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Encyclopedia > Kulothunga Chola III
Kulothunga Chola III
மூன்றாம் குலோத்துங்க சோழன்

Chola territories c. 1218 CE
Reign 1178 C.E. - 1218 C.E.
Title Parakesari
Capital Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Queen Unknown
Children Rajaraja Chola III
Predecessor Rajadhiraja Chola II
Successor Rajaraja Chola III
Father Sangamaraja
Born Unknown
Died 1218 C.E.
List of Chola kings
Early Cholas
Ilamcetcenni  ·  Karikala Chola
Nedunkilli  ·  Nalankilli
Killivalavan  ·  Kopperuncholan
Kocengannan  ·  Perunarkilli
Interregnum (c.200-848)
Medieval Cholas
Vijayalaya Chola 848-871(?)
Aditya I 871-907
Parantaka Chola I 907-950
Gandaraditya 950-957
Arinjaya Chola 956-957
Sundara Chola 957-970
Uttama Chola 970-985
Rajaraja Chola I 985-1014
Rajendra Chola I 1012-1044
Rajadhiraja Chola 1018-1054
Rajendra Chola II 1051-1063
Virarajendra Chola 1063-1070
Athirajendra Chola 1067-1070
Chalukya Cholas
Kulothunga Chola I 1070-1120
Vikrama Chola 1118-1135
Kulothunga Chola II 1133-1150
Rajaraja Chola II 1146-1163
Rajadhiraja Chola II 1163-1178
Kulothunga Chola III 1178-1218
Rajaraja Chola III 1216-1256
Rajendra Chola III 1246-1279
Chola society
Chola government
Chola military
Chola art  ·  Chola literature
Poompuhar  ·  Urayur
Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Thanjavur  ·  Telugu Cholas
edit

