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Encyclopedia > Kundalini
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Kundalini (kuṇḍalinī कुण्डलिनी) is a Sanskrit word meaning either "coiled up" or "coiling like a snake." There are a number of other Westernized translations of the term, e.g. 'serpent power'. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


According to tradition, Kundalini is present in an inactive coiled-up state in the root chakra, which is located by various sources as proximate to the sacrum or base of the trunk of the body. Activation of kundalini is said to be associated with the experience of somatic bio-energetic phenomena by the practitioner.[1] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... The term somatic refers to the body, as distinct from some other entity, such as the mind. ...

Contents

Hindu sources

In Hinduism, the concept of Kundalini is part of a complex of ideas related to esoteric anatomy. These ideas occur most often in the class of texts that are called Āgamas or Tantras. This is a large body of scripture, most of which is rejected by orthodox Brahmans.[2] Agama (Sanskrit (IAST): Ä€gama) literally means that which has come down (i. ... Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र weave denoting continuity[1]), tantricism or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in the religions of India. ...


There are many variations on these concepts in the Sanskrit source texts. In earlier texts there are various systems of chakras and nadis, with varying connections between them. Over time one system of six or seven chakras along the body's axis became the dominant model, adopted by most schools of yoga. This particular system may have originated in about the 11th century AD, and rapidly became widely popular.[3] It is in this model where Kundalini is said to "rise" upward, piercing the various centers until reaching the crown of the head, resulting in union with the Divine.


The most famous of the Yoga Upanishads, the Yogatattva, mentions four kinds of yoga, one of which being laya-yoga, the symbolic dissolution (laya) of the universe visualized within the body with a corresponding raising of a corporeal energy known as Kundalini.[4] The Upanishads (Devanagari: उपनिषद्, IAST: upaniṣad) are part of the Vedas and form the Hindu scriptures which primarily discuss philosophy, meditation, and the nature of God; they form the core spiritual thought of Vedantic Hinduism. ...


Siva Sutras (translated by Jaideva Singh), one of the main texts by Kashmir Shaiv Tantra written sometime in the 8th century by Vasugupta, hints at the Kundalini and Chakras (Energy centers). When translating, Jaideva Singh had to give a separate chapter on Kundalini, as some of the verses require knowledge of it. This means Kundalini must have been common knowledge to the Vasugupta. However, most books of Kashmir Shiavism have been lost, and the Siva Sutras are the oldest to survive.[citation needed] The Shiva Sutras (also Maheshvara Sutras) are the 14 sutras that form the basis of the (See: AṣṭādhyāyÄ«), the Sanskrit grammar by (See: Pāṇini). ... Vasugupta (860–925) was the author of the famous Shiva Sutras. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Another source text for the concept of kundalini is the "Hatha Yoga Pradipika" written by Swami Svatmarama (English translation, 1992) somewhere between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. The most fundamental text of Hatha Yoga is the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, a Sanskrit classic written by Swami Swatamarama, a disciple of Swami Goraknath. ...


Saundaryalahari by Adi Shankara is regarded as a devotional work in praise of the Holy Mother and Kundalini[1]. Saundaryalahari is a famous literary work written by Adi Shankara. ... Adi Shankara (Malayalam: ആദി ശങ്കരന്‍, Devanāgarī: , , IPA: ); c. ...


Western interpretation

Kundalini is a popular concept that is is widely quoted among various disciplines of yoga and New Age beliefs. Stuart Sovatsky, a Yoga researcher, warns that the recent popularization of the term within new religious movements has not contributed to promote a mature understanding of the concept.[5] Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... A new religious movement or NRM appears as a religious, ethical or spiritual grouping that has not (yet) become recognised as a standard denomination, church, or body, especially when it has a novel belief system and when it is not a sect. ...


One of the first people to bring Kundalini to the West was Sir John Woodroffe (in his pen name Arthur Avalon), a High Court Judge in Calcutta. He became interested in Shaktism, a part of Hindu Tantra. His translation and commentary of 2 rare books was published as "The Serpent Power", now considered a classic. He invented the word "Serpent Power" as that was the closest to the concept of the Kundalini, which Hindus believe lies as a snake curved 3 and a half times at the base of the spine. Sir John Woodroffe (1865–1936), also known by his pseudonym Arthur Avalon, received his B.C.L. (Bachelor of Civil Law) from University College, Oxford. ... Shaktism is a denomination of Hinduism that worships Shakti, or Devi -- the Hindu name for the Great Mother -- in all of her forms whilst not rejecting the importance of masculine and neuter divinity. ... Tantra (Sanskrit: तन्त्र weave denoting continuity[1]), tantricism or tantrism is any of several esoteric traditions rooted in the religions of India. ...


