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Encyclopedia > Kulturkampf

The German term Kulturkampf (literally, "culture struggle") refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... “Bismarck” redirects here. ...


Until the mid-19th century, the Catholic Church was still also a political power. The Pope's Papal States were supported by France but ceased to exist as an indirect result of the Franco-Prussian War. The Catholic Church still had a strong influence on many parts of life, though, even in Bismarck's Protestant Prussia. In the newly founded German Empire, Bismarck sought to bolster the power of the secular state and reduce the political and societal influence of the Roman Catholic Church by instituting political control over Church activities. Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ...


The 1871 Kanzelparagraf (see below) marked the beginning of a series of sanctions against Catholicism that Bismarck imposed until 1875. To characterize Bismarck's politics in view of the Catholic church, the pathologist and member of the parliament of the Deutschen Fortschrittspartei (Liberals) Rudolf Virchow used the term Kulturkampf the first time on January 17, 1873 in the Prussian house of representatives.[1] As this conflict brought him an ever growing political defeat, he moderated his struggle with the Catholic Church and in the wake of Pius IX's death on February 7, 1878, reconciled with the new Pope, Leo XIII, lifting most sanctions except for the Kanzelparagraf (which remained in power until 1953) and civil marriage. Dr. R.L.K. Virchow common to humans and animals) and anthropology. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation). ... The Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, ( May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878) was pope for a record pontificate of over 31 years, from June 16, 1846 until his death. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Pope Leo XIII Supreme Pontiff (1878-1903) Leo XIII, né Gioacchino Pecci (March 2, 1810 - July 20, 1903) was Pope from 1878 to 1903. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Marriage is a relationship that plays a key role in the definition of many people who (usually) are in a sexual relationship. ...


It is generally accepted amongst historians that the Kulturkampf measures targeted the Catholic Church under Pope Pius IX with discriminatory sanctions. Many historians also point out anti-Polish elements in the policies in other contexts.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8] Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878, making him the longest-reigning Pope since the Apostle St. ...

Contents

Overview

Because the German Empire had descended from the 1866 North German Confederation, Bismarck saw the addition of the southern German states (especially Catholic Bavaria) as a possible threat to the Empire's stability. Tensions were also increased by the 1870 Vatican Council proclamation on papal infallibility. There were also significant Catholic populations in eastern parts of Germany (mainly Poles), the Rhineland and in Alsace-Lorraine. Moreover, Bismarck had deliberately formed the German Empire against interference from Austria, a more powerful Catholic country than those previously mentioned. Among the measures taken to reduce the influence of the Catholic Church was the addition in 1871 of § 130a to the German Criminal Code (Strafgesetzbuch), which threatened clergy who discussed politics from the pulpit with two years of prison; this article was dubbed the Kanzelparagraph (from the German Kanzel — "pulpit"). 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German:  ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The First Vatican Council took place in 1869 - 1870 and was the 20th of ecumenical councils recognized by Roman Catholicism. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance Ambo (band). ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance Ambo (band). ...


In March 1872 religious schools were forced to undergo official government inspection and in June religious teachers were banned from governments schools. In addition, under the May Laws administered by Adalbert Falk, the state began to closely monitor the education of clergy, created a secular court for cases involving the clergy, and required notification of all clergy employment. In 1872, the Jesuits were banned (and remained banned in Germany until 1917) and in December the German government broke off diplomatic relations with the Vatican. In 1875, marriage became a mandatory civil ceremony, removed from the control of the Church. Bismarck even blamed[citation needed] the poisoning of a popular lion from Berlin Zoological Gardens in 1874 on Catholic conspirators. On July 13, 1874 in the town of Bad Kissingen Eduard Kullmann attempted to assassinate Bismarck with a pistol, but only hit his hand. Kullmann named the church laws as the reason why he had to shoot Bismarck. March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with a length of 30 days. ... Teachers may refer to: Teachers (UK TV series), a British comedy drama Teachers (US TV series), an American version of the British comedy drama of the same name Teachers (film), a 1984 drama film, starring Nick Nolte and JoBeth Williams See also: Teacher. ... Paul Ludwig Falk (10 August 1827 - 1900), German politician, was born at Matschkau, Silesia. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Look up Civil in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word Civil is derived from the Latin word civilis, from civis (citizen). Used as an adjective, it may describe several fields, concepts, and people: Civil death Civil defense Civil disobedience Civil engineering Civil law Civil liberties Civil libertarianism Civil marriage Civil... Part of the ceremony of the Changing of the Guard in Whitehall, London. ... Binomial name Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) Distribution of Lions in Africa Synonyms Felis leo (Linnaeus, 1758) The lion (Panthera leo) is a mammal of the family Felidae and one of four big cats in the genus Panthera. ... Elephant Gate The Zoologischer Garten Berlin (Berlin zoological garden) is one of the biggest zoos in Germany and with the largest number of species of the world. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... Bad Kissingen is a town in Bavaria, capital of the district Bad Kissingen. ... assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ...


