FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Kurdish language
Kurdish
كوردی, Kurdî, К'ӧрди
Spoken in: Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Armenia, Lebanon, Israel (see article for full list) 
Region: Middle East
Total speakers: 39,500,000(disputed)[1][2][3][4] 
Ranking: 39 (disputed)
Language family: Indo-European
 Indo-Iranian
  Iranian
   Western Iranian
    Northwestern Iranian
     Kurdish 
Writing system: Kurdish alphabet (modified Arabic alphabet in Iraq and Iran, modified Latin alphabet in Turkey and Syria, modified Cyrillic in the former USSR) 
Official status
Official language in: Iraq
Kurdish Autonomous Region
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: ku
ISO 639-2: kur
ISO 639-3: variously:
kur – Kurdish (generic)
ckb – Central Kurdish
kmr – Northern Kurdish
sdh – Southern Kurdish 

Areas where Kurdish is spoken as mother tongue

The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. It is mainly concentrated in the parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey.[5] This is a list of countries of the world sorted by the total Kurdish-speaking population in that country. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... task manager disable ---- please help ... The Northwestern Iranian languages include some 53 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Western Iranian language family. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Kurdish alphabet is a writing system for the Kurdish language. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... See also Southern (or Iraqi) Kurdistan The Kurdish Autonomous Region is a political entity established in 1970 following the agreement of an Autonomy Accord between the government of Iraq and leaders of the Iraqi Kurdish community. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Sorani is a group of Central Kurdish dialects and as such is part of the Iranian languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Central Kurdish dialects group, also called Soraní, is the language of a plurality of Kurds in Eastern Kurdistan (Kurdistan in Iran) and Southern Kurdistan (Kurdistan in Iraq), with about 8 million speakers. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts...


The Kurdish language belongs to the western sub-group of the Iranian languages, which themselves belong to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. The most closely related languages to Kurdish are Balochi, Zazaki Gileki and Talysh, all of which belong to the north-western branch of Iranian languages. Also related to Kurdish is the Persian language, which belongs to the south-western branch. The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Balochi (also Baluchi, Baloci or Baluci) is a Northwestern Iranian language. ... Zazaki (Zazakî, Zazaish) or Dimli is a language closely related to the Persian and Kurdish languages, spoken by the Zaza in eastern Anatolia (Turkey), an ethnic minority related to the Iranians and Kurds. ... ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Farsi redirects here. ...


The word, Kurdish, to describe the language that Kurds speak is not commonly used by the majority of Kurds outside of foreign conversations or literatures. The majority use the names of the dialects they speak in order to describe their language while using the term, Kurdish, to describe their ethnic identity. This also may reflect the significant differences between dialects or languages classified as Kurdish and the controversy of such classifications.[6]

Contents

Origin and roots

From about the 10th century BC, Iranian tribes spread in the area now corresponding to Kurdistan, among them Medes, speakers of a Northwest Iranian dialect. Gradual linguistic assimilation of the various indigenous peoples to this Median language in the course of the Iron Age marks the beginning of Kurdish ethnogenesis.[7] Some evidence of Hurrian influence on Kurdish is detected in its ergative grammatical structure.[8] A linguistic group influential on Kurdish to a lesser degree was Aramaic. M.R. Izady (1993) identifies three-quarters of Kurdish clan names and roughly two-third of toponyms are as deriving from Hurrian,[9] e.g., the names of the clans of Bukhti, Tirikan, Bazayni, Bakran, Mand; rivers Murad, Balik and Khabur, lake Van; the towns of Mardin, Ziwiya, Dinawarand Barzan. Ancient Iranian peoples first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... Mede nobility. ... The Northwestern Iranian languages are a branch of the Western Iranian language group, spoken by about 40-50 million people in southwest Asia; They are classified into about 9 groups; each group in this list contains subgroups, dialects or individual languages, eventually forming 53-54 branchs. ... The Median language was a Western Iranian language, classified as North-Western with Parthian, Baluchi, Kurdish and others. ... Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... An ergative-absolutive language (or simply ergative) is one that treats the agent of transitive verbs distinctly from the subject of intransitive verbs and the object of transitive verbs. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


