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Encyclopedia > Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
Death and birth: September 23, 1215February 18, 1294
Clan name (obogh): Borjigin[1] (Боржигин)
Bei'erzhijin[2] (孛兒只斤) or
Bo'erjijite[3] (博爾濟吉特)
Sublineage name:[4]
(yasun)
Khiyad[5] (Хиад)
Qiwowen[6] (奇渥溫)
or Qiyan (乞顏)
Given name: Khubilai (Хубилай)
Hubilie (忽必烈)
Khan of the Mongols
Dates of reign: May 5, 1260–Dec. 17, 1271
Emperor of Yuan China
Dates of reign: Dec. 18, 1271[7]–Feb. 18, 1294
Era Names: Zhongtong, Zhiyuan
Dynasty: Ön, now Yüanh (Юань)
Yuan (元)
Khan name: Setsen Khan (Сэцэн хаан)
Xuechan Han (薛禪汗)
Temple name: (Mongolian name to be added)
Shizu (世祖)
Posthumous name:
(short)
Never used short
Posthumous name:
(full)
(Mongolian name to be added)
Emperor Shengde
Shengong Wenwu
(聖德神功文武皇帝)
General note: Names given in Mongolian, then in Chinese.
See Notes

Kublai or Khubilai Khan (September 23, 1215[8] - February 18, 1294[9]) (Mongolian: Хубилай хаан, Chinese: 忽必烈; pinyin: Hūbìliè), was the fifth and last Khagan (1260–1294) of the Mongol Empire. In 1271, he founded the Yuan Dynasty, and became the first Yuan emperor. Kublai Khan or Kubla Khan was a Mongol emperor. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Borjigin (plural Borjigit or Borjigid; Khalkha Mongolian: Боржигин, Borjigin; Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) were the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors. ... Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Mongolian name Mongolian: Номын Нэр Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Ly, Tran, and Le) royalty. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic ; Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, KaÄŸan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire (1300~1405), the gray area is Timurid dynasty. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...


He was the second son of Tolui and Sorghaghtani Beki and a grandson of Genghis Khan. The civil war between him and his younger brother Ariq Böke over the succession of their older brother Möngke (died in 1259) essentially marked the end of a unified Mongol empire. Tolui,also rendered Toluy or Tolui Khan (Mongolian: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 1190–1232), was the youngest son of Genghis Khan by Börte. ... Sorghaghtani Beki (died 1252) was the mother of four of the great figures in Mongol history, especially Möngke Khan, Kublai Khan, and Hulagu Khan. ... This article is about the person. ... Ariq Boke or Arigh Bukha (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; died 1266), the youngest son of Tolui, was a grandson of Genghis Khan and a claimant to the Mongol Empire. ... Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан), also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu or Mangku (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; c. ...

Contents

Early years

Kublai studied Chinese culture and became enamored of it. In 1251, his elder brother Möngke became Khan of the Mongol Empire, and Kublai became the governor of the southern territories of the Mongol Empire. During his years as governor, Kublai managed his territory well, boosting the agricultural output of Henan and increasing social welfare spendings after receiving Xi'an. These acts received great acclaim from the Chinese warlords and were essential to the building of the Yuan Dynasty. Möngke Khan (Мөнх хаан), also transliterated as Mongke, Mongka, Möngka, Mangu or Mangku (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; c. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... Xian redirects here. ...


In 1253, Kublai was ordered to attack Yunnan, and he destroyed the Kingdom of Dali. In 1258, Möngke put Kublai in command of the Eastern Army and summoned him to assist with attacks on Sichuan and, again, Yunnan. Before Kublai could arrive in 1259, word reached him that Möngke had died. Kublai continued to attack Wuhan, but soon received news that his younger brother Arik Boke had held a kurultai at the Mongolian imperial capital of Karakorum and was pronounced Great Khan. Most of Genghis Khan's descendants favored Arik Boke as Great Khan; however, his two brothers Kublai and Hulegu were in opposition. Yunan redirects here. ... Dali (大理 pinyin: Dàlǐ) was a Bai kingdom centered in what is now Yunnan Province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... For the brand of cymbal, see Wuhan cymbals. ... Kurultai (Tatar: Qorıltay, Azerbaijani: Qurultay; Kurulmak meaning to assemble in Turkish, also Khural meaning meeting in Mongolian) is a political and military council of ancient Mongol and Turkic chiefs and khans. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ...


Kublai quickly reached a peace agreement with Song troops and returned north to the Mongolian plains, in order to oppose Arik Boke's claim to the title of Great Khan. Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou...


Upon returning to his own territories, Kublai summoned a kurultai of his own, and was proclaimed Great Khan. Only a small number of the royal family supported Kublai's claims to the title, however the small number of attendees still proclaimed him Great Khan.


This subsequently led to warfare between Kublai and his younger brother Arik Boke, which resulted in the eventual destruction of the Mongolian capital at Karakorum. Harhorin (Хархорин), or Khara Khorum in Classical Mongolian, is a town in Övörhangay aymag, Mongolia. ...


