modern times. ... Satellite image of the Benelux countries Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Benelux Benelux (or Bénélux) is an economic union in Western Europe comprising three neighbouring monarchies, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


There was substantial immigration of Kurds into North America and elsewhere, mainly are political refugees and immigrants seeking economic opportunity. An estimated 100,000 Kurds are known to live in the United States, with 50,000 in Canada and less than 15,000 in Australia, but the Kurds in other continents are classified under an individual's land of origin: Iraqi, Iranian, Syrian and Turkish nationalities or passports confirmed their citizenship to these countries. [citation needed]


Religion

Yazdanism refers to a group of native monotheistic religions practiced among the Kurds: Alevism, Yarsan and Yazidism. The main element in Yazdani faiths is the belief in seven angelic entities that protect the world, therefore these traditions are named as Cult of Angels[77] The original religion of the Kurds was Yazidism, a religion greatly influenced by the Jewish, Deavic, Zoroastrian, Christian and Islamic beliefs[78][79]. However there are significant differences between Yazdanism and Zoroasterianism, such as the belief in re-incarnation. Most Yazidis live in Iraqi Kurdistan, in the vicinity of Mosul and Sinjar[80]. The Yarsan (or Ahl-e Haqq) religion is practised in western Iran, primarily around Kermanshah. Christianity and Judaism both are still practised in very small numbers.[81] Rabbi Asenath Barzani, who lived in Mosul from 1590 to 1670, was among the very first Jewish women to become a rabbi. Yazdânism or Cult of Angels (also Yazdâni or Yazdanism) is a modern term for the monotheistic, though universalist, religion that was practiced by most Kurds up to the Islamization during the sixteenth century. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler) are adherents of a specific strand of Islam, with influences that include Anatolian traditions and ancient Turkic Shamanism . ... Kurdish Jews (יהדות כורדיסתאן Jews of Kurdistan, Standard Hebrew Yehudi Kurdistan) are the ancient Jewish communities inhabiting the region today known as Kurdistan, roughly covering parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, and Syria. ... Kurdish Christians are the ancient Christian communities inhabiting the region today known as Kurdistan. ... Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler) are adherents of a specific strand of Islam, with influences that include Anatolian traditions and ancient Turkic Shamanism . ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... Reincarnation, literally to be made flesh again, as a doctrine or mystical belief, holds the notion that some essential part of a living being (or in some variations, only human beings) can survive death in some form, with its integrity partly or wholly retained, to be reborn in a new... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sinjar is a small town in northwestern Iraq near the Syrian border, with an estimate population in the 2006 census of about 39,875 residents [1]. The wall and other evidence at a huge mound in northeastern Syria known as Tell Hamoukar indicate a complex government dating back at least... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Also referred to as Yarsan or Yaresan and also Ali-Ilahis or Aliullahis by outsiders, is one of many Sufi orders in Iran, combining various syncretistic and Islamic ideas with a veneration of Ali Ibn Abi Talib, the son-in-law of Muhammad. ... Hercules Statue, carved about 153 B.C. Kermanshah (Persian: کرمانشاه, Gorani Kurdish: کرماشان), is the capital city of Kermanshah Province, located 525 kilometers (324 miles) from Tehran in the western part of Iran. ... Kurdish Christians are the ancient Christian communities inhabiting the region today known as Kurdistan. ... Kurdish Jews (יהדות כורדיסתאן Jews of Kurdistan, Standard Hebrew Yehudi Kurdistan) are the ancient Jewish communities inhabiting the region today known as Kurdistan, roughly covering parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, and Syria. ... // Tanna’it Asenath Barzani (1590–1670) was a renowned Jewish-Kurdish woman who lived in Mosul, Iraq. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy Rabbi (Sephardic Hebrew רִבִּי ribbÄ«; Ashkenazi Hebrew רֶבִּי rebbÄ« or rebbÉ™; and modern Israeli רַבִּי rabbÄ«) in Judaism, means teacher, or more literally great one. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root-word RaV, which in biblical Hebrew means great or distinguished (in...


