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Encyclopedia > Kucha

Kucha/Kuchar (Chinese Simplified: 库车; Traditional: 庫車; pinyin Kùchē; also romanized as Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu. Also known in ancient China as: 屈支 屈茨; 龜玆; 丘玆, also Po (bai in pinyin?); 41°39′N 82°54′E) was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin. (The area lies in present day Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang, China; Kucha city itself is the county seat of that prefecture's Kuqa County). Its population was given as 74,632 in 1990. It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... Dust storm in Taklamakan from space, June 25, 2005 The Taklamakan (also Taklimakan) is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tarim River (Mandarin Dayan) is the principal river of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Aksu, city (1994 est. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Kucha / Kuqa was strongly influenced by Indian thought, and Indian kings are said to have reigned there. For a long time Kucha was the most populous oasis in the Tarim Basin. The language, as evidenced by ancient records, was Tocharian, an Indo-European language distantly related to ancient Celtic and Germanic languages among others. Tocharian refers to an Indo-European culture that inhabited the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Celtic languages are a branch of the Indo-European languages. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


KUÇAR: Göçer, göçmen (nomads/migrants): “One MS. [of the Tarikh-i-Rashidi] reads Kus and others Kusan. Both names were used for the same place, as also Kos, Kucha, Kujar, etc., and all appear to stand for the modern Kuchar of the Turki-speaking inhabitants, and Kuché of the Chinese. An earlier Chinese name, however, was Ku-sien.” Elias (1895), p.124, n. 1.


Ancient Guici (Kucha) was a crossroads of the great cultures of India, Persia, Greece and China. The extensive ruins of this ancient capital of the Kingdom of Guici [the 'City of Subashi'] lie 20 kilometres (12 miles) north of Kucha.


See: Kuchis Kutchi Kuchi(s) or Kochai are an ethnic group of Pashtun nomads in Afghanistan. ... The Kutchi language originates from Kutch, India. ...

Contents

Kucha and Buddhism

Buddhism was introduced to Kucha before the end of the 1st century, however it was not until the 3rd century that the kingdom became a major center of Buddhism, primarily the Shravakayana branch but also Mahayana. (In this respect it differed from Khotan, a Mahayana-dominated kingdom on the southern side of the desert.) The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... Śravakayāna is a term used by some Mahayana Buddhists to describe one hypothetical path to enlightenment: the vehicle of hearers [i. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... Mosque in Khotan. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ...


According to the Chinese Book of Jin, during the third century there were nearly one thousand Buddhist stupas and temples in Kucha. At this time, Kuchanese monks began to travel to China. The fourth century saw yet further growth for Buddhism within the kingdom. The palace was said to resemble a Buddhist monastery, displaying carved stone Buddhas, and monasteries around the city were numerous. The Book of Jin (Chinese:晋书) is one of the official Chinese historical works. ...


Monasteries

  • Ta-mu had 170 monks
  • Che-hu-li on Po-shan (Chinese 白山?; pinyin: bai shan?), a hill to the north of the town, had 50 or 60 monks.
  • Another monastery, founded by the king of Wen-Su (Uch-Turfan) had 70 monks.

It has been suggested that Pinyin method be merged into this article or section. ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: Tǔlǔfán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Nunneries

There were two nunneries at A-li (Avanyaka):

  • Liun-jo-kan: 50 nuns
  • A-li-po: 30 nuns

Another nunnery, Tsio-li, was 40 li north of Kucha and is famous as the place where Kumārajīva's mother Jīva retired. Li or li may refer to: Lee or Li is a transliteration of several Chinese and Korean family names, see Li (Chinese name) and Lee (Korean name). ...


Monks

Po-Yen

A monk from the royal family known as Po-Yen travelled to the Chinese capital, Luoyang, from 256-260. He translated six Buddhist texts to Chinese in 258 at China's famous White Horse Temple, including the Infinite Life Sutra, an important sutra in the Pure Land Buddhism. Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Luòyáng) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Events Births Arius, founder of Arianism Deaths Invasions Goths invade Asia Minor. ... Events Valerian I captured by the Persian king Shapur I; Gallienus becomes sole Roman emperor. ... Events Sun Xiu succeeds Sun Liang as ruler of the Chinese kingdom of Wu The Goths ravage Asia Minor and Trabzon Gaul, Britain and Spain break off from the Roman Empire to form the Gallic Empire Nanjing University first founded in Nanjing, China Births Emperor Hui of Jin China (approximate... White Horse Temple (Simplified Chinese: 白马寺; Traditional Chinese: 白馬寺; pinyin: ; also White Horse Ministry) was the first Buddhist temple in China, established under the patronage of Emperor Ming in the Eastern Han capital Luoyang in the year 68. ... The Infinite Life Sutra, or Larger Pure Land Sutra, is a Mahayana Buddhist text associated with Pure Land Buddhism. ... The Buddha Amitabha, 13th century, Kamakura, Japan. ...