History

Although Kurdish has a northwestern Iranian root, little is known about Kurdish in pre-Islamic times. The most notable language in this group is Median, of which little is known either. The sacred book of the Yazidis, Mishefa Reş (Black Book) was written in Kurmanji Kurdish by Shaikh Adi's son in early 13th century [10]. From the 15th to 17th centuries, classical Kurdish poets and writers developed a literary language. The most famous classical Kurdish poets from this period are Ali Hariri, Ahmad Khani, Malaye Jaziri and Faqi Tayran. The Northwestern Iranian languages include some 53 (SIL estimate) languages and dialects spoken by about many people in Asia; this language family is a part of the Western Iranian language family. ... The Median language was a Western Iranian language, classified as North-Western with Parthian, Baluchi, Kurdish and others. ... Malak Ta’us, the peacock angel The Yazidi or Yezidi (Kurdish: Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Reformed the Yezidi faith about 1162. ... Ehmedê Xanî, (or Ahmad Khani), (1651-1707) was a Kurdish writer and poet. ... Malaye Jaziri (or Melayê Cizîrî),(1570-1640) was a Kurdish writer , poet and mystic. ... Faqi Tayran, (or Feqîyê Teyran), (1590-1660) is considered as one of the great classic Kurdish poets and writers. ...


Current status

Today, Kurdish is an official language in Iraq, while it is banned in Syria where it is forbidden to publish material in Kurdish.[11] Before August 2002, the Turkish government placed severe restrictions on the use of Kurdish, prohibiting the language in education and broadcast media.[12] In Iran, though it is used in some local media and newspapers, it is forbidden in schools [13] [14]. As a result many Iranian Kurds have left for Iraqi Kurdistan where they can study in their native language[15]. Anthem Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Location of Iraqi Kurdistan (dark green) with respect to Iraq (light green) on a map of the Middle East. ...


In March 2006, Turkey allowed private television channels to begin airing Kurdish language programming. However, the Turkish government said that they must avoid showing children's cartoons, or educational programs that teach the Kurdish language, and can only broadcast for 45 minutes a day or four hours a week. The programs must carry Turkish subtitles.[16] Kurdish blogs have emerged in recent years as virtual fora where Kurdish-speaking Internet users can express themselves in their native Kurdish or in other languages. Kurdish satellite television is also available in Kurdistan and Europe. For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ...


Dialects

According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, Kurdish has two main dialects: a northern and a central one. The northern dialect, Northern Kurmanji also commonly referred to simply as Kurmanji (and sometimes Bahdini), is spoken in northern half of Iraqi Kurdistan, Caucasus, Turkey, Syria and northwest of Iran. The central group, called Sorani, is spoken in west of Iran and central part of Iraqi Kurdistan. [17]. Linguists often classify both dialects as part of the same Kurmanji branch (as well as the larger branch) of the Kurdish language. ... Northern Kurmanji (Kurdish: Kurmancî ya Bakûr also simply referred to as Kurmancî) is the most commonly-spoken dialect of the Kurdish language spoken in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, the former Soviet republics and by Kurds living in Central Asia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sorani is a group of Central Kurdish dialects and as such is part of the Iranian languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A third group, the southern dialects (ironically are spoken in both Northern and Southern Kurdistan regions) are largely referred to by linguists as the Zaza-Gorani branch.[18] While some scholars reject the classification of Zaza-Gorani as belonging to the Kurdish branch of Indo-Iranian languages as much of the words are from the same root and the grammatical stractures are the same as kurmanci and sorani. Even though there is evidence through a recent genetical research that Zazas indeed are Kurds[[3]], many Zaza-nationalists claim Zazas are a different people only based on linguistic differences. Such ideas can therefor be considered mainly political since no explanations and no proven facts are represented on the history and causes of the lingustic differences and how the linguistic differences conclude Zaza-Gorans are separate from Kurds. Furthermore, the Gorans of south Kurdistan and the majority of the Zaza population consider themselves as a part of the Kurdish people, the genetical test that was made also confirm the Zazas who were the subjects felt as they were Kurds.An other classification of Southern Kurdish dialects suggests as following: Kalhuri, Feyli, Gurani and classifies these dialects as one branch of Kurdish language dialects. For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Central Kurdish dialects group, also called Soraní, is the language of a plurality of Kurds in Eastern Kurdistan (Kurdistan in Iran) and Southern Kurdistan (Kurdistan in Iraq), with about 8 million speakers. ... Southern Kurdish is one of three major Kurdish dialects which predominates in far southern Kurdistan, in western Iran and eastern Iraq. ... Feyli (also Fayli or Faili) is one of the southern dialects of the Kurdish language, spoken in Southern Kurdistan and Eastern Kurdistan i. ... Gorani (also Gurani) is a dialect spoken by several hundreds of thousands of Kurds in the province of Kurdistan and province of Kermanshah in Iran, and in the Halabja region in Iraqi Kurdistan and the Hewraman mountains between Iran and Iraq. ...