Today the majority of Kurds are officially Muslim, belonging to the Shafi school of Sunni Islam. Mystical practices and participation in Sufi orders are also widespread among Kurds[82]. There is also a minority of Kurds that are Shia Muslims, primarily living in the Ilam and Kermanshah provinces of Iran, Central Iraq (Fayli Kurds). The Alevis are another religious minority among the Kurds, mainly found in Turkey. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Shafii is one of the four schools of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Mysticism (ancient Greek mysticon = secret) is meditation, prayer, or theology focused on the direct experience of union with divinity, God, or Ultimate Reality, or the belief that such experience is a genuine and important source of knowledge. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... // Introduction Ilam province is on the western edges of the Zagros range, bordering Iraq. ... Hercules Statue, carved about 153 B.C. Kermanshah (Persian: کرمانشاه, Gorani Kurdish: کرماشان), is the capital city of Kermanshah Province, located 525 kilometers (324 miles) from Tehran in the western part of Iran. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler) are adherents of a specific strand of Islam, with influences that include Anatolian traditions and ancient Turkic Shamanism . ...


It is been said that Kurds "hold their Islam lightly", meaning that their faith tends not to be as assertive as it can become in other areas[83]. One consequence, for example, has been the greater freedoms enjoyed by Kurdish women; they do not cover their faces, their hijab is less restrictive, and they do not wear full-cover garments such as the Iranian chador or Arabic abaya[84] [85]. Hijab or ħijāb () is the Arabic term for cover (noun), based on the root حجب meaning to veil, to cover (verb), to screen, to shelter In some Arabic-speaking countries and Western countries, the word hijab primarily refers to womens head, face, or body covering. ... A chador (Persian چادر) is an outer garment worn by some Iranian women when they venture out into public; it is one possible way in which a Muslim woman may follow the Islamic ħijāb dress code. ... The abaya is an overgarment worn by some Muslim women. ...


Culture

Poster for the movie Turtles Can Fly.
Poster for the movie Turtles Can Fly.[86]

Kurdish culture is a legacy from the various ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society, but primarily of three layers of indigenous (Hurrian), ancient Iranian (Medes) and Islamic roots. Kurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. ... The Kurdistan newspaper Kurdish literature (in Kurdish: Wêjey kurdî) is a literature written in Kurdish language. ... Kurdish women played an important role throughout Kurdish history. ... Turtles Can Fly movie poster This is a copyrighted poster. ... Turtles Can Fly movie poster This is a copyrighted poster. ... Turtles Can Fly (Persian: لاک پشت ها هم پرواز می کنند Kurdish: Kûsiyan jî dikarin bifirin [1]) is a 2004 film written and directed by Bahman Ghobadi. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Medea (Medea Proper), ca. ... Generally, a Muslim is defined by faith in the religion of Islam; however, in the modern world there are religiously unobservant, agnostic or atheist individuals who still identify with the Muslim culture due to family background or personal experiences. ...


Kurdish culture is close to that of other Iranian peoples; Kurds, for instance, also celebrate Newroz (March 21) as New Year's Day.[84] Faravahar is a prominent guardian spirit in Zoroastrianism and Iranian culture that is believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi. ... Norouz (Newroz in Kurdish) (also spelled Noe-Rooz, Norouz, Norooz, Noruz, Novruz, Noh Ruz, Nauroz, Nav-roze, Navroz, Náw-Rúz or Nowrouz and in Persian نوروز) is the traditional Iranian festival of spring which starts at the exact moment of the vernal equinox, commencing the start of the spring. ...