Po-Po-Śrīmitra

Po-Śrīmitra was another Kuchean monk who traveled to China from 307-312 and translated three Buddhist texts. Po-Śrīmitra (Chinese possibly 室利蜜多羅 or related) was a Kuchean prince and Buddhist monk who traveled to south China from 307-312, translating three Buddhist texts. ... March 31 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Emperor Maximian. ... Events October 28 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine defeats Maxentius in the fight to become emperor of Rome. ...


Po-Yen

A second Kuchean Buddhist monk known as Po-Yen also went to Liangzhou (the Wuwei region of modern Gansu), China and is said to have been well-respected, although he is not known to have translated any texts. Wuwei (woo-WAY) Taoist concept of a disengagement from the affairs of the world. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Neighbors

The kingdom bordered Aksu then Kashgar to the west, and Karasahr then Turfan to the east. Across the Taklamakan desert to the south was Khotan. Aksu (also known as Ak-su, Akshu, Aqsu, Bharuka and Po-lu-chia. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgars Sunday market Kashgar (also spelled Cascar[1]) (Uyghur: /; Chinese: ; pinyin: , ), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Karasahr (Also Karashahr, meaning black city. Sanskrit Agnideśa. ... position in China Street of Turfan View of the Flaming mountains Emin minaret, Turfan Turfan (Uyghur: تۇرپان; Uyghur latin: Turpan; Modern Chinese 吐魯番, Pinyin: TÇ”lÇ”fán; ) is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Dust storm in Taklamakan from space, June 25, 2005 The Taklamakan (also Taklimakan) is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mosque in Khotan. ...


Timeline

Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... A portrait of Xuanzang Xuanzang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsüan-tsang; CantoneseIPA: jyn4tsɔŋ1; CantoneseJyutping: jyun4zong1) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler and translator that brought up the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. ...

Sources

The Book of Jin (Chinese:晋书) is one of the official Chinese historical works. ...

Other meanings

Kuché (куче) is also a breed of 'dog' in Bulgarian. Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog Canis lupus is a type of canine, a mammal in the order Carnivora. ...


References

  • Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Draft Edition. [1]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilüe 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [2]
  • Hulsewé, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. E. J. Brill, Leiden.
  • Puri, B. N. Buddhism in Central Asia, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited, Delhi, 1987. (2000 reprint).
  • Stein, Aurel M. 1912. Ruins of Desert Cathay: Personal narrative of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China, 2 vols. Reprint: Delhi. Low Price Publications. 1990.
  • Stein, Aurel M. 1921. Serindia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia and westernmost China, 5 vols. London & Oxford. Clarendon Press. Reprint: Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass. 1980.[3]
  • Stein Aurel M. 1928. Innermost Asia: Detailed report of explorations in Central Asia, Kan-su and Eastern Iran, 5 vols. Clarendon Press. Reprint: New Delhi. Cosmo Publications. 1981.
  • Yu, Taishan. 2004. A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March, 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania.

External links

  • Silk Road Seattle (The Silk Road Seattle website contains many useful resources including a number of full-text historical works)
  • Kucha, Xinjiang, photos (Dru C. Gladney)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kucha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (642 words)
Kucha was strongly influenced by Indian thought, and Indian kings are said to have reigned there.
Buddhism was introduced to Kucha before the end of the 1st century, however it was not until the 3rd century that the kingdom became a major center of Buddhism, primarily the Shravakayana branch but also Mahayana.
Another nunnery, Tsio-li, was 40 li north of Kucha and is famous as the place where Kumārajīva's mother Jīva retired.
Custom3 (627 words)
Kucha is oasis city in the Uyghur Region of.
The oasis of Kucha lies at the foot of the southern slope of the Tengri Tagh (Celestial Mountains) on the northern rim of the Tarim Basin.
Kucha became an important Buddhist centre; remains of this period are in the renowned Kizil caves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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