Two early western interpretations of Kundalini were supplied by C.W. Leadbeater (1847-1934), of the Theosophical Society, and psychologist Carl Jung (1875-1961)[2]. Jung's seminar on Kundalini yoga, presented to the Psychological Club in Zurich in 1932, has been widely regarded as a milestone in the psychological understanding of the symbolic transformations of inner peace, and of Eastern thought by the west. Kundalini yoga presented Jung with a model for the developmental phases of higher consciousness, and he interpreted its symbols in terms of the process of individuation. [6] C.W. Leadbeater (1847 or 1854-1934), English clergyman and Theosophical author, contributed to world thought mostly through his work as a clairvoyant. ... The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... Carl Jungs partially autobiographical work Memories , Dreams, Reflections, Fontana edition “Karl Jung” redirects here. ...


A few western translators interpret the energetic phenomena as a form of psychic or paranormal energy, although the western parapsychological understanding of psychic energy, separated from its cultural-hermeneutic matrix, is probably not the same as the yogic understanding.[citation needed] Yogic philosophy understands this concept as a maturing energy that expresses the individual's soteriological longings. Viewed in a mythological context it is sometimes believed to be an aspect of Parvati, the goddess and consort of Shiva. The term psychic comes from the Greek psychikos, meaning of the soul, mental, which is in turn derived from the Greek word psyche (soul/mind). ... Parapsychology is the study of certain types of paranormal phenomena (parapsychology comes from the Greek para, “beside, beyond,” + psychology, derived from the Greek psyche, “soul, mind,” + logos “rational discussion”). The term was coined by Max Dessoir (1889). ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... “Nilakantha” redirects here. ...


Some Western versions refer to "pranic awakening". Prana is interpreted as the vital, life-sustaining force in the body. Uplifted, or intensified life-energy is called pranotthana and is supposed to originate from an apparent reservoir of subtle bio-energy at the base of the spine. This energy is also interpreted as a vibrational phenomena that initiates a period, or a process of vibrational spiritual development.[5] Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ...


Joseph Campbell suggested that the symbol of snakes coiled around a staff is an ancient representation of Kundalini physiology.[citation needed] The staff represents the spinal column with the snake(s) being energy channels. In the case of two coiled snakes they usually cross each other seven times, a possible reference to the seven chakras. Joseph John Campbell (March 26, 1904 – October 31, 1987) was an American professor, writer, and orator best known for his work in the fields of comparative mythology and comparative religion. ... Serpent is a word of Latin origin (serpens, serpentis) which is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit term serp, that is normally substituted for snake in a specifically mythic or religious context, in order to distinguish such creatures from the field of biology. ... In Hinduism and its spiritual systems of yoga and in some related eastern cultures, as well as in some segments of the New Age movement, a chakra (from the Sanskrit word चक्र meaning wheel, circle) is thought to be an energy node in the human body. ...


According to Sovatsky, the concept of Kundalini comes from yogic philosophy of ancient India and refers to the mothering intelligence behind yogic awakening and spiritual maturation,[5] where it is also known as Kundalini Shakti. It might be regarded by yogis as a sort of deity, hence the occasional capitalization of the term. Within a western frame of understanding it is often associated with the practice of contemplative or religious practices that might induce an altered state of consciousness, either brought about spontaneously or through yoga, psychedelic drugs, or a near-death experience. Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... It has been suggested that yogin be merged into this article or section. ... An altered state of consciousness is any state which is significantly different from a normative waking beta wave state. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... The word psychedelic is a neologism coined from the Greek words for mind, ψυχη (psyche), and manifest, δηλειν (delein). ... Ascent in the Empyrean (Hieronymous Bosch) A near-death experience (NDE) is an experience reported by a person who nearly died, or who experienced clinical death and then revived. ...