Dialects or languages?

The use of the word "Kurdish" to describe the language or languages that Kurds speak may be the very cause of controversies regarding the differences among the dialects or languages. Outside of foreign conversation or literatures, the majority of Kurds use the name of the dialect they speak in order to describe their dialect or language, and sometimes even one another. The use of the word, Kurdish, by contrast, has been used more often to simply describe the ethnic identity of the Kurds reflecting the significant differences between the dialects or languages.


Some linguistic scholars assert that the term "Kurdish" has been extrinsically applied in describing the language the Kurds speak, while Kurds intuitively have used the word to simply describe their ethnic or national identity and refer to their language as Kurmanji, Sorani, Hewrami, or whatever other dialect or language they are native to. Some historians have noted that only until recent history have a small minority of Kurds who speak the Sorani dialect begun referring to their language as Kurdî, in addition to their identity, which is translated to simply mean Kurdish.[19]


Kurmanji and Sorani

According to Philip Kreyenbroek (1992), it may also be misleading to call Northern Kurmanji and Sorani "dialects" because they are in some ways as different from one another as German and English.[20] However, both dialects are widely accepted as part of a Kurmanji branch of languages spoken by Kurds. Northern Kurmanji (Kurdish: Kurmancî ya Bakûr also simply referred to as Kurmancî) is the most commonly-spoken dialect of the Kurdish language spoken in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, the former Soviet republics and by Kurds living in Central Asia. ... Sorani is a group of Central Kurdish dialects and as such is part of the Iranian languages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Kurmanji or Northern Kurmanji is more archaic than the other dialects in both phonetic and morphological structure, and it is conjectured that the differences between central and northern dialects, have been caused by the proximity of central group to the other Iranian languages.[21]. Northern Kurmanji (Kurdish: Kurmancî ya Bakûr also simply referred to as Kurmancî) is the most commonly-spoken dialect of the Kurdish language spoken in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, the former Soviet republics and by Kurds living in Central Asia. ...


According to Encyclopaedia of Islam, although Kurdish is not a unified language, its many dialects are interrelated and at the same time distinguishable from other western Iranian languages. The same source classifies different Kurdish dialects as two main groups of northern and central. Northern group (Kurmanji) is spoken in Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Mosul and Bahdinan regions in Iraq and Kurdish communities in Khorasan (northeast of Iran). Central group (Sorani) is spoken in Arbil, Sulaimaniya, Kirkuk (all in Iraq), Mahabad and Sanandaj (in Iran). [22]. The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: Nîněwâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... Arbil (also written Erbil or Irbil; BGN: Arbīl; Arabic: , Arbīl; Kurdish: , Hewlêr; Syriac: ܐܪܒܝܠ, Arbela, Turkish: Erbil) is believed by many to be one of the oldest continuously-inhabited cities in the world and is one of the larger cities in Iraq [1] [2] [3]. The city lies... Sulaymaniyah (Arabic: as-sulaymānīyä, Kurdish: Slêmanî) is a city in the southeast of greater Kurdistan (the Kurdish-speaking region of the Middle East). ... Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, Kirkūk; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ... View over Mahabad Mahabad (in Persian: مهاباد , in Kurdish: Mehabad or Mihabad, alternative name: سابلاخ, Sablax) is a city in northwestern Iran with an estimated population of 168,328 inhabitants in 2006. ... Amirieh Park located in Mount Awyer has the widest Open Space Cinema screen in the world. ...