Kurdish films mainly evoke poverty and the lack of rights of Kurdish people in the region. Yılmaz Güney (Yol [87] ) and Bahman Qubadi (A Time for Drunken Horses, Turtles Can Fly) are among the better-known Kurdish directors. Yilmaz Güney Yilmaz Güney (April 1, 1937-September 9, 1984) is a Turkish (Kurdish) film director, writer and scenarist. ... Yol (in Turkish means The Way) is the title of a movie by Yilmaz Güney and Serif Gören. ... Bahman Ghobadi (born February 1, 1969) is a Kurdish Iranian film director. ... A Time for Drunken Horses (Zamani barayé masti asbha) is a 2000 Kurdish film directed by Bahman Ghobadi and produced in Iran. ... Turtles Can Fly (Persian: لاک پشت ها هم پرواز Ù…ÛŒ کنند Kurdish: Kûsiyan jî dikarin bifirin [1]) is a 2004 film written and directed by Bahman Ghobadi. ...


Music

Main article: Kurdish music
Şivan Perwer performing at a concert in Sweden, 2005.
Şivan Perwer performing at a concert in Sweden, 2005.

Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish Classical performers: storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj) and bards (dengbêj). There was no specific music related to the Kurdish princely courts, and instead, music performed in night gatherings (şevbihêrk) is considered classical. Several musical forms are found in this genre. Many songs are epic in nature, such as the popular Lawiks, heroic ballads recounting the tales of Kurdish heroes such as Saladin. Heyrans are love ballads usually expressing the melancholy of separation and unfulfilled love, while Lawje is a form of religious music and Payizoks are songs performed during the autumn. Love songs, dance music, wedding and other celebratory songs (dîlok/narînk), erotic poetry and work songs are also popular. Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish Classical performers - storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj) and bards (dengbêj). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1476x1636, 1413 KB) Summary Åživan Perwer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1476x1636, 1413 KB) Summary Åživan Perwer. ... Åživan Perwer is a poet, a singer a performer on the tembûr (Kurdish/Turkish lute) and a leading Kurdish artist. ... A classical music concert in the Rod Laver Arena, Melbourne 2005 A concert is a live performance, usually of music, before an audience. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... FUCK YOU BITCHES ... A bard is a poet or singer, in religious or feudal contexts. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... A ballad is a story, usually a narrative or poem, in a song. ... Artistic representation of Saladin. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds[1]; old: Koordistan, Curdistan, Kurdia, also in Kurdish: Kurdewarî) is the name of a geographic and cultural region in the Middle East, inhabited predominantly by the Kurds. ... The history of the Kurds stretches from ancient times to the present day. ... Turkish Kurdistan (Turkish: Türkiye Kürdistanı or Kuzey Kürdistan (Northern Kurdistan) or Kuzeybatı Kürdistan [4] (Northwestern Kurdistan), Kurdish: Kurdistana Tirkiyê [5] or Bakurê Kurdistanê [6] (North of Kurdistan) or Kurdistana Bakûr [7] (Northern Kurdistan) ) is an unofficial name for the southeastern part of Turkey densely inhabited... About half of all Kurds live in Turkey, numbering some 15 million where they comprise an estimated 20%[1] of the total population of Turkey and are predominantly distributed in the southeastern corner of the country. ... Iranian Kurdistan (Kurdish: Kurdistana ÃŽranê [1] or Kurdistana Rojhilat (Eastern Kurdistan) [2] or Rojhilatê Kurdistan (East of Kurdistan) [3]) is an unofficial name for the parts of Iran inhabited by Kurds and has borders with Iraq and Turkey. ... Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Capital Arbil Largest city Erbil Kurdish, Arabic, (Assyrian (Syriac)) and (Iraqi Turkmen) Government Parliamentary Democracy  - Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani  - President Masoud Barzani Formation of Autonomous Region    - Autonomy Accord Agreement is Signed March 11, 1970   - Autonomy Accord Collapses March 1974   - Gained de facto... Kurds are the largest ethnic minority in Syria making up 10% of the countrys population i. ... Kurdistan Okrug (1923-1929) Kurdistan Okrug (also known colloquially as Red Kurdistan from Kurdish Kurdistana Sor, Azerbaijani Qızıl Kürdistan, Russian Красный Курдистан) was a Soviet administrative unit that existed for six years from 1923 to 1929. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... This is a list of Kurdish organisations // Iraq Action Party for the Independence of Kurdistan Ansar al-Islam Jaish Ansar al-Sunna Jund al-Islam Islamic Unity-Front Kurdish Hamas Tawhid Soran Unit Democratic Patriotic Alliance of Kurdistan Islamic Fayli Grouping in Iraq Islamic Group Kurdistan Islamic Kurdish Society Islamic... Genetic testings amongst randomly chosen Kurdish populations has began to shed light into the disparate origins of the Kurds. ... Malak Ta’us, the peacock angel The Yazidi or Yezidi (Kurdish: Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... Kurdish Jews (יהדות כורדיסתאן Jews of Kurdistan, Standard Hebrew Yehudi Kurdistan) are the ancient Jewish communities inhabiting the region today known as Kurdistan, roughly covering parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, and Syria. ... Kurdish Christians are the ancient Christian communities inhabiting the region today known as Kurdistan. ...

