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Encyclopedia > Kumquat
Malayan Kumquat foliage and fruit
Malayan Kumquat foliage and fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Subgenus: Fortunella
(Swingle) Burkill

See text Image File history File links Kumquat. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families See text Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. ... Genera About 160 genera; selected important genera: Amyris - West Indian Sandalwood Choisya - Mexican orange Citrus - Citrus Dictamnus - Burning-bush Fortunella - Kumquat Melicope - Corkwood, Alani Murraya - Curry tree Phellodendron - Cork-trees Poncirus - Trifoliate orange Ptelea - Hoptree Ruta - Rue Skimmia - Skimmia Tetradium (Euodia) - Euodias Zanthoxylum - Toothache trees Rutaceae is a family of... Species & major hybrids Species Citrus aurantifolia - Key lime Citrus maxima - Pomelo Citrus medica - Citron Citrus reticulata - Mandarin & Tangerine Major hybrids Citrus ×sinensis - Sweet Orange Citrus ×aurantium - Bitter Orange Citrus ×paradisi - Grapefruit Citrus ×limon - Lemon Citrus ×limonia - Rangpur lime Citrus ×latifolia - Persian lime See also main text for other hybrids Citrus... Walter Tennyson Swingle (January 8, 1871–January 19, 1952) was an American agricultural botanist who was born in Canaan, Pennsylvania and moved with his family to Kansas two years later. ...

Potted kumquat trees at a kumquat liqueur distillery on Corfu.
Potted kumquat trees at a kumquat liqueur distillery on Corfu.
Kumquat fruits

Kumquats are slow-growing, evergreen shrubs or small trees, from 2.5–4.5 metres tall, with dense branches, sometimes bearing small thorns. The leaves are dark glossy green, and the flowers pure white, similar to other citrus flowers, borne singly or clustered in the leaf-axils. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 699 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Potted kumquat trees at a kumquat distillery on Corfu. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,600 × 1,200 pixels, file size: 699 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Potted kumquat trees at a kumquat distillery on Corfu. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Heidi_kumquat. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Heidi_kumquat. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... Thorn, a sharp structure or growth on plants. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... The axil is the space or angle between a primary stalk or branch and a smaller branch or leaf coming off from the primary branch. ...

Kumquats originated in China (they are noted in literature dating to the 12th century), and have long been cultivated there and in Japan. They were introduced to Europe in 1846 by Robert Fortune, collector for the London Horticultural Society, and shortly thereafter into North America. Originally placed in the genus Citrus, they were transferred to the genus Fortunella in 1915, though subsequent work (Burkill 1931, Mabberley 1998) favours their return to inclusion in Citrus. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Fortune (September 16, 1812 - April 13, 1880), was a Scottish botanist and traveller best known for introducing tea plants from China to India. ... The Royal Horticultural Society was founded in 1804 as the London Horticultural Society, and gained its present name in a Royal Charter granted in 1861 by Prince Albert. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Four or five species are currently accepted:

  • Citrus crassifolia (syn. Fortunella crassifolia) - Meiwa Kumquat
  • Citrus hindsii (syn. Fortunella hindsii) - Hong Kong Kumquat
  • Citrus japonica (syn. Fortunella japonica, C. margarita, F. margarita) - Marumi or Nagami Kumquat
  • Citrus obovata (syn. Fortunella obovata) - Jiangsu or Fukushu Kumquat
  • Citrus polyandra (syn. Fortunella polyandra) - Malayan Kumquat

Kumquats readily hybridise with other members of the genus Citrus and with the closely related Poncirus. These hybrids are known as Citrofortunella; examples include the limequat, orangequat, and calamondin. In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ... This article is about a biological term. ... Binomial name Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. ... Citrofortunella is a group of hybrid plants that are citrus x fortunella. ... Binomial name Citrus × Fortunella (L.) Burm. ... The orangequat is a cross between a orange and a kumquat. ... Packaged whole fruits and a popular soft drink made from the fruit known as calamansi Calamondin or calamansi—X Citrofortunella microcarpa (Bunge) Wijnands—is a fruit tree in the Family Rutaceae that presumably comes from and is very popular throughout Southeast Asia, especially the Philippines. ...

In appearance the kumquat fruit (generally called simply "kumquat") resembles a miniature oval orange, 3–5 centimetres long and 2–4 centimetres wide. Depending on variety, peel color ranges from yellow to red. A Nagami kumquat has an oval shape, while a Marumi kumquat is round. In geometry, an oval or ovoid (from Latin ovum, egg) is any curve resembling an egg or an ellipse. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... Look up Peel and peel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Kumquat fruit is generally in season from late autumn to mid-winter, and can be found in most food markets with other produce. This article is about the temperate season. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ...


Cultivation and uses

Kumquats are cultivated in China, Taiwan, Southeast Asia, Japan, Europe (notably Corfu, Greece), and the southern United States (notably Florida Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...

They are much hardier than other citrus plants such as oranges. The 'Nagami' kumquat requires a hot summer, ranging from +25 °C (77 °F) to +38 °C (100.4 °F), but can withstand frost down to about −10 °C (14 °F) without injury. It grows in the tea regions of China where the climate is too cold for other citrus fruits, even the Mikan (also known as the Satsuma) orange. The trees differ also from other Citrus species in that they enter into a period of winter dormancy so profound that they will remain through several weeks of subsequent warm weather without putting out new shoots or blossoms. Despite their ability to survive low temperatures, as in the vicinity of San Francisco, California, the kumquat trees grow better and produce larger and sweeter fruits in warmer regions. Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Binomial name A basket of mikan Cross section Citrus unshiu Marc. ...