The reality is that the average Diyarbakir Kurmanji speaker will not find it easy to communicate with the inhabitants of Suleymania or Halabja.[23] Another fact is that when the Kurds from Syria, Turkey, Iran and Iraq get together in America, they have no choice but to speak English in order to communicate.[24]



A potentially unified form, emerging either via natural or organised merger of Kurmanji and Sorani is humurously dubbed Soranji by Kurds.


A new term coined recently by Mehrdad Izady, a writer on Kurdish subjects is Pahlawani which tries to link the Iranian languages of Zaza-Gorani branch to Kurmanji and Sorani.[4] Zaza and Gorani are two languages from north-western Iranian branch and are distinct from Kurmanji and Sorani.[25] Pehlewani (Kurdish: Pehlewanî) (also Pahlawani) is one branch of Kurdish as classified by scholars of the language. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Zaza may refer to: The Zaza people, an ethnic group in Eastern Anatolia (Southeastern Turkey). ... Gorani could be the name of: Gorani, (a. ...


Indo-European linguistic comparison

Due to the fact that Kurdish language is an Indo-European language, there are many words that are cognates in Kurdish and other Indo-European languages such as Avestan, Persian, Sanskrit, German, English, Latin and Greek. (Source: Altiranisches Wörterbuch (1904) for the first two and last six.) For other uses, see Indo-European. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yasna 28. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...

Kurdish Avestan Persian Sanskrit Greek English German Latin Lithuanian Russian PIE
ez "I" äzəm [ezìm] man aham egō I (< OE ) ich ego ja (OCS azŭ) *h₁eĝh₂om
jin "woman" ghenãnãmca [ghenâ] "woman" zan janay- gynēka queen (OHG quena) femina (OPruss. genna) žená "wife" *gʷenh₂-
ley[stin](biley[zim]) "to play(I play)" bāzi"play", lei-lei "a type of childish play, only consists of springing", lei-lei [kardan] "doing such a play" réjati paizo play leich láigīti *(e)lAig'- "to jump, to spring, to play"[5]
mezin "great" maz-, mazant mogh/mehtar mah(ī)-/mahānt- megas much (< OE mićil, myćil) (OHG mihhil) magnus milžinas "giant" moguchiy *meĝh₂- "big, great" [6]
mêzer "headband/turban" mitrā- "god name"(Old Persian) mitrah mitra "headband, turban", mitre "bishop's tall hat" - from Greek[7]) Mitra - from Greek mitra - from Greek) mir "world, peace" *mei- "to tie" ([8], p38)
pez "sheep" pasu- "sheep, goat" boz "goat" paśu "animal" fee (< OE feoh "cattle") Vieh "cattle" pecus "cattle" pekus "ox" pastuh "shepherd" *pek̂-u- "sheep"[9],[10]
çiya "mountain" kūh, chakād "peak/summit" kakúd-, kakúbh- "peak/summit" cacūmen *kak-, *kakud- "top"[11] [12]
zîndu "alive" jiyan "to live" gaêm [gaya] zind[e] "alive", zî[stan] "to live", zaideh "child" jīvati zoi "life", "live" quick quick "bright" vīvus "alive", vīvō "live", vīta "life" gývas živój *gʷih₃(u̯)-
javān "young", OP jawāng ' young, OE geong ', Old High German jung juvenis *
mang meh hîv "moon, month" māh- māh "moon, month" mās- mēn "month" moon, month Mond, Monat mēnsis "month" mėnuo/mėnesis mésjac *meh₁ns-
mird[u] "dead", mird[in] "to die" mar-, məša- mord[a] "dead", mord[an] "to die" marati, mrta- brotos "mortal", ambrosios "immortal" murder Mord "murder" morior "die", mors "death" mirti "to die" umerét’"to die", mërtvyj "dead" *mer-, *mr̻to-
ser "head" sarah- sar śiras- ker[as] "horn", kara "head", krā[nion] "cranium" dial. harns "brain" [Ge]hir[n] "brain" cereb[rum] "brain" cherep "skull" *k̂erh₂s-
sed "hundred" satəm sad śatam [he]katon hund[red] Hund[ert] centum šimt[as] sto *dk̂m̻tom
[di]zan[im] "I know" zan[în] "to know" zan- [mi]dān[am] "I know", dān[estan] "to know" jān[āti] [gi]gnō[skō] know kennen nō[scō], [co]gn[itus] žin[au]"I know" žin[oti] "to know" zná[ju]"I know" zn[at’]' "to know" *ĝneh₃-

