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Encyclopedia > Kumul

Kumul or Hami (Uyghur: قۇمۇل/K̢umul; Chinese: 哈密; Pinyin: Hāmì) is an oasis in Xinjiang (China); it is also the name of a modern city and the sourrounding district. It is well known in China for its melons. Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, East Turkestan (Turkestan also spelled Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ...


Geography and Climate

Like Turpan, Kumul is in a fault depression about 200 metres below sea level, and temperatures are extreme, from a high of 43°C in summer to a low of -32°C in winter. Turfan (Modern Chinese 吐魯番; pinyin: Tulufan, ancient Chinese Gaochang, also: Kao-chang, Turpan) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


The city is known in Uyghur as K̢umul or K̢omul. The the Portuguese Jesuit Benedict Goës and Matteo Ricci in 1615 recorded its name as "Camul". One of the oldest attested Chinese names is Kūnmò 昆莫; in Han-dynasty documents it was referred to as Yīwú 伊吾 or Yīwúlú 伊吾卢, in the Tang dynasty as Yīzhōu 伊州; in the Yuan dynasty the Mongolian name for the place, Qamil, was transcribed into Chinese as Hāmìlì 哈密力 and from the Ming dynasty Kumul was known as Hāmì 哈密. Uyghur (in Uyghur: ئۇغۇرچه Uyƣurqə or ئۇغۇر تىلى Uyƣur tili; in Chinese: 维吾尔语 Wéiwúěryǔ) is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (East Turkestan), China. ... Matteo Ricci (October 6, 1552 - May 11, 1610) (Chinese: 利瑪竇; pinyin: Lì Mǎdòu) was an Italian Jesuit priest whose missionary activity in China during the Ming Dynasty marked the beginning of modern Chinese Christianity. ... Han commanderies and kingdoms AD 2. ... The Tang Dynasty (唐&#26397 Hanyu Pinyin táng cháo; 618-907) followed the Sui Dynasty and preceded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period in China. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 大元大蒙古帝国) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Pinyin: míng cháo also called 大明帝国 The Great Ming Empire) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, though claims to the Ming throne (now collectively called the Southern Ming) survived until 1662. ...


In 2002, Kumul had a population of about 519700, 68.4% Han and 31.6% ethnic minorities, mostly Uyghurs, Kazakhs and Hui. Kazakh (Qazaq) people, or Kazakhs, is Turkic ethnic group that lives mainly in Kazakhstan, but also in Russia & China(East Turkistan). ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ...

External Links

  • hmnet.gov.cn (http://hm.xjxw.com) Chinese government site on Kumul (in Chinese)
  • hami.gov.cn (http://www.hami.gov.cn) Chinese government site on Kumul (in Chinese)



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