Modern Kurdish governments

Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Capital Arbil Largest city Erbil Kurdish, Arabic, (Assyrian (Syriac)) and (Iraqi Turkmen) Government Parliamentary Democracy  - Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani  - President Masoud Barzani Formation of Autonomous Region    - Autonomy Accord Agreement is Signed March 11, 1970   - Autonomy Accord Collapses March 1974   - Gained de facto... Qazi Mohammad, president of the Republic of Kurdistan The Republic of Mahabad (Kurdish: Komarî Mehabad, Persian: جمهوری مهاباد ), officially Republic of Kurdistan, established in Iranian Kurdistan, was a short-lived, Soviet backed Kurdish state of the 20th century after the Republic of Ararat in Turkey. ... The Republic of Ararat was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. ... The Kingdom of Kurdistan can refer to two kingdoms formed in the 1920s in the geo-cultural region of Kurdistan. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ [20% of 70,400,000] to [20% of 74,709,000]: The World Factbook, s.v. Turkey, (Langley, VA: Central Intelligence Agency, 2006), https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/tu.html#People; World Gazetter, ed. Stefan Helders, s.v. World (Leverkusen, Germany: Stefan Helders, 2006). http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php.
  2. ^ Estimate based on 7% of 68,688,433: World Factbook, s.v. Iran; Encyclopedia of the Orient, ed. Tore Kjeilen, s.v. Iran:Religions and Peoples, (N.P.:Lexorient, 2006), http://lexicorient.com/e.o/iran_4.htm.
  3. ^ Estimate based on 15% to 20% of 26,783,383: World Factbook, s.v. Iraq; Encyclopedia of the Orient, s.v. Iraq: Religions and Peoples.
  4. ^ Estimate based on 5% to 15% of 18,881,361: s.v. World Factbook Syria; Encyclopedia of the Orient, s.v. Syria: Peoples, Languages, Religions.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g The Kurdish Diaspora, Institut Kurde de Paris (Paris: Institut Kurde de Paris, 2006), http://www.institutkurde.org/en/kurdorama/.
  6. ^ Lokman I. Meho, The Kurds and Kurdistan: A General Background, in Kurdish Culture and Society: An Annotated Bibliography. Comp. Lokman I. Meho & Kelly Maglaughlin (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001), 4. http://www.slis.indiana.edu/faculty/meho/meho-bibliography-2001.pdf.
  7. ^ Kurds in Georgia in Eurominority: Portal of European Stateless Nations and Minorities (Quimper, France: Organization for the European Minorities, 2006). http://www.eurominority.org/; The Kurdish Diaspora.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h The cultural situation of the Kurds, A report by Lord Russell-Johnston, Council of Europe, July 2006 http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc06/EDOC11006.htm.
  9. ^ Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, s.v. Iran, (by Eric Hooglund), section 3A (accessed 24 July 2006).
  10. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. Kurds, (accessed 4 August 2006)
  11. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. Kurds.
  12. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. Kurd, (accessed 4 August 2006); Kurds in Iraq, in Eurolegal Services,http://www.eurolegal.org/neoconwars/kurdsiraq.htm.
  13. ^ The Encyclopedia of Kurdistan, s.v. Origin, (by Mehrdad A. Izady), (accessed 4 August 2006).