Yasna 28. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... Old English redirects here. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. ... Old English redirects here. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Old English redirects here. ...

Writing system

Main article: Kurdish alphabet

The Kurdish language uses three different writing systems. In Iran and Iraq it is written using a modified version of the Arabic alphabet (and more recently, sometimes with the Latin alphabet in Iraqi Kurdistan). In Turkey and Syria, it is written using the Latin alphabet. As an example, see the following online news portal published in Iraqi Kurdistan. [13] Also see the VOA News site in Kurdish. [14] Kurdish in the former USSR is written with a modified Cyrillic alphabet. There is also a proposal for a unified international recognised Kurdish alphabet based on ISO-8859-1.[26] Kurdish alphabet is a writing system for the Kurdish language. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Anthem Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Location of Iraqi Kurdistan (dark green) with respect to Iraq (light green) on a map of the Middle East. ... Voice of America logo Voice of America (VOA) is the official international radio and television broadcasting service of the United States federal government. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ...


Phonology

According to the Kurdish Academy of Language, Kurdish has the following phonemes:


Consonants

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Apical Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn-
geal
Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g q
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ç x ɣ ħ ʕ h
Affricate ʧ ʤ
Lateral l ɫ1
Flap ɾ
Trill r
Approximant ʋ j
  1. Just as in many English dialects, the velarized lateral does not appear in the onset of a syllable.

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue (i. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... A pharyngeal consonant is a type of consonant which is articulated with the root of the tongue against the pharynx. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

Vowels

front central back
short long short long short long
close i ʉ u
mid e ə o
open a

The vowel pairs /i/ and /iː/, /e/ and /eː/, and /u/ and /uː/ contrast in length and not quality. This distinction shows up in the writing system, for instance in the Kurdish Latin alphabet, short vowels are represented by o, u, i and e and long vowels have a circumflex ( ^ ), such as û, î and ê. Unlike Arabic, all vowels in Kurdish are mandatory and should be written down. Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A central vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the duration of a vowel sound. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ...


Dictionaries

Kurdish-only dictionaries

  • Wîkîferheng (Kurdish Wiktionary)
  • Husein Muhammed: Soranî Kurdish - Kurmancî Kurdish dictionary (2005)
  • Khal, Sheikh Muhammad, Ferhengî Xal (Khal Dictionary), Kamarani Press, Sulaymaniya, 3 Volumes,
Vol. I, 1960, 380 p.
Vol. II, 1964, 388 p.
Vol. III, 1976, 511 p.

Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Husein Muhammed is a Kurdish writer and translator. ...

Kurdish-English dictionaries

  • Rashid Karadaghi, The Azadi English-Kurdish Dictionary
  • Chyet, Michael L., Kurdish Dictionary: Kurmanji-English, Yale Language Series, U.S., 2003 (896 pages) (see [27])
  • Abdullah, S. and Alam, K., English-Kurdish (Sorani) and Kurdish (Sorani)-English Dictionary, Star Publications / Languages of the World Publications, India, 2004 [28]
  • Awde, Nicholas, Kurdish-English/English-Kurdish (Kurmanci, Sorani and Zazaki) Dictionary and Phrasebook, Hippocrene Books Inc., U.S., 2004 [29]
  • Raman : English-Kurdish (Sorani) Dictionary, Pen Press Publishers Ltd, UK, 2003, (800 pages) [30]
  • Saadallah, Salah, English-Kurdish Dictionary, Avesta/Paris Kurdish Institute, Istanbul, 2000, (1477 pages) [31]
  • Amindarov, Aziz, Kurdish-English/English-Kurdish Dictionary, Hippocrene Books Inc., U.S., 1994 [32]
  • Rizgar, Baran (M. F. Onen), Kurdish-English/English-Kurdish (Kurmancî Dictionary) UK, 1993, 400 p. + 70 illustrations [33]