Both his brother and Kublai crowned themselves Khan in 1260, and the two brothers battled for three years before Kublai finally won. However, during this civil war, Yizhou governor Li revolted against Mongol rule. The revolt was swiftly crushed by Kublai, but this incident instilled in him a strong distrust of ethnic Hans. After he became emperor, Kublai instituted several anti-Han laws, such as banning the titles of and tithes to Han Chinese warlords.


Mongol Empire

The empire was separated into four khanates, each ruled by a separate khan and overseen by the Great Khan. The Kipchak Khanate (also called the Golden Horde) ruled Russia; the Ilkhanate ruled the Middle East, the Chagatai Khanate ruled over central Asia, and the Great Khanate controlled Mongolia and eventually the whole of China. The empire reached its greatest extent under Kublai with his conquest of the Song Dynasty, which was completed by his final victory in the Battle of Yamen in 1279. The Golden Horde (also known as Kipchak or Qipchaq Khanate) was a Tatar state established in present day Russia by unification of Blue Horde and White Horde around 1378. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3] — later Turkicized[4] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire after the Mongol invasion of Rus in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Combatants Song Dynasty Yuan Dynasty Commanders Zhang Shijie Zhang Hongfan Strength 200,000 1000+ warships 20,000 50+ warships Casualties unknown, though almost all perished unknown The Battle of Yamen (崖門戰役; or 崖山海戰, lit. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...


Emperor of Yuan

Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280.
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280.

As emperor of the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan worked to minimize the influences of regional lords who had held immense power before and during the Song Dynasty. His mistrust of ethnic Han Chinese caused him to hire other ethnic group members as officials more often than Han Chinese. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


China proper was administered in 12 districts during his reign with a governor and vice-governor each. Of these 12 governors, 8 were Muslims. In the remaining districts, Muslims were vice-governors.[1]


At the Twelfth Year of Zhiyuan (1271), Kublai Khan officially declared the creation of the Yuan Dynasty, and proclaimed the capital to be at Dadu (Beijing, China) in the following year. To unify China, Kublai Khan began a massive offensive against the remnants of the southern Song Dynasty in the 11th year of Zhiyuan, and finally destroyed the Song Dynasty in the 16th year of Zhiyuan, unifying the country at last. Khanbaliq or Cambuluc (great residence of the Khan) is the ancient Mongol name[1] for the city at the present location of Beijing, the current capital of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


He ruled better than his predecessors, promoting economic growth with the rebuilding of the Grand Canal, repairing public buildings, and extending highways. However, Kublai Khan's domestic policy also included some aspects of the old Mongol living traditions, and as Kublai Khan continued his reign, these traditions would clash more and more frequently with traditional Chinese economic and social culture. Grand Canal of China The Grand Canal of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the longest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ...


He also introduced paper currency, although eventually a lack of fiscal discipline and inflation turned this move into an economic disaster. He encouraged Asian arts and demonstrated religious tolerance, except in regards to Taoism. His capital was at Beijing (then Cambuluc or Dadu 大都 lit. big capital). The empire was visited by several Europeans, notably Marco Polo in the 1270s who may have seen the summer capital in Shangdu (上都 lit. upper capital or Xanadu). Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Peking redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254[1] – January 9, 1324 at earliest but no later than June 1325[2]) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279. ... This article is about the summer capital of Kublai Khans empire. ...


He conquered Dali (Yunnan) and Goryeo (Korea). Under pressure from his Mongolian advisors, Kublai attempted to conquer Japan, Myanmar, Vietnam and Java. These costly, failed attempts, along with the introduction of paper currency, caused inflation. However, Kublai Khan also forced warlords from the Northwest and Northeast to capitulate, ensuring stability for those regions. Kublai Khan died in the 31st year of Zhiyuan. (1294) Dali (大理 pinyin: Dàlǐ) was a Bai kingdom centered in what is now Yunnan Province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Yunan redirects here. ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... Template:Infobox Celebrities cleanup-date|March 2006}} Trần HÆ°ng Đạo (陳興道) (1228-1300) was a Vietnamese Grand Commander-in-Chief during the Trần Dynasty. ... This article is about the Java island. ...


Invasions of Japan

The samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Moko Shurai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
The samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Moko Shurai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.

Kublai Khan twice attempted to invade Japan in search of gold; however, both times, it is believed that bad weather, or a flaw in the design of the ships, destroyed the fleets. The first invasion attempt took place in 1274, with a fleet of 900 ships. The second invasion occurred in 1281, with a fleet of over 1,170 large war junks, each close to 240 feet long. The campaign was badly organized, and the Korean fleet reached Japan well ahead of the Chinese fleet. Overall, the Japanese fought very little in the invasion, but the times they did, they lost. Combatants Mongol Empire Japan Commanders Kublai Khan Hōjō Tokimune Strength 35,000 Mongol & Chinese soldiers and 18,000 Korean warriors 10,000 Casualties 16,000 killed before landed minimal Defensive wall at Hakata. ... Image File history File links Mooko-Suenaga. ... Image File history File links Mooko-Suenaga. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...