Kumquats are rarely grown from seed as they do not do well on their own roots. In China and Japan they are grafted onto the trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata). This has been found the best rootstock for kumquats in northern Florida and California and for dwarfing for pot culture. For this reason they are often known as "Dwarf Fruit". Sour orange and grapefruit are suitable rootstocks for southern Florida. Rough lemon is unsatisfactory in moist soils and tends to be too vigorous for the slow-growing kumquats. Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... Binomial name Poncirus trifoliata Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliata) is a member of the family Rutaceae, closely related to Citrus, and sometimes included in that genus, being sufficiently closely related to allow it to be used as a rootstock for Citrus. ...

Kumquat fruit cross-section
Kumquat fruit cross-section

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1964x1532, 351 KB) Summary Description: Kumquat fruits on a white plate, with one fruit cut to show the cross section view of the fruit. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1964x1532, 351 KB) Summary Description: Kumquat fruits on a white plate, with one fruit cut to show the cross section view of the fruit. ...


Kumquats are frequently eaten raw. As the rind is sweet and the juicy center is sour, the raw fruit is usually consumed either whole, to savour the contrast, or only the rind is eaten. The fruit is considered ripe when it reaches a yellowish-orange stage, and has just shed the last tint of green. The Hong Kong Kumquat has a rather sweet rind compared to the rinds of other citrus fruits. Peel, also known as rind, is the outer protective layer of a fruit. ... Sour redirects here. ...

Culinary uses include: candying and kumquat preserves, marmalade, and jelly. Kumquats appear more commonly in the modern market as a martini garnish, replacing the classic olive. They can also be sliced and added to salads. A liqueur can also be made by macerating kumquats in vodka or other clear spirit. For other uses, see Marmalade (disambiguation). ... Jam from berries Fruit preserves refers to fruit, or vegetables, that have been prepared and canned for long term storage. ... Bottles of strawberry liqueur A liqueur is a sweet alcoholic beverage, often flavoured with fruits, herbs, spices, flowers, seeds, roots, plants, barks, and sometimes cream. ... Cabernet Sauvignon must interacting with the skins during fermentation to add color, tannins and flavor to the wine. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ...

The Cantonese often preserve kumquats in salt. A batch of the fruit is buried in dry salt inside a glass jar. Over time, all the juice from the fruit is extracted through dehydration into the salt. The fruits in the jar become shrunken, wrinkled, and dark brown in color, and the salt combines with the juice to become a dark brown brine. A few salted kumquats with a few teaspoons of the brine/juice may be mixed with hot water to make a remedy for sore throats. A jar of such preserved kumquats can last several years.[citation needed] Cantonese people (Traditional Chinese: 廣東人; Simplified Chinese: 广东人; Pinyin: Guǎngdōng rén; Jyutping: gwong2 dung1 yan4), broadly speaking, are persons originating from the present-day Guangdong province in southern China. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ...

In Taiwan, kumquats are a popular addition to both hot and iced tea.

In Vietnam, kumquat bonsai trees are used as a decoration for the Tết (New Year) holiday. For other uses, see Bonsai (disambiguation). ... Tết display in Ho Chi Minh City Tết Nguyên Đán  , more commonly known by its shortened name Tết, is the most important and popular holiday and festival in Vietnam. ...


The English name "kumquat" derives from the Cantonese pronunciation gam1 gwat1 (given in Jyutping romanization; Chinese: ; pinyin: jīnjú; literally "golden orange"). The alternate name 柑橘, also pronounced gam1 gwat1 in Cantonese (gān jú in Mandarin, literally "large tangerine orange") is now more commonly written by Cantonese speakers. This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ...

Names in other Asian languages include:

  • Japanese: kinkan (キンカン)
  • Korean: geumgyul (금귤)
  • Mandarin: jīnjú (金橘)
  • Nepali: muntala
  • Thai: somchíd (ส้มจี๊ด)
  • Vietnamese: cam quất (derived from the Cantonese) or, less commonly, (quả) kim quất (if transliterated from the characters 金橘 into Sino-Vietnamese; "quả" (果) is the Sino-Vietnamese prefix for "fruit")

Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Nepali (Khaskura) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal, Bhutan, and some parts of India and Myanmar (Burma). ... Sino-Vietnamese (Hán Việt) are the elements in the Vietnamese language derived from Chinese. ...

References and external links

Look up kumquat in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Burkill, I. H. (1931). An enumeration of the species of Paramignya, Atalantia and Citrus, found in Malaya. Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. 5: 212–220.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (1998). Australian Citreae with notes on other Aurantioideae (Rutaceae). Telopea 7 (4): 333-344. Available online (pdf).
  • Fruits of warm climates
  • Fortunella crassifolia Swingle - Fruits and Seeds Flavon's Wild herb and Alpine plants

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

See also

  • Limequat [A cross between a Lime and a Kumquat]
  • Orangequat [A cross between an Orange and a Kumquat]
  • Calamondin [A cross between a Tangerine and a Kumquat]
  • Loquat [Although Loquats are not related botanically to Kumquats, the two names come from the same Chinese word for "orange."]

  Results from FactBites:
Kumquat - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (799 words)
Kumquats originated in China (noted in literature there in the 12th century), and have long been cultivated there and in Japan.
Kumquats are cultivated in China, Southeast Asia, Japan, Europe (notably Corfu, Greece), and the southern United States (notably Florida).
Kumquats are frequently eaten whole; the skin is sweet and the inner fruit tart.
  More results at FactBites »



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