Bismarck's attempts to restrict the power of the Catholic Church, represented in politics by the Catholic Centre Party, were not successful. In the 1874 elections, these forces doubled their representation in the parliament. Needing to counter the Social Democratic Party, Bismarck softened his stance, especially with the election of the new Pope Leo XIII in 1878, and tried to justify his actions to the now numerous Catholic representatives by stating that the presence of Poles (who are predominantly Catholic) within German borders required that such measures be taken. The factual accuracy of this article is Germany during the Kaiserreich and the Weimar Republic. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Most generally, a representation is a performing of selected functions or roles of another physical or abstract object/person/organization in predefined circumstances and it is based on the consensus of the group/community involved. ... SPD redirects here. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The general ideological enthusiasm among the liberals for the Kulturkampf[9] was in contrast to Bismarck's pragmatic attitude towards the measures[10] and growing disquiet from the Conservatives.[11]. Pragmatism is a school of philosophy which originated in the United States in the late 1800s. ...


All in all, the Kulturkampf was hardly a success of Bismarck's government, despite temporary gains within the government itself.[12].


Kulturkampf in Duchy of Posen/Poznań

The Kulturkampf had a major impact on the Polish-inhabitated regions of Prussia. At this time Poland did not exist as a state and had been partitioned between Austria, Prussia (which in turn became part of the German Empire) and Russia. The struggle against Catholicism and Catholic southern German states started almost simultaneously with an extensive campaign of Germanization in the lands formerly belonging to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Polish Kingdom. Because of that, in European historiography the anti-Catholic elements of the Kulturkampf are usually tied to Germanization efforts involving language and culture within the empire.[8][13] The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


After the Falk Laws (May Laws) had been passed, the Prussian authorities started to close down most of schools teaching the Polish language. Instead, the German language schools were promoted. In November 1872 minister Falk ordered all classes of religion to be held in German by the spring of the following year. The wave of protests on the side of Polish Catholics and the clergy was pacified the following year, when the Catholic Seminaries of Posen and Gniezno were closed down, and the state took up the supervision of education, previously carried out mostly in church-sponsored schools. The estate of the Church was confiscated, monastic orders dissolved, and the paragraphs of the Prussian constitution assuring the freedom of the Catholics were removed. In Greater Poland the Kulturkampf took on a much more nationalistic character than in other parts of Germany.[14] Adalbert Falk in 1900. ... Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Poznań ( ; full official name: The Capital City of Poznań, Polish: Stołeczne Miasto Poznań (Latin: , German: , Yiddish: פּױזן Poyzn) is a city in west-central Poland with over 578,900 inhabitants (2002). ... Gniezno (pronounced: [gɲȋεznɔ]) is a town in central-western Poland, some 50 km east of Poznań, inhabited by about 73,000 people. ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ...


Soon afterwards the Prussian authorities responded with repressions, with 185 priests imprisoned and several hundred others forced into exile. Among the imprisoned was the Primate of Poland Archbishop Mieczysław Ledóchowski. A large part of the remaining Catholic priests had to continue their service in hiding from the authorities. Although most of the imprisoned were finally set free by the end of the decade, the majority of them were forced into exile. Many observers believed these policies only further stoked the Polish independence movement. There is also a question regarding possible personal antipathy towards Poles behind Bismarck's motivation in pursuing the Kulturkampf.[15] Contrary to other parts of the German Empire, in Greater Poland - then known under the German name of Provinz Posen - the Kulturkampf did not cease after the end of the decade. Although Bismarck finally signed an informal alliance with the Catholic church against the socialists, the policies of Germanization did continue in Polish-inhabitated parts of the country.[14] Archbishops of Gniezno and simultaneously Primates of Poland since 1412. ... Count MieczysÅ‚aw Halka Ledóchowski, (October 29, 1822—July 22, 1902), cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... The Province of Posen (German: Provinz Posen, Polish: Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia (1846-1918). ...