Dr. Kenzo Hayashida, the marine archaeologist, headed the investigation that discovered the wreckage of the second invasion fleet off the western coast of Takashima. His team's findings strongly indicate that Kublai Khan rushed to conquer Japan and attempted to construct his enormous fleet in only one year (a task that should have taken up to 5 years). This forced the Chinese to use any available ships, including river boats, in order to achieve readiness. Most importantly, the Chinese, then under the Khan's control, were forced to build many ships quickly in order to contribute to the fleet in both of the invasions. Hayashida theorizes that, had Kublai used standard, well-constructed ocean-going ships, which have a curved keel to prevent capsizing, his navy might have survived the journey to and from Japan and might have conquered it as intended. Maritime archaeology (also known as marine archaeology) is a discipline that studies human interaction with the sea, lakes and rivers through the study of vessels, shore side facilities, cargoes and human remains. ... Takashima is the name of several places in Japan: In Nagasaki Prefecture: Takashima Town in Nishisonogi Takashima Town in Kitamatsūra District. ... For other uses, see Keel (disambiguation). ...


Stephenie Meyer, author of Kublai Khan (2005), writes, "The cost of these defeats led the Khan to devalue the central currency, further exacerbating growing inflation. He also increased tax assessments. These economic problems lead to growing resentment of the Mongols, who paid no taxes, among the Chinese populace." David Nicole writes in The Mongol Conquerors that "these disastrous defeats shattered the myth of Mongol invincibility throughout Asia." He also wrote that Kublai Khan was determined to mount a third invasion, despite the horrendous cost to the economy and to his and Mongol prestige of the first two defeats, and only his death prevented such a third attempt, despite the unanimous agreement of his advisors against such an attempt." Stephenie Meyer (born December 24, 1973 in Connecticut) is the author of the book Twilight and its sequels New Moon and Eclipse. ...


Invasions of Vietnam

As was foreseen, the Mongolians in Thăng Long suffered an acute shortage of food. Without any news about the supply fleet Toghan found himself in a tight corner and had to order his army to retreat to Vạn Kiếp. This was when Đại Việt's Army began the general offensive by recapturing a number of locations occupied by the Mongol invaders. Groups of infantry were given orders to attack the mongols in Vạn Kiếp. Toghan had to split his army into two and retreat. The term Mongol invasions of Vietnam may refer to: Battle of Bach Dang (1288) Trần HÆ°ng Đạo, the Vietnamese general who repelled multiple Mongol invasions History of Vietnam#Mongol invasions Categories: | | | | | | | ...


In early April the supply fleet led by Omar and escorted by infantry fled home along the Bạch Đằng river. As bridges and roads were destroyed and attacks were launched by Đại Việt's troops, the Mongols reached Bạch Đằng. Đại Việt's small flotilla engaged in battle and pretended to retreat. The Mongols eagerly pursued Đại Việt troops and fell into their pre-arranged battlefield. "Thousands" of Đại Việt's small boats from both banks quickly appeared, fiercely launched the attack and broke the combat formation of the enemy. Inflicted with a sudden and strong attack, the Mongols tried to withdraw to the sea in panic. Hitting the stakes, their boats were halted, many of which were broken and sunken. At that time, a number of fire rafts quickly rushed toward them. Frightened, the Mongolian troops jumped down to get to the banks where they were dealt a heavy blow an army led by the Trần king and Trần Hưng Đạo.


The Mongolian supply fleet was totally destroyed. Omar was captured.


At the same time, Đại Việt's Army made continuous attacks and smashed to pieces Toghan’s army on its route of withdrawal through Lạng Sơn. Toghan risked his life making a shortcut through forests to flee home.


Dadu

On 5 May 1260 Kublai was elected Khan at his residence in Shangdu and he began to organize the country. Zhang Wenqian, who was a friend of Guo and like him was a central government official, was sent by Kublai Khan in 1260 to Daming where unrest had been reported in the local population. Guo accompanied Zhang on his mission. Guo was not only interested in engineering, but he was also an expert astronomer. In particular he was a skilled instrument maker and understood that good astronomical observations depended on expertly made instruments. He now began to construct astronomical instruments, including water clocks for accurate timing and armillary spheres which represent the celestial globe.


Zhang advised Kublai Khan that his friend Guo was a leading expert in hydraulic engineering. Kublai knew the importance of water management, for irrigation, transport of grain, and flood control, and he asked Guo to look at these aspects in the area between Dadu (now Beijing or Peking) and the Yellow River. To provide Dadu with a new supply of water, Guo found the Baifu spring in the Shenshan Mountain and had a 30 km channel built to bring the water to Dadu. He proposed connecting the water supply across different river basins, built new canals with many sluices to control the water level, and achieved great success with the