Kundalini Yoga

Main article: Kundalini Yoga

Kundalini Yoga is a system of meditative techniques and movements within the yogic tradition that focuses on psycho-spiritual growth and the body's potential for maturation. The practice of Kundalini Yoga consists of a number of bodily postures, expressive movements and utterances, characterological meditations, breathing patterns, and degrees of concentration. The movements and the body-work should not, according to some scholars of religion[5], be considered mere stretching exercises. The concept of life-energy, pranotthana, is central to the practice and understanding of Kundalini Yoga. It also gives special consideration to the role of the spine and the endocrine system in the understanding of yogic awakening.[5] Recently, there has been a growing interest within the medical community to study the physiological effects of meditation, and some of these studies have applied the discipline of Kundalini Yoga to their clinical settings.[7][8] Kundalini yoga is a physical and meditative discipline, comprising a set of simple techniques that uses the mind, senses and body to create a communication between mind and body. Kundalini yoga focuses on psycho-spiritual growth and the bodys potential for maturation, giving special consideration to the role of... Kundalini yoga is a physical and meditative discipline, comprising a set of simple techniques that uses the mind, senses and body to create a communication between mind and body. Kundalini yoga focuses on psycho-spiritual growth and the bodys potential for maturation, giving special consideration to the role of... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ... The endocrine system is a control system of ductless endocrine glands that secrete chemical messengers called hormones that circulate within the body via the bloodstream to affect distant organs. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ...


Kundalini rising

According to yogic writings and oral tradition, the force of Kundalini is raised through specific meditative exercises. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ...


Kundalini-experiences are understood using the structure of the Hindu chakra system, the psycho-spiritual energy centers along the spine.[9] According to Hindu tradition the Kundalini rises from the root chakra up through the spinal channel, called sushumna, and it is believed to activate each chakra it goes through. Each chakra is said to contain special characteristics.[9] The chakras are any of the nerve plexes or centers of force and consciousness located within the inner bodies of man. When the Kundalini Shakti unites itself with the Supreme Being (Lord Shiva), the aspirant gets engrossed in deep meditation during which he perceives infinite bliss. [10] [11] In raising Kundalini, spiritual powers (siddhis) are also believed to arise, however most spiritual traditions see these phenomena as obstacles on the path, and encourage their students not to be distracted by them.[12] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... “Nilakantha” redirects here. ... Siddhi (Sanskrit:; ) is a Sanskrit word that literally means accomplishment, attainment, or success.[1] It is also used as a term for spiritual power (or psychic ability). ...


Spiritual literature also describes instances where Kundalini is said to be activated by a practice called shaktipat.[citation needed] Shaktipat is a form of direct transmission of spiritual energy from a yogi to a student. The most common form is as simple as a touch to the third-eye area by the yogi, at this point wisdom, prana, or both are transferred directly to the student. Shaktipat is a term from Sanskrit and Hindi that refers to the act of a guru or spiritual teacher conferring a form of spiritual power or awakening on a disciple/student. ... Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ...


Contemporary spiritual literature (and the field of Transpersonal Psychology) recommends only to engage in these practices when guided by an accredited teacher, or with thorough psychological preparation and education in yoga or all of these. Any form of intense contemplative or spiritual practice without appropriate support is considered risky and in some cases even dangerous.[citation needed] Traditional teachers of kundalini meditation also warn neophytes of the potential dangers of experimenting with kundalini Yoga techniques. Without the proper checks and balances of a whole system of practice, (some claim) simply raising energy is as foolish as it would be to raise electrical energy without any method of release or grounding.[citation needed] A growing body of clinical and psychological literature notes the growing occurrence of meditation-related problems in Western contemplative life.[13][14]. Among these we find the "Kundalini Syndrome" (see below) and different forms of "wind illness" described in the Tibetan tradition.[13] In Warhammer 40,000 a Neophyte is a Space Marine in training. ...


Problems and side-effects

Kundalini syndrome

Theorists within the schools of Humanistic psychology, Transpersonal psychology and Near-death studies (needs cite) postulate a complex pattern of motor functions, sensory, affective and cognitive-hermeneutic symptoms called the Kundalini syndrome. This psychosomatic arousal and excitation is believed to occur in connection with prolonged, intensive spiritual or contemplative practice (such as meditation or yoga), as a result of an intense personal crisis or experience, or a near-death experience.[15][9][13][12] Humanistic psychology is a school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. ... Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transcendent, or spiritual dimensions of humanity. ... Near-Death studies is a school of psychology and psychiatry that studies the phenomenology and after-effects of a Near-death experience, also called NDE. The phenomenology of a NDE usually includes physiological, psychological and transcendental factors that come together to form an overall pattern when numerous NDE reports are... A motor skill is a skill that regards the ability of an organism to utilise skeletal muscles effectively. ... Hermeneutics (Hermeneutic means interpretive), is a branch of philosophy concerned with human understanding and the interpretation of texts. ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... A psychosomatic illness is one with physical manifestations and supposed psychological cause, often diagnosed when any known or identifiable physical cause was excluded by medical examination. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... Ascent in the Empyrean (Hieronymous Bosch) A near-death experience (NDE) is an experience reported by a person who nearly died, or who experienced clinical death and then revived. ...