Michael L. Chyet (1957- ) is an American linguist. ...

References

  1. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Turkey
  2. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Iraq
  3. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Iran
  4. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Syria
  5. ^ Geographic distribution of Kurdish and other Iranic languages
  6. ^ Keo - History
  7. ^ A. Arnaiz-Villena, J. Martiez-Lasoa and J. Alonso-Garcia, The correlation Between Languages and Genes: The Usko-Mediterranean Peoples Human Immunology 62 (2001) No. 9:1057.
  8. ^ A. Arnaiz-Villena, E. Gomez-Casado, J. Martinez-Laso, Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA distribution and a historic perspective, Tissue Antigens, vol.60, p. 117, 2002[1]
  9. ^ M.R. Izady, Exploring Kurdish Origins, Kurdish Life, No. 7, Summer 1993
  10. ^ Keo - Religion
  11. ^ Repression of Kurds in Syria is widespread, Amnesty International Report, March 2005.
  12. ^ Special Focus Cases: Leyla Zana, Prisoner of Conscience
  13. ^ The Kurdish Language and Literature, by Joyce Blau, Professor of Kurdish language and civilization at the National Institute of Oriental Language and Civilization of the University of Paris (INALCO).
  14. ^ The language policy of Iran from State policy on the Kurdish language: the politics of status planning by Amir Hassanpour, University of Toronto
  15. ^ Neighboring Kurds Travel to Study in Iraq
  16. ^ Turkey to get Kurdish television
  17. ^ Kurdish language - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  18. ^ Ethnologue report for Zaza-Gorani
  19. ^ Keo - History
  20. ^ J N Postgate, Languages of Iraq, ancient and modern, British School of Archaeology in Iraq., [Iraq] : British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 2007, p.139.
  21. ^ D.N. MacKenzie, Language in Kurds & Kurdistan, Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  22. ^ D.N. MacKenzie, Language in Kurds & Kurdistan, Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  23. ^ Postgate, J.N., Languages of Iraq, ancient and modern, [Iraq] : British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 2007., ISBN 9780903472210, p.139
  24. ^ Irangeles : Iranians in Los Angeles by Ron Kelley; Jonathan Friedlander; Anita Y Colby; Gustave E. von Grunebaum Center for Near Eastern Studies.; University of California, Los Angeles. International Studies and Overseas Programs. p.156.
  25. ^ J N Postgate, Languages of Iraq, ancient and modern, British School of Archaeology in Iraq, [Iraq] : British School of Archaeology in Iraq, 2007, p.138.
  26. ^ The Kurdish Unified Alphabet
  27. ^ Kurdish-English Dictionary - Chyet, Michael L. - Yale University Press
  28. ^ [2]
  29. ^ ISBN 0-7818-1071-X
  30. ^ ISBN 1-904018-83-1
  31. ^ Saladin's English - Kurdish Dictionary by Salah Saadallah (Saladin's English - Kurdish Dictionary by Salah Saadallah): Tulumba.com
  32. ^ ISBN 0-7818-0246-6
  33. ^ ISBN 1-873722-05-2

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... The Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (INALCO) is located in Paris, France. ... Amir Hassanpour, (1943- ), is a prominent Iranian Kurdish scholar and researcher. ...