  14. ^ Iraqi Kurds — Their History And Culture, in Cultural Orientation Website, Refugee Factsheet no. 13 (Washington, DC: Cultural Orientation Project, Center for Applied Linguistics, 2004. http://www.culturalorientation.net/kurds/khist.html
  15. ^ Hennerbichler 2004: Die Kurden byFerdinand Hennerbichler, ISBN 963-214-575-5, pubd by the author, Dr. Ferdinand Hennerbichler, Edition fhe, Albert es Hennerbichler Bt., H-9200 Mosonmagyarovar, Slovakia, 2004.
  16. ^ A. Arnaiz-Villena, J. Martiez-Lasoa and J. Alonso-Garcia, The correlation Between Languages and Genes: The Usko-Mediterranean Peoples Human Immunology 62 (2001) No. 9:1057.
  17. ^ http://www.kurdistanica.com/english/history/origin-e.html
  18. ^ http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16167/16167-h/raw7a.htm
  19. ^ http://italian.classic-literature.co.uk/history-of-rome/05-the-establishment-of-the-military-monarchy/ebook-page-24.asp
  20. ^ http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16167/16167-h/raw7a.htm
  21. ^ http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc06/EDOC11006.htm
  22. ^ The correlation Between Languages and Genes: The Usko-Mediterranean Peoples, Human Immunology, vol. 62, p.1057, 2001
  23. ^ A. Arnaiz-Villena, E,Gomez-Casado, J.Martinez-Laso, Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA distribution and a historic perspective, Tissue Antigens, vol.60, issue 2, p. 117, 2002
  24. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9046467
  25. ^ http://countrystudies.us/turkey/28.htm
  26. ^ Kreyenbroek, Philip (1992). "On the Kurdish Language", in The Kurds: a contemporary overview, eds. Philip Kreyenbroek and Stefan Sperl (p. 69)
  27. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-230041
  28. ^ http://www.bartleby.com/65/ir/Iran.html
  29. ^ http://www.encislam.brill.nl/data/EncIslam/C4/COM-0544.html
  30. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11380939&dopt=Abstract
  31. ^ http://www.barzan.com/kevin_brook.htm
  32. ^ http://www.cryptojews.com/Comparing_DNA.htm
  33. ^ http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/110485882/ABSTRACT
  34. ^ The CIA Factbook reports all non-Arabs make up 9.7% of the Syrian population, and does not break out the Kurdish figure separately. Since Syria contains a large Armenian population, 8% may be a reasonable percentage.
  35. ^ https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html
  36. ^ G.S. Harris, Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pp.118-120, 1977
  37. ^ http://hrw.org/reports/1993/iraqanfal/ANFALINT.htm
  38. ^ ibid., p.121
  39. ^ M. Farouk-Sluglett, P. Sluglett, J. Stork, Not Quite Armageddon: Impact of the War on Iraq, MERIP Reports, July-September 1984, p.24
  40. ^ http://www.hrw.org/reports/1993/iraqanfal/
  41. ^ https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/tu.html#People
  42. ^ http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc06/EDOC11006.htm
  43. ^ Ethnologue census of languages in Asian portion of Turkey
  44. ^ Kurds, The Columbia Encyclopaedia.
  45. ^ http://www.amnestyusa.org/action/special/zana.html
  46. ^ Radu, Michael. (2001). "The Rise and Fall of the PKK", Orbis. 45(1):47-64.
  47. ^ http://www.hrw.org/reports/2005/turkey0305/3.htm#_Toc97005223
  48. ^ http://hrw.org/reports/2002/turkey/
  49. ^ http://www.hrw.org/reports/2005/turkey0305/
  50. ^ http://store.yahoo.com/hrwpubs/tur.html
    See also: Report D612, October, 1994, "Forced Displacement of Ethnic Kurds" (A Human Rights Watch Publication).