According to these fields of study the Kundalini syndrome is different from a single Kundalini episode, such as a Kundalini arousal. The Kundalini syndrome is a process that might unfold over several months, or even years. If the accompanying symptoms unfold in an intense manner that destabilizes the person, the process is usually interpreted as a spiritual emergency.[16][13]


Interdisciplinary dialogues within the mentioned schools of psychology (see references below) have suggested some common criteria that describe this condition, of which the most prominent feature is a feeling of energy traveling along the spine, or progressing upwards in the body. Motor symptoms may include tremors, other spontaneous or involuntary body movements and changes in the functioning of the respiratory system. Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... For the film see Tremors (film). ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ...


Sensory symptoms in extreme cases may include subjective changes in thermoregulation (feelings of heat or cold), a feeling of electricity in the body, Persistent Sexual Arousal Syndrome (refer to Gopi Krishna and Irina Tweedie's books), headache and pressure inside of the head, tingling, vibrations and gastrointestinal problems. Cognitive and affective symptoms are said to include psychological upheaval, stress, depression, depersonalization, intense mood-swings, but also moments of bliss, deep peace and other altered states of consciousness.[17][15][18][9][12] Within the mentioned Western-only academic traditions this symptomatology is often referred to as the Physio-Kundalini syndrome[17][15][18] or Kundalini-experience/awakening.[9][13] Transpersonal literature emphasizes that this list of symptoms is not meant to be used as a tool for self-diagnosis. Any unusual or marked physical or mental symptom needs to be investigated by a qualified medical professional.[12] Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Persistent Sexual Arousal Syndrome results in a spontaneous and persistent genital arousal, with or without orgasm or genital engorgement, unrelated to any feelings of sexual desire. ... Gopi Krishna (1903 - 1984) of India was a yogi, mystic, teacher, social reformer, and writer. ... Irina Tweedie (* 1907 in Russia; † August 1999) was a british Sufi teacher. ... The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, alimentary canal, or gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In psychology, affect is the scientific term used to describe a subjects externally displayed mood. ... In medical terms, stress is a physical or psychological stimulus that can produce mental or physiological reactions that may lead to illness. ... Grieving Thai females. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The phrase altered state of consciousness was coined in the 1970s and describes induced changes in ones mental state, almost always temporary. ...


Greyson developed The Physio-Kundalini Syndrome Index in order to measure the degree of Physio-Kundalini symptoms among Near-Death experiencers. Most researchers within this field believe that the core of the process is not pathological, but maturational, even though the symptoms at times may be dramatic and disturbing.[15][13] If the process is supported and allowed to progress to its conclusion it might - according to transpersonal theory - actually result in psychological health (Grof & Grof, 1989;[16] Hansen, 1995[19]). According to the field of Transpersonal Psychology the Kundalini-syndrome is largely unknown to Western psychiatry. Many writers within this field are consequently working towards a clinical approach to the problem. Possible improvements in the diagnostic system that are meant to differentiate the Kundalini syndrome from other disorders have been suggested.[20][19][21][9][13][22][23][20] Turner, Lukoff, Barnhouse & Lu have suggested that the Kundalini-symptomatology might be placed under the diagnostic category "Religious or Spiritual Problem" (American Psychiatric Association: DSM-IV, Code V62.89).


A recent criticism of some of the approaches to this clinical category, and the current interpretation of the symptoms, has been put forward by Sovatsky who believes that it is crucial to differentiate between the symptoms of what may be a Kundalini awakening, and the symptoms of different preliminary yogic processes or pranic imbalances. According to this view many reported Kundalini problems might rather be signs of the precursory energetic state of pranotthana. A confusion of terms within this delicate area of clinical concern might also lead to various undiagnosed neurological problems being misdiagnosed and inappropriately attributed to Kundalini. Prana (, IAST: ) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath and refers to a vital, life-sustaining force of living beings and vital energy in natural processes of the universe. ...