In 1886, in line with Eduard von Hartmann's slogan of eradication of Slavs on the German soil,[citation needed] the authorities of Prussian part of Poland prepared a new policy of Germanisation of the land. According to Heinrich Tiedemann, the author of the plan, the reason why all earlier attempts at bringing more German settlers to the Poznań area failed was that they allegedly felt uncertain and alien there. The proposed solution was to assure them of correctness of elimination of Poles from public life and land property, as well as to promote land acquisition by administrative means. The state-controlled Colonization Commission was to buy off land and estates from the local Poles and sell it, at a much lower price, to Germans. Although it managed to attract circa 22,000 families to the area,[16] the overall percentage of Polish inhabitants of the land was not changed. Similarly, the activities of the Eastern Marches Society met with little success. Instead, the German actions following the start of the Kulturkampf resulted in strengthening the Polish national awareness and creation of several nationalist organization similar to the ones created against Polish culture and economy. By 1904, when the new law on settlement which effectively forbade Polish peasants from construction of new houses, the sense of national identity was strong enough to cause a period of civil unrest in the country. Among the notable symbols of the era were the children's strike of Września and the struggle of Michał Drzymała who effectively evaded the new law by living in a circus van rather than a newly-built house. Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Karl Robert Eduard von Hartmann (February 23, 1842 – June 5, 1906), was a German philosopher. ... Heinrich Tiedemann (1840-1922) was a Prussian politician, co-founder of the Hakata Society. ... Building of Settlement Commission in PoznaÅ„, today Collegium Maius The Settlement Commission (German: Ansiedlungskommission) was a department that operated between 1886 and 1918, set up by Otto von Bismarck to increase land ownership of Germans at the expense of Poles in the eastern provinces of the German Empire, through the... German Eastern Marches Society (German: Deutscher Ostmarkenverein) was a German nationalistic organisation founded in 1894 in what used to be Posen, Prussia (now PoznaÅ„, Poland). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution. ... MichaÅ‚ DrzymaÅ‚a (13 September 1857 in Zdroje near Grodzisk Wielkopolski-25 April 1937 in Grabówka) was a Polish peasant, living in the Greater Poland region (or the Grand Duchy of PoznaÅ„) under the Prussian rule. ...


All in all, the policies of Germanisation of the Poznań area mostly failed. Although most of the administrative measures aimed against the Poles remained in force until 1918, between 1912 and 1914 only four Polish-owned estates were expropriated, while at the same time Polish social organizations successfully competited with German trade organizations and even started to buy off the land from the Germans. The long-lasting effect of the Polish-German conflict in the area was development of a sense of Greater Polish identity, distinct from the identity common in other parts of Poland and primarily associated with nationalist ideas rather than socialism, prevailing in other parts of the country in 20th century. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Other uses of the term