  51. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-230041
  52. ^ http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc06/EDOC11006.htm]
  53. ^ [http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/f52bcc85689b17998025679f003f5a36?Opendocument
  54. ^ http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2267/is_1_70/ai_102140955/pg_25
  55. ^ http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2267/is_1_70/ai_102140955/pg_25
  56. ^ http://www.itnet.org/kurds_today.html
  57. ^ http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2267/is_1_70/ai_102140955/pg_26
  58. ^ http://www.alefbe.com/revolution6.htm
  59. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGMDE130432005?open&of=ENG-IRN
  60. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGMDE130102005?open&of=ENG-370
  61. ^ http://www.pdk-iran.org/english/doc/unhrc_iran_2002_minorities.htm
  62. ^ http://web.amnesty.org/wire/October2005/Iran
  63. ^ Iran's Waning Human Rights (The New York Times)
  64. ^ http://www.gazetteer.de/wg.php?x=1136895927&men=gpro&lng=en&des=gamelan&dat=200&geo=-106&srt=pnan&col=aohdqcfbeimg&geo=0
  65. ^ http://www.amnestyusa.org/regions/middleeast/document.do?id=80256DD400782B8480256F63006435DB
  66. ^ http://hrw.org/reports/1996/Syria.htm
  67. ^ http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/01/13/syria9812.htm
  68. ^ http://voanews.com/english/archive/2005-09/2005-09-02-voa15.cfm?CFID=46444555&CFTOKEN=26238763]
  69. ^ [http://themedialine.org/news/news_detail.asp?NewsID=12568
  70. ^ http://hrw.org/reports/1996/Syria.htm
  71. ^ http://themedialine.org/news/news_detail.asp?NewsID=12568
  72. ^ http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/03/19/syria8132.htm
  73. ^ http://www.amude.net/serhildan/index.html
  74. ^ http://www.slis.indiana.edu/faculty/meho/meho-bibliography-2001.pdf, p.22
  75. ^ ibid.
  76. ^ http://assembly.coe.int/Main.asp?link=/Documents/WorkingDocs/Doc06/EDOC11006.htm
  77. ^ Yazdanism, Encyclopaedia of the Orient.
  78. ^ http://www.itnet.org/kurds_islam.html
  79. ^ http://www.bostonreview.net/BR28.3/pocha.html
  80. ^ http://kurdistanica.com/english/religion/yazdani/yezidi/yezidi.html
  81. ^ http://www.kurdistanica.com/english/religion/judaism/judaism.html
  82. ^ http://www.itnet.org/kurds_islam.html
  83. ^ http://www.itnet.org/kurds_islam.html
  84. ^ a b http://www.culturalorientation.net/kurds/krelig.html
  85. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/3770621.stm
  86. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-22937
  87. ^ http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/6302824435/002-0586942-6112800?v=glance&n=404272

The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. ...

Bibliography

  • Barth, F. 1953. Principles of Social Organization in Southern Kurdistan. Bulletin of the University Ethnographic Museum 7. Oslo.
  • Hansen, H.H. 1961. The Kurdish Woman's Life. Copenhagen. Ethnographic Museum Record 7:1-213.
  • Leach, E.R. 1938. Social and Economic Organization of the Rowanduz Kurds. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology 3:1-74.
  • Longrigg, S.H. 1953. Iraq, 1900-1950. London.
  • Masters, W.M. 1953. Rowanduz. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.

External links

The Kurdish Issue in Turkey


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