In an article from Psychological Reports Thalbourne discusses whether scores on a 35 item Kundalini Scale are correlated to the concept of Transliminality (a hypothesized tendency for psychological material to cross thresholds into or out of consciousness). The Transliminality Scale, presented by Lange, Thalbourne, Houran & Storm, defines a probabilistic hierarchy of items that address magical thinking, mystical experience, self-absorption, hyperesthesia, mania, dream interpretation, and predilection to fantasy. [24] An article from the Journal of The Royal Society of Medicine briefly discusses the similarity between the interpretation of medical "mystery syndromes" and the Kundalini experience.[25] Transliminality (literally, going beyond the threshold) was a concept introduced by a leading name in parapsychology, Michael Thalbourne. ... In the history of religion, Magical thinking is a kind of non-scientific causal reasoning. ... Hyperesthesia (or Hyperaesthesia) is a condition that involves an abnormal increase in sensitivity to stimuli of the senses. ... Mania is a severe medical condition characterized by extremely elevated mood, energy, and thought patterns. ... Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to dreams. ... The Logo and Coat of Arms of the Society. ...


Known side effects

Problems have been known to occasionally arise from Kundalini rising[26][27][17] The following possible side effects have been noted by various teachers. These problems can persists for moments, hours, days, months, years or decades. They can also reoccur. All students with an active kundalini, experience at least a few, if not many, of these side effects. Generally these problems begin to occur after a few months (less likely) or years (more likely) after starting a contemplative practice, but in some cases they begin very soon after starting meditation or yoga.[26]


Summary of Known Problems: Death, pseudo death, psychosis, pseudo psychosis, confusion, anxiety, panic attacks, depression, sadness, suicidal thoughts, urges to self-mutilate, homicidal urges, arrhythmia (irregular heart beat), exacerbation of prior or current mental illness, insomnia, inability to hold a job, inability to talk, inability to drive, sexual pains, temporary blindness, and headaches.[17][26][28][29][27][30]


According to Transpersonal theory, and eastern spiritual traditions, these problems are thought to arise as karma - deep physical, psychological and emotional material - is brought to the surface of the mind as a result of yoga and meditative practice.[17] Consultation with a meditation teacher who is not trained in kundalini techniques or with a psychiatrist, medical doctor or therapist who is unknowledgeable about this process often leads to confusion and misunderstanding. Using Western medicine to treat or suppress the kundalini symptoms is not recommended, and might in some cases, have undesirable side effects.[26][29] Grof noted that suppressing kundalini's side effects with psychiatric medicine could lead to death.[26] However, Lukoff et.al note that there may be times when medication can play a role in recovery, and integration of spiritual experiences.


Kundalini and development

Within the transpersonal field Sovatsky has put forward the hypotheses of post-genital puberties. The possibility of viewing pranotthana (yogic terminology for intensified life-energy) and the larger Kundalini process as a maturation of body and character beyond conventional psychological growth. Within the yogic frame of mind this maturation is to be considered no more spectacular than conventional adolescent puberty, and it signals that psychological and spiritual development can continue throughout the life-span. The interpretation of Kundalini as a developmental, or maturational phenomena, was first suggested to the West by the Indian Pundit Gopi Krishna, whose autobiography is entitled Kundalini—The Evolutionary Energy in Man (Krishna, 1971). The term Transpersonal is often used to refer to psychological categories that transcend the normal features of ordinary ego-functioning. ... A pandit or pundit (Devanagari: पन्दित) is a Hindu Brahmin who has memorized a substantial portion of the Vedas, along with the corresponding rhythms and melodies for chanting or singing them. ... Gopi Krishna (1903 - 1984) of India was a yogi, mystic, teacher, social reformer, and writer. ...


Kundalini and physiology

Contemporary spiritual literature often notes that the chakras, as described in the esoteric kundalini documents, bear a strong similarity in location and number to the major endocrine glands, as well as nerve bundles called ganglions. One speculation is that the traditional practices have formalized a method for stimulating the endocrine glands to work in a different mode, causing physiological changes that facilitate altered states of consciousness. These changes are perhaps ultimately effected by stimulating the release of DMT by the pineal gland, which may be analogous to the 'pineal chakra'.[31] An endocrine gland is one of a set of internal organs involved in the secretion of hormones into the blood. ... This is a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from a chicken embryo (around stage of day 7) after incubation overnight in NGF growth medium stained with anti-neurofilament antibody. ... The phrase altered state of consciousness was coined in the 1970s and describes induced changes in ones mental state, almost always temporary. ... Dimethyltryptamine (DMT), also known as N,N-dimethyltryptamine, (not to be confused with 5-MeO-DMT), is a psychedelic. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... The pineal gland (pronunciation: pI-nE-&l, pI-), or epiphysis, is a small endocrine gland. ...