See also

This is a list of countries of the world sorted by the total Kurdish-speaking population in that country. ... This article deals with the grammar of the Kurdish language. ... The Kurdistan newspaper Kurdish literature (in Kurdish: Wêjey kurdî) is a literature written in Kurdish language. ... Kurmancî is the linguistic magazine, published twice a year since 1987, to spread the results of the Kurdish Instutes linguistic seminars on problems of terminology and standardisation of the Kurdish language. ... Kurdish Insititute of Paris or Institut Kurde de Paris, founded in 1985, is an organization focused on Kurdish language and culture. ... Kurdish Institute of Istanbul or Enstîtuya Kurdî Ya Stenbolê, founded in 1992, is an organization focusing on Kurdish literature, language and culture. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... This is a list of well known Kurdish people. ... Kurdish culture (Kurdish: çand û toreya kurdî) is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Kurdish language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • The Kurdish Institute of Paris - Language and Literature
  • Kurdish Institute of Istanbul
  • SILAV Kurdistan
  • KAL: The Kurdish Academy of Language
  • Kurdish Language Academy in Iran
  • Kurdish Kurdish links and language information, dictionary etc.
  • Kurdish language at the Open Directory Project
  • Online Kurdish-English Dictionary
  • On-line Kurdish-English Dictionary
  • Online English to Kurdish to English Dictionary (By Erdal Ronahî)
  • Online Kurdish-German-Kurdish Dictionary
  • Online Kurdish-English Ferheng Dictionary
  • Online Turkish-Kurdish-Turkish Dictionary
  • http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/Linguistics-and-Philosophy/24-942Grammar-of-a-Less-Familiar-
  • Comparison between alphabets used in Kurdish
  • Jeunesse Kurde - Kurdish Youth Community (fr,kd,tr,en)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

Religious texts

  • Holy Bible in Kurdish
  • New Testament in Soranî Kurdish, International Bible Society