Kulothunga Chola III ruled the Chola empire after Rajadhiraja Chola II. His long reign was marked by Kulothunga's abilities to bring order in the besieged kingdom and by his successes in reversing the growing weakness. However towards the end of his reign, the Pandya Maravarman Sundara Pandya defeated Kulothunga and made the Chola subordinate to Pandya rule, thus marking the beginning of the final demise of the Cholas. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... Events June 18 - Five Canterbury monks see what was possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed The Sung Document written detailing the discovery of Mu-Lan-Pi (suggested by some to be California) by Muslim sailors The Chronicle of Gervase of Canterbury written The Leaning Tower of Pisa begins to... Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a village in the inland Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... Rajaraja Chola III succeeded Kulothunga Chola III on the Chola throne in July 1216 CE. Rajaraja came to the throne of a kingdom much reduced in size as well as influence. ... Rajadhiraja Chola II (1163 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding Rajaraja Chola II. He was not the direct descendent of Rajaraja Chola II, but a grandson of Vikrama Chola by his dauther. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Early Cholas of the pre and post Sangam period (100 C.E. – 200 C.E.) were only the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country. ... Ilamcetcenni was a Chola king during the Sangam age in South India. ... Karikala Chola was the greatest among the Chola kings of the Sangam age in South India. ... Nedunkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Nalankilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Killivalavan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature, and of a period close to that of Nedunkilli and Nalankilli. ... Kopperuncholan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Kocengannan was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Perunarkilli was one of the Early Cholas mentioned in Sangam Literature. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Medieval Cholas rose to prominence during the middle of the 9th century C.E. and established the greatest empire South India had seen. ... Vijayalaya was the Chola king of South India who captured Thanjavur during c. ... Aditya I (870-906) was an Indian ruler. ... Parantaka Chola I (907 c. ... Gandaraditya Chola succeeded his father Parantaka I and became the Chola king c. ... Arinjaya Chola succeeded Gandaraditya Chola c. ... Parantak Chola II (957 c. ... Uttama Chola ascended the Chola throne c. ... Detail of a statue of Rajaraja at Brihadisvara Temple Rajaraja Chola I was the king of the Chola dynasty, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE. Rajaraja, the greatest of all the Chola rulers of the Vijayalaya dynasty, laid the foundation for the growth of the Chola kingdom into an... Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I, the great Chola king of South India. ... Rajadhiraja Chola I (1018-1054) was the king of the Cholas empire in southern India and the eldest son of king Rajendra Chola I. Although not supreme king untill his fathers death in 1044 he was associated in kingship since 1018 He maintained Cholas authority over most of Lanka, despite... Rajendra Chola II (1054 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajadhiraja Chola. ... Virarajendra Chola (1063 – 1070 C.E.) became the Chola king succeeding his brother Rajendra Chola II. Rajamahendra, Rajendra’s son and heir apparent died before his father and Rajendra made his younger brother Virarajendra his heir. ... Athirajendra Chola ( 1070 C.E.) reigned for a very short period of few months as the Chola king succeeding his brother Virarajendra Chola. ... The Chalukya Chola dynasty ruled the Chola Empire from 1070 C.E. until the demise of the empire in the second half of the 13th century. ... Kulothunga Chola was the offspring of two rival dynasties - the Cholas of Thanjavoor and the Chalukyas of Vengi when he came to the throne in 1070 A.D. The Cholas and the Chalukyas had always existed in constant warfare, spaced by periods of uneasy peace, for decades, due to differences... Vikrama Chola succeeded his father the famous Kulothunga Chola I to the Chola throne in 1120 C.E. He inherited an empire that had been severely confined to the Tamil country and a few out-lying areas of the Telugu country. ... Kulothunga Chola II succeeded his father Vikrama Chola to the Chola throne in 1135 C.E. Vikrama Chola made his heir apparent and coregent in 1133 C.E and so the inscriptions of Kulothunga II count his reign from 1133 C.E. Kulothunga II reigned over a period of general... Rajaraja Chola II succeeded his father Kulothunga Chola II to the Chola throne in 1150 C.E. He was made his heir apparent and coregent in 1146 C.E and so the inscriptions of Rajaraja II count his reign from 1146 C.E. Rajarajas reign began to show signs... Rajadhiraja Chola II (1163 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding Rajaraja Chola II. He was not the direct descendent of Rajaraja Chola II, but a grandson of Vikrama Chola by his dauther. ... Rajaraja Chola III succeeded Kulothunga Chola III on the Chola throne in July 1216 CE. Rajaraja came to the throne of a kingdom much reduced in size as well as influence. ... Rajendra Chola III was the son of Rajaraja Chola III who came to the Chola throne in 1246 CE. Although his father Rajaraja III was still alive, Rajendra began to take effective control over the administration. ... The Chola Government during the imperial period (850 – 1200) CE was marked for its uniqueness and innovativeness. ... Chola Military was one of the most well organised and effective fighting machines of the medieval times. ... Detail of a Statue of Rajaraja Chola I at the Brihadisvara Temple The period of the imperial Cholas (c. ... Chola Literature denotes the literature, mainly in the Tamil language created during the period of Chola reign in south India between the ninth and the thirteenth centuries CE. The age of the imperial Cholas was the most create epoch of the history of South India and was the Golden Age... Poompuhar is a town in the southern part of India in the state of Tamil Nadu. ... Uraiyur: Literally meaning the living place, Uraiyur was an ancient Chola city with a fortress and citywall on the southern banks of river Ponni and was made the official capital of the Chola empire around 540 B.C.E. by Tittan ( henceforth he was called Uraiyur thandha Thiththan). ILancaeN Cenni... Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram Gangaikonda Cholapuram is a village in the inland Perambalur district of Tamil Nadu, India. ... “Tanjore” redirects here. ... Many Telugu Choda kingdoms ruled over many regions including the cities on the banks of Krishna River in the period between the seventh and the thirteenth century. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... Rajadhiraja Chola II (1163 – 1063 C.E.) reigned as the Chola king succeeding Rajaraja Chola II. He was not the direct descendent of Rajaraja Chola II, but a grandson of Vikrama Chola by his dauther. ...


Kulothunga III is also renowned for his patronage of art and literature. He is credited with the building of numerous temples.

Contents

Accession

The inscriptions of Kulothunga show that his rule commenced around July 8, 1178 CE. Kulothunga was recognised as the next sovereign even before the death of his predecessor Rajadhiraja Chola II. Kulothunga did not belong to the direct line of the Cholas. Rajadhiraja III either did not have any children or they must have predeceased him. The poetic work Kulothungan Kovai marks Kulothunga III as the son of one Sangamaraja. There is no means available at present of ascertaining the exact relation of Sangamaraja to the Chola line. Events June 18 - Five Canterbury monks see what was possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed The Sung Document written detailing the discovery of Mu-Lan-Pi (suggested by some to be California) by Muslim sailors The Chronicle of Gervase of Canterbury written The Leaning Tower of Pisa begins to...


Military Campaigns

The reign of Kulothunga III is a remarkable example of the triumph of the personal ability of the monarch against the forces of disruption that were steadily increasing in their number and in the intensity of their action. The civil war in the Pandya country had not yet settled when he came to the throne and the Chola forces were still involved in active fighting there. Kulothunga succeeded for the best part of his reign to continue the Chola superiority in the Pandya kingdom. The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...


Some of his feudatories were preparing to break off from the Chola empire and Kulothunga had to deal with them.


Pandyan wars

From the inscriptions of Kulothunga we can gather that he was involved in three campaigns in the Pandya country.


The first campaign began in 1182 CE at the request of Vikrama Pandya, a rival of Vira Pandya. We have no confirmed information on the causes of this request. The campaign ended with the deposition of Vira Pandya. Events Canute VI crowned king of Denmark. ...