The late Itzhak Bentov studied Kundalini from an engineering perspective. According to Bentov, the 7.5 Hz oscillation of the heart muscle rhythm induces mechanical frequencies in the brain that, in turn, create a stimulus equivalent of a current loop. The nerve endings in that loop correspond to the route through which the Kundalini "rises".[32] This current polarizes the brain part through which it flows in a homogenous way, effectively releasing tremendous amounts of stress from the body. The body then becomes an effective antenna for the 7.5 Hz frequency, which is one of the resonant frequencies of the ionosphere. In layman's terms, you then pick up information from the air. This might account for repeated descriptions of heightened senses as a result of rising Kundalini, e.g. as described by Yogananda: "The whole vicinity lay bare before me. My ordinary frontal vision was now changed to a vast spherical sight, simultaneously all-perceptive. Through the back of my head I saw men strolling far down Rai Ghat Lane..."[citation needed] Itzhak Bentov (1923 - May 25, 1979) was a Czech born scientist, inventor, mystic, and author. ... Hz or hz may mean: Herero language (ISO 639 alpha-2, hz) Hertz, unit of frequency This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Myocardium is the muscular tissue of the heart. ... A current loop describes two different electrical signalling schemes. ... A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers or axons, which includes the glia that ensheath the axons in myelin. ... A Yagi-Uda beam antenna Short Wave Curtain Antenna (Moosbrunn, Austria) A building rooftop supporting numerous dish and sectored mobile telecommunications antennas (Doncaster, Victoria, Australia) An antenna or aerial is an arrangement of aerial electrical conductors designed to transmit or receive radio waves which is a class of electromagnetic waves. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. ... Mukunda Lal Ghosh (January 5, 1893 in Gorakhpur, in northern India - March 7, 1952), better known as Paramahansa Yogananda, was a Bengali yogi and guru. ...