Kurdish broadcast programs

  • Voice of America, Kurdish Service
  • Zayele, Radio Sweden
  • SBS Radio's Kurdish Language Program, Australia
  • "Evangeliums-Rundfunk of Germany" (ERF)- Christian Programs in Kurdish Kurmanji, Germany
  • "Evangeliums-Rundfunk of Germany" (ERF)- Christian Programs in Kurdish Sorani, Germany
  • KurdSat Broadcasting Ltd., Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan
  • Kurdistan TV, Iraqi Kurdistan
  • Zagros TV , Satellite Channel, Iraqi Kurdistan
  • Zimanê Kurdî - Kurdish language
  • Tehran Kurdish Radio
  • Roj TV Streaming of Kurdish TV
The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Median language was a Western Iranian language, classified as North-Western with Parthian, Baluchi, Kurdish and others. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languages[1] spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian and Saka) tribes of nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Up to the... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Bactrian language is an extinct language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria, also called Tocharistan, in northern Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Chorasmian, also known as Khwarezmian or Khwarazmian, is the name of an extinct northeastern Iranian language closely related to Sogdian. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Scythian languages form a North Eastern branch of the Iranian language family and comprise the distinctive languages[1] spoken by the Scythian (Sarmatian and Saka) tribes of nomadic pastoralists in Scythia (Central Asia, Pontic-Caspian steppe) between the 8th century BC and the 5th century AD. Up to the... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Sogdian language is a Middle Iranian language spoken in Sogdiana (Zarafshan River Valley) in the modern day republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (chief cities: Samarkand, Panjikent, Ferghana). ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Azari, also spelled Adari, Adhari or (Ancient) Azeri, is the name used for the Iranian language which was spoken in Azerbaijan before it was replaced by the modern Azeri or Azerbaijani language, which is of Turkic language. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Balochi, a north-western Iranian language, is the principal language of Balochistan. ... Bashkardi or Bashagerdi is a southwestern Iranian language spoken in the southeast of Iran in the provinces of Kerman, Sistan and Baluchestan, and Hormozgan. ... Dialects of Central Iran is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Central Iran. ... The main Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran. ... ... For other uses see Gorani. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Laki is an Iranian language/dialect (of Gurâni) of the north-western branch spoken in the central Zagros region of Iran (Luristan province) by the Lak people. ... Luri is a dialect of Persian language. ... Luri is a southwestern Iranian language and is mainly spoken by the Lurs and Bakhtiari people in the Iranian provinces of Lorestan, Ilam, Chahar Mahaal and Bakhtiari, Kohkiluyeh and Buyer Ahmad and parts of Khuzestan and Hamadan. ... Mazandarani or Tabari (Also known as: Mazeniki, Taperki) is an Iranian language of the northwestern branch. ... Burki is a tribe living in the Kanigurram valley of South Waziristan agency, on the frontier borders of Pakistan. ... Sengiseri is a language spoken in the Semnan province of Iran mainly in the Sangesar town (Persian: Mehdi Shehr), Its different from persian [] However it has similarity to Mazanderani (Taberi) language. ... Burki is a tribe living in the Kanigurram valley of South Waziristan agency, on the frontier borders of Pakistan. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Soranî (سۆرانی) is a group of Central Kurdish dialects and as such is part of the Iranian languages. ... Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an Iranian people who speak one of the Northwestern Iranian languages. ... Tajik or Tadjik (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی, tojikí) is a descendant of the Persian language spoken in Central Asia. ... The Tat language or Tati is a Western Iranian language spoken by the Tat ethnic group in The Republic of Azerbaijan and Russia. ... Tat language or Tati (Persian: ‎ ) is a group of northwestern Iranian dialects which are closely related to Talysh language. ... Zazaki (Zazaish) is a language spoken by Zazas in eastern Anatolia (Turkey). ... The map of Iranian Speking World The Bartangi language (Persian برتنگی) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Iranian languages. ... The Pamir languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries in the southern Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan around the administrative center Khorog (), and the neighboring Badakhshan province and is in Pamir Area Afghanistan. ... The Munji language, also Munjani language, is a Pamir language spoken in Badakshan in Afghanistan. ... The Ethnolinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (Ossetic: or , Persian: اوسِتی) is an Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: , also rendered as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pathani or Pushtoo and also known as Afghan language[4][5]) is an Iranian language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and Pakistan[6]. // Geographic distribution of Pashto (purple) and other Iranian languages Pashto is spoken by about 30... The Rushani language, a Pamir language, is closely related to the Shughni language, and in fact may be classified as a dialect of it. ... The Sarikoli language (also Sarikul, Sariqul, Sariköli) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Southeastern Iranian languages spoken by Tajiks in China. ... Shughni is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group. ... The Wakhi Tajiki language is an Iranian language in the subbranch of Southeastern Iranian languages (see Pamir languages). ... The Vanji language, also spelt Vanchi and Vanži, is one of the Pamir languages of the Southeastern Iranian language group. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... The Yaghnobi language [1] is a living Northeastern Iranian language (the only other living member being the Ossetic), and is spoken in high valley of the Yaghnob River in the Zarafshan area of Tajikistan by Yaghnobi people. ... The Yidgha language is a Pamir language spoken in the Upper Lutkuh Valley of Chitral, west of Garam Chishma in Pakistan. ... The Yazgulyam language (also Yazgulyami, Iazgulem, Yazgulam, natively yuzdami zevég, Tajik yazgulomi) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Iranian languages, spoken by ca. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Kurdish Language and Literature (0 words)
Kurdish belongs to the family of Indo-European languages and to the Irano-Aryan group of this family.
Kurdish, the language of the Kurds, which belongs to the north-westem group of Irano-Aryan languages has never had the opportunity to become unified and its dialects are generally separated into three groups with distinct similarities between them.
Under pressure from Kurdish revolutionaries gathered around the much missed Dr. Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, whose memory is engraved in the depths of our hearts, who demand incessantly the recognition of their language and their culture, the Iranian authorities are forced to tolerate the publication of various Kurdish works.
Passionate Polyglot Gives Kurdish Language a Voice in the World (0 words)
Kurdish is not dead, but it needs to be modernized.
At age 18, he read a description of a Kurdish folk dance, which opened up a new vista for him of a people and culture he had never known existed, he said.
You be the one to discover and explore the Kurdish language," Chyet said he was told by Alan Dundes, a professor of anthropology and folklore at Berkeley.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m