The second campaign occurred in the year 1187 CE when Vira Pandya, with the help of the king of Kerala and the Sinhala Parakrama Bahu tried to regain the Pandya throne. Kulothunga again sent his troops to battle Vira Pandya and in the battle at Nettur, Vira Pandya was defeated and sent into exile in the Keral country. // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Parakrama Bahu I the Great. ...


The third campaign occurred during the thirty-fourth year of Kulothunga (1212 CE). This expedition seems to have been instigated by Kulothunga himself against Pandya Jatavarman Kulasekara. Although the Chola inscriptions state that the Pandya suffered heavy defeat, Kulasekara was restored to the throne after the battle. The Chola forces vandalised and looted the Pandya country, showing the growing weakness of Chola administration in that country and the resultant harshness of the Chola treatment of the Pandya subjects. Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese...


The results of these campaigns did not improve the Chola position and suzerainty, rather it accelerated the nascent Pandya revival which was witness in the decades to come.


Northern battles

In the north, the Chalukya kingdom had grown weak and the Hoysalas had begun to rise in power. The Telugu Cholas of Velanadu, who had been subordinate to the Western Chalukyas had began to entertain plans of growth. The Telugu Cholas had been in friendly terms with the Chola kingdom well into Kulothunga's reign. However they began to revolt and even occupied Chola territories up to Kanchipuram. Kulothunga sent his army into the Vengi country between 1208 and 1213 CE to quell this revolt and recover the lost territories. The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Many Telugu Choda kingdoms ruled over many regions including the cities on the banks of Krishna River in the period between the seventh and the thirteenth century. ... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... January 31 - Inferior Swedish forces defeats the invading danes in Battle of Lena. ... May 30 - Battle of Damme; English fleet under William Longsword destroyes a French fleet off the Belgian port in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy. ...


Pandyan invasion

Towards the end of Kulothunga's reign, Maravarman Sundara Pandya, a brother of Jatavarman Kulasekara, came to the Pandya throne (1216 CE). The Pandya power had been growing during the past decades and Sundara Pandya wanted to take revenge for the looting and destruction caused by the last Chola invasion . During 1216 – 1217 CE, Sundara Pandya invaded the Chola country reaching as far north as Chidambaram. He caused considerable damage to life and property along the route. Kulothunga was completely defeated and sought refuge in flight. He had to negotiate his restoration with the Pandya only on the condition of his accepting the soverignty of the Pandyas over the Chola land. The tables were thus completely turned. // Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... This article is about the town in Cuddalore district. ...


Hoysala intervention

The Hoysalas who had been growing in power, had some marital relationship with the Cholas. Hoysala Ballala II had a Chola princes for a wife. When the Pandaya army invaded the Chola country, Ballala sent an army into the Chola country in support of the Cholas. Kulothunga possibly went into refuge into the Hoysala country.


Kulothunga's buildings

Kulothunga III was a great builder and his reign is a noteworthy period in Chola architecture. Beautiful temples such as the Kampahareswara in Kumbakonam. Its general design resembles the Brihadisvara Temple in Thanjavur. The temple also contains an excellent series of Ramayana reliefs on its walls. Besides this temple, Kulothunga also contributed to the extension and renovation of many temples around his kingdom. Kumbakonam (Tamil: கும்பகோணம்) is a city and a municipality in the Thanjavur district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... The Brihadisvara temple (also spelled Brahadeeswarar temple) is an ancient Hindu temple located at Thanjavur in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. ... “Tanjore” redirects here. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...


Civic work

In the 23rd and 24th years of Kulothunga's reign there was a wide-spread famine in the Chola kingdom. Kulothunga organised relief by ordering construction of tanks and river embarkments.


Decay of central control

During the close of his reign the final fate of the Chola kingdom was clear. The centra control of administration, which had been a hallmark of the Cholas, had given way to chaos and semi-independent local chieftains. With the rise of the Pandya and the growing influence of the Hoysala, the Chola kingdom was growing weak. The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ...


Kulothunga died some time in 1218 and Rajaraja Chola III became the Chola king. // Events Damietta is besieged by the knights of the Fifth Crusade. ... Rajaraja Chola III succeeded Kulothunga Chola III on the Chola throne in July 1216 CE. Rajaraja came to the throne of a kingdom much reduced in size as well as influence. ...


References

  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1935). The CōĻas, University of Madras, Madras (Reprinted 1984).
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002).
  • South Indian Inscriptions - http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/

  Results from FactBites:
 
Rajadiraja Chola II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (660 words)
After the conquest of the Pandya country by Kulothunga Chola I, the local Pandya princes were allowed to rule as they liked, subject to a vague suzerainty of the Cholas.
On hearing this the Chola general induced Srivallabha, a rival of Parakramabahu to the Sinhala throne to undertake an invasion of the Lanka island.
Rajadhiraja died in 1178C.E. and Kulothunga Chola III ascended the throne.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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