See also

Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Sahaja Yoga (Sahaja in this case meaning born with and Yoga meaning union) is a form of meditation, created by Nirmala Srivastava, more widely known as Shri Mataji Nirmala, or as Mother by followers, who believe she is the incarnation of the Adi Shakti, the primordial divine power. ... An ancient Chinese print depicting The Joining of the Essences. Daoist sexual practices (Simplified Chinese: 合气, Traditional Chinese: 合氣, pinyin: heqi) or The Joining of the Essences, is the way Daoists practiced sex. ... Reiki Tummo is a non-traditional Reiki that combines Reiki and the Tibetan Kundalini practice known as Tummo. ... Tumo (also spelled Tummo, or Tum-mo ) is a Tibetan term for a type of contemplative practice that causes an intense sensation of body heat to arise. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Lakshmi is a common aspect of Shakti Shakti meaning force, power or energy is the Hindu concept or personification of Gods female aspect, sometimes referred to as The Divine Mother. Shakti represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. ... Kundalini yoga is a physical and meditative discipline, comprising a set of simple techniques that uses the mind, senses and body to create a communication between mind and body. Kundalini yoga focuses on psycho-spiritual growth and the bodys potential for maturation, giving special consideration to the role of... Gopi Krishna (1903 - 1984) of India was a yogi, mystic, teacher, social reformer, and writer. ... ‹ The template below has been proposed for deletion. ... Also called Od [õd] and Odyle, Odic Force is the 19th century name given to a hypothetical vital energy or life force that proponents say permeates all living plants, animals, and humans. ... QI, standing for Quite Interesting and a play on IQ, is a comedy panel game television show hosted by Stephen Fry and shown on BBC Two and BBC Four. ... Qigong is an aspect of Chinese medicine involving the coordination of different breathing patterns with various physical postures and motions of the body. ... Categories: Substubs ... Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy, focusing on meditation as a path to self-knowledge and liberation. ... Satori (悟 Japanese satori; Chinese: wù - from the verb Satoru) is a Japanese Buddhist term for enlightenment. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: διαλεκτική) is an exchange of propositions (theses) and counter-propositions (antitheses) resulting in a synthesis of the opposing assertions, or at least a qualitative transformation in the direction of the dialogue. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Flood, op. cit., pp. 98-99.
  2. ^ Flood, op. cit., p. 122.
  3. ^ Flood, op. cit., p. 99.
  4. ^ Flood, op. cit., p. 96.
  5. ^ a b c d e Sovatsky, Stuart (1998) Words from the Soul: Time, East/West Spirituality, and Psychotherapeutic Narrative (Suny Series in Transpersonal and Humanistic Psychology) New York: State University of New York Press ISBN 0-7914-3950-X
  6. ^ Princeton University Press Book description to C. G Jung - "The Psychology of Kundalini Yoga", 1999
  7. ^ Lazar, Sara W.; Bush, George; Gollub, Randy L.; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Khalsa, Gurucharan; Benson, Herbert (2000) Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation [Autonomic Nervous System] NeuroReport: Volume 11(7) 15 May 2000 p 1581–1585 PubMed Abstract PMID 10841380
  8. ^ Cromie, William J. Research: Meditation changes temperatures: Mind controls body in extreme experiments, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Gazette, 18 April 2002
  9. ^ a b c d e f Scotton, Bruce (1996) The phenomenology and treatment of kundalini, in Chinen, Scotton and Battista (Editors) (1996) Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology. (pp.261-270). New York, NY, US: Basic Books, Inc. PsycINFO Abstract, Accession Number: 1996-97805-024
  10. ^ Kundalini Yoga: Available Online -http://www.siddhashram.org/kundalini.shtml
  11. ^ Kundalini Yoga from Swami Sivanandha: Available Online - http://www.experiencefestival.com/kundalini
  12. ^ a b c d Kason, Yvonne, Farther Shores: Exploring How Near-Death, Kundalini and Mystical Experiences Can Transform Ordinary Lives, 2000, Toronto: Harper Collins Publishers, Revised edition, ISBN 0-00-638624-5
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Lukoff, David; Lu , Francis G. & Turner, Robert P. (1998) From Spiritual Emergency to Spiritual Problem: The Transpersonal Roots of the New DSM-IV Category. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 38(2), 21–50, 1998
  14. ^ Perez-De-Albeniz, Alberto & Holmes, Jeremy (2000) Meditation: Concepts, Effects And Uses In Therapy. International Journal of Psychotherapy, March, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p49, 10p
  15. ^ a b c d Greyson, Bruce, The physio-kundalini syndrome and mental illness, Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 25, 43–58. PsycINFO Abstract, Accession Number: 1994-09663-001
  16. ^ a b Grof, Stanislav & Grof, Christina (eds) (1989) Spiritual Emergency: When Personal Transformation Becomes a Crisis (New Consciousness Reader) Los Angeles: J.P Tarcher
  17. ^ a b c d e Sannella, Lee (1976) Kundalini, psychosis or transcendence. San Francisco: Dakin online
  18. ^ a b Greyson, Bruce (2000) Some neuropsychological correlates of the physio-kundalini syndrome. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 32, 123–134. PsycINFO Abstract, Accession Number: 2001-16631-002
  19. ^ a b Hansen, G, [Schizophrenia or spiritual crisis? On "raising the kundalini" and its diagnostic classification]. Ugeskrift for Laeger (Weekly Journal of The Danish Medical Association). 1995 Jul 31;157(31):4360–2. [Article in Danish] PubMed Abstract PMID 7645095
  20. ^ a b Grabovac, Andrea & Ganesan, Soma, Spirituality and Religion in Canadian Psychiatric Residency Training. Canadian Journal Of Psychiatry, Vol 48, No 3, April 2003 (Table 3: Selected elements of a proposed academic lecture series on religious and spirituality in psychiatry) PubMed Abstract PMID 12728741
  21. ^ Herrick, Karen, Finding Our Own Substance: New DSM-IV Code 62.89, Religious or Spiritual Problem. Poster Presentation Abstract at Toward a Science of Consciousness 1996, sponsored by the University of Arizona 8 April–13, 1996, Tucson Convention Center.
  22. ^ House, Richard. Psychopathology, Psychosis and the Kundalini: postmodern perspectives on unusual subjective experience. Chapter 7 in Isabel Clarke (ed.), Psychosis and Spirituality: Exploring the New Frontier, London: Whurr Publishers, 2001, pp. 107-25
  23. ^ Maxwell, Victoria, Bridging Science and Spirit. Visions BC's Mental Health Journal, NO. 12, Spring 2001. Vancouver: Canadian Mental Health Association, BC Division
  24. ^ Thalbourne, Michael A., Measures of the Sheep-Goat Variable, Transliminality, and their Correlates. Psychological Reports, April 2001, pp. 339-350
  25. ^ Le Fanu, James, A clutch of new syndromes? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 2002; 95:118-125. PubMed Abstract PMID 11872759
  26. ^ a b c d e Grof, Stanislav & Grof, Christina, The Stormy Search for the Self, New York: Perigee Books, ISBN 0-87477-649-X
  27. ^ a b Greenwell, Bonnie, Energies of Transformation: A Guide to the Kundalini Process, 1995, Saratoga, CA: Shakti River Press, ISBN 0-9627327-0-2
  28. ^ Grof, Stanislav, Beyond the Brain: Birth Death and Transcendence in Psychotherapy, State University of New York Press
  29. ^ a b Goel, B.S., Third Eye and Kundalini: an Experimental Account of Journey From Dust to Divinity, Vol II, Eye Foundation of India
  30. ^ Tweedie, I., Daughter of Fire: A Diary of a Spiritual Training with a Sufi Master, 1995, The Golden Sufi Center, ISBN 0-9634574-5-4
  31. ^ Strassman, Rick, DMT: The Spirit Molecule: A Doctor's Revolutionary Research into the Biology of Near-Death and Mystical Experiences, Rochester, VT: Park Street Press, ISBN 0-89281-927-8
  32. ^ Bentov, I., Micromotion of the Body as a Factor in the Development of the Nervous System, in White, J, edt. (1990) Kundalini. Evolution and enlightenment. New York: Paragon House