The word Kulturkampf has also been used to refer to similar cultural conflicts in other times and places. In the United States, the term "culture war" has been used by Patrick Buchanan, among others, to describe what an analogous conflict starting in the 1960s and continuing to the present between religious social conservatives and secular social liberals (Buchanan used the English "culture war," though in the context Buchanan used it, as a war between traditional morality and avant-garde liberalism, it clearly evoked memories of the earlier German experience). Ironically, Buchanan himself is descended from German Catholics on his mother's side. This theme of "culture war" was the basis of Buchanan's keynote speech at the 1992 Republican National Convention.[1] The term culture war had by 2004 become commonly used in the United States by both liberals and conservatives. However, Buchanan's opinions have no relevance to the actual Kulturkampf as it was conducted in Germany in the 1800s. Patrick Buchanan Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938), usually known as Pat Buchanan, is an American conservative journalist and a well known television political commentator. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... The culture war (or culture wars) in American usage is a supposed political conflict based on different idealized cultural values. ... The 1992 Republican National Convention was held in the Astrodome in Houston, Texas from August 17 to August 21. ... The culture war (or culture wars) in American usage is a supposed political conflict based on different idealized cultural values. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Justice Antonin Scalia referenced the term in the Supreme Court case Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996), saying "The Court has mistaken a Kulturkampf for a fit of spite." The case concerned an amendment to the Colorado state constitution that prohibited any subdepartment from acting to protect individuals on the basis of sexual orientation. Scalia believed that the amendment was a valid move on the part of citizens who sought "recourse to a more general and hence more difficult level of political decisionmaking than others." The majority disagreed, holding that the amendment violated the Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Antonin Gregory Scalia (born March 11, 1936) is an American jurist and the second most senior Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Holding An amendment to the Colorado Constitution that allows discrimination against homosexuals and prevents the state from protecting them violated equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment, because it was not rationally related to a legitimate state interest, but instead was motivated by animus towards homosexuals. ... Legal citation is the style of crediting and referencing other documents or sources of authority in legal writing. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... The Fourteenth Amendment may refer to the: Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution - contains the due process and equal protection clauses. ...


See also

With respect to the German Empire

“Bismarck” redirects here. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...

With respect to Catholicism

Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church, which can range in expression from individual hatred to institutionalized, violent persecution. ... The culture war (or culture wars) in American usage is a supposed political conflict based on different idealized cultural values. ... This article aims to give an historical overview of liberalism in Germany. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... Today, the number of believers in all religions in Germany is smaller than it was in the past. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...

With respect to Poland

Although the majority of the szlachta was reconciled to the end of the Commonwealth in 1795, the possibility of Polish independence was kept alive by events within and without Poland throughout the nineteenth century. ... Germans execute Poles against a prison wall, Leszno, Poland, October 1939. ... German Eastern Marches Society (German: Deutscher Ostmarkenverein) was a German nationalistic organisation founded in 1894 in what used to be Posen, Prussia (now Poznań, Poland). ... Drzymałas van (wóz Drzymały) was a symbol of Polish resistance to official Germanization policy in Imperial Germany. ... Rota (Oath) is one of the famous Polish national songs of the 20th century. ... The Settlement Commission (German: Ansiedlungskommission) was a department that operated between 1886 and 1918, set up by Bismarck to increase land ownership of Germans at the expense of Poles in the eastern provinces of the German Empire, through the use of economic and political methods, as part of the country...

With respect to the USA

The culture war (or culture wars) in American usage is a supposed political conflict based on different idealized cultural values. ... Paleoconservatism (sometimes shortened to paleo or paleocon when the context is clear) is an anti-communist and anti-authoritarian[1] right wing movement based primarily in the United States that stresses tradition, civil society and classical federalism, along with familial, religious, regional, national and Western identity. ... Patrick Buchanan Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938), usually known as Pat Buchanan, is an American conservative journalist and a well known television political commentator. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of...

Notes and references

In-line:
  1. ^ (English) (1910) "Kulturkampf", New Catholic Dictionary. “It was the distinguished Liberal politician and scientist, Professor Rudolph Virchow, who first called it the Kulturkampf, or struggle for civilization.” 
  2. ^ (English) Norman Davies (1982). God's Playground. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05353-3. 
  3. ^ (English) Adam Zamoyski (1993). The Polish Way: A Thousand-Year History of the Poles and Their Culture. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-7818-0200-8. 
  4. ^ (Polish) Maciej Milczarczyk; Andrzej Szolc (1994). Historia; W imię wolności. Warsaw: WSiP, 196—198. ISBN 83-02-05454-2. 
  5. ^ (Polish) Andrzej Chwalba (2000). Historia Polski 1795-1918. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie, 671. ISBN 83-08-03053-X. 
  6. ^ (Polish) Piotr Szlanta (2001). "Admirał Gopła". Mówią wieki 501 (09/2001). 
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b (English) Leonore Koschnick, Agnete von Specht (2001). The Social Dimension: "Founders" and "Enemies of the Empire". Bismarck: Prussia, Germany, and Europe. Retrieved on 2006-02-16.
  9. ^ "Liberals were the most enthusiastic champions of the general policy, because it satisfied a tradition of passionate anti-clericalism. It was, in fact, a Progressive party deputy in the Prussian legislature - the distinguished medical scientist and pioneer of public health methods, Rudolf Virchow - who coined the term "Kulturkampf" to describe the stakes. Virchow meant it as a term of praise, signifying the liberation of public life from sectarian impositions (though the term was later taken up by Catholic leaders in a spirit of bitter derision)." From A Supreme Court in the culture wars by Jeremy Rabkin in the Fall edition of the Public Interest
  10. ^ "Even Bismarck - who initially saw a variety of tactical political advantages in these measures - took pains to distance himself from the rigors of their enforcement." From A Supreme Court in the culture wars by Jeremy Rabkin in the Fall edition of the Public Interest
  11. ^ "Conservative political forces, centering on the old Prussian aristocracy, became increasingly critical of these measures, fearing that they would jeopardize the status of their own Protestant Evangelical Church."From A Supreme Court in the culture wars by Jeremy Rabkin in the Fall edition of the Public Interest
  12. ^ (English) Piotr Stefan Wandycz (2001). The Price of Freedom: A History of East Central Europe. London: Routledge, 185—186. ISBN 0-415-25491-4. 
  13. ^ (English) Henry Bogdan (1989). in Istvan Fehervary: From Warsaw To Sofia; A History of Eastern Europe. Santa Fe, New Mexico: Pro Libertate Publishing, 128 - 130. ISBN 0-9622049-0-0. 
  14. ^ a b (English) Jarmila Kaczmarek, Andrzej Prinke (2000). Two Archaeologies in one Country: Official Prussian versus amateur Polish activities in Mid-Western (i.e.: Greater) Poland in XIXth-early XXth cent.. Poznań Archaeological Museum publications. Retrieved on February 16, 2006.
  15. ^ As evidenced by some of his remarks and speeches, for instance the one to the Lower House of the Prussian Parliament of January 28, 1886, in: (German) in Eugen Kalkschmidt: Bismarcks Reden. Berlin: Deutsche Bibliothek, 173-186. 
  16. ^ (Polish) "KOMISJA KOLONIZACYJNA". Wielka Encyklopedia PWN (web). (2005). 
General:
  1. Hahn, Geschichte des Kulturkampfs in Preussen, (Berlin, 1881)
  2. Wiesmann, Geschichte des Kulturkampfs, (Leipzig, 1886)
  3. Robinson and Beard, Development of Modern Europe, volume ii, (Boston, 1908)
  4. C. D, Hazen, Europe since 1815, (New York, 1910)
  5. David Blackbourn, Marpingen: Apparitions of the Virgin Mary in Nineteenth-Century Germany (Oxford, 1993)
  6. Ronald J. Ross, The failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf : Catholicism and state power in imperial Germany, 1871-1887, (Washington, D.C., 1998)

Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Adam Zamoyski - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... The term Progressive Party is used to describe several groups, both past and present, around the world. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Dr. R.L.K. Virchow common to humans and animals) and anthropology. ... Look up Liberation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sectarianism is an adherence to a particular sect or party or denomination, it also usually involves a rejection of those not a member of ones sect. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Evangelical Church or Evangelical Association was founded by Jacob Albright, a German-speaking Christian influenced by John Wesley and the Methodist movement. ... Piotr Stefan Wandycz is a Polish-American historian, President of the Polish Institute of Arts & Sciences of America, and profesor emeritus at Yale University, specializing in Eastern and Central European history. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

External links

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Contemporary

  • Pat Buchanan, 1992 Republican National Convention keynote, speech dated August 17, 1992.
  • Pat Buchanan, The Cultural War for the Soul of America, speech dated September 14, 1992.
  • Pat Buchanan, The Aggressors in the Culture Wars, column dated March 8, 2004.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kulturkampf - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1918 words)
It is generally accepted amongst historians that the Kulturkampf measures have targeted the Catholic Church under Pope Pius IX with discriminatory sanctions.
Needing to counter the Social Democratic Party, Bismarck softened his stance, especially with the election of the new Pope Leo XIII in 1878, and tried to justify his actions to the now numerous Catholic representatives by stating that the presence of Poles (who are predominantly Catholic) within German borders required that such measures be taken.
A lasting result of Kulturkampf was a heightened alienation of the craft and the state and the remaining population.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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