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Further reading

Reference works on Hindu sources

  • Banerji, S. C. Tantra in Bengal. Second Revised and Enlarged Edition. (Manohar: Delhi, 1992) ISBN 81-85425-63-9
  • Bhattacharyya, N. N. History of the Tantric Religion. Second Revised Edition. (Manohar: New Delhi, 1999) p. 174. ISBN 81-7304-025-7
  • Flood, Gavin. An Introduction to Hinduism. (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1996). ISBN 0-521-43878-0
  • Shastri, Dr. Vagish (2001). Vagyoga: Kundalini Meditation, 1st edition, Vagyoga - Publication. . ISBN 81-85570-17-5

Other works

  • American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. (Code V62.89 - Religious or Spiritual Problem).
  • Krishna, Gopi, (1971) Kundalini : the evolutionary energy in man. Boulder, Colorado : Shambhala, 1971. (autobiography; many other books, see his entry.)
  • Lange R.; Thalbourne M.A; Houran J. & Storm L. (2000) The Revised Transliminality Scale: Reliability and Validity Data From a Rasch Top-Down Purification Procedure. Consciousness and Cognition, December, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 591-617(27)
  • Motoyama, Hiroshi (1981) Theories of the Chakras: Bridge to Higher Consciousness. Wheaton, Illinois: Theosophical Publishing House.
  • Sannella, L. (1987). The Kundalini Experience: Psychosis or Transcendence. Lower Lake, CA: Integral Publishing.
  • Svatmarama, Swami (1992) Hatha Yoga Pradipika. London: The Aquarian Press, An Imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers. Translated by Elsy Becherer, foreword by B K S Iyengar, commentary by Hans Ulrich Rieker.
  • Thomas, Kate (2000) The Kundalini Phenomenon: The Need for Insight and Spiritual Authenticity. New Media Books.
  • Turner RP, Lukoff D, Barnhouse RT, Lu FG (1995) Religious or spiritual problem. A culturally sensitive diagnostic category in the DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. July;183(7):435-44. PubMed Abstract PMID: 7623015
  • Woodroffe, Sir John, The Serpent Power. an early presentation of Yoga to the West.

Gopi Krishna (1903 - 1984) of India was a yogi, mystic, teacher, social reformer, and writer. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kundalini - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3405 words)
Yogic phenomenology states that kundalini awakening is associated with the appearance of bio-energetic phenomena that are said to be experienced somatically by the yogi.
Kundalini might be said to be a popular concept, since it is widely quoted among various disciplines of yoga and New Age beliefs.
On "raising the kundalini" and its diagnostic classification].
Kundalini (1122 words)
Kundalini is a psycho-spiritual energy, the energy of the consciousness, which is thought to reside within the sleeping body, and is aroused either through spiritual discipline or spontaneously to bring new states of consciousness, including mystical illumination.
Kundalini is Sanskrit for "snake" or "serpent power," so-called because it is believed to lie like a serpent in the root chakra at the base of the spine.
Kundalini has been interpreted from the Bible as "the solar principle in man," and is referenced in the Koran, the works of Plato and other Greek philosophers, alchemical tracts (the philosopher's stone), and in Hermetic, Kabbalistic, Rosicrucian, and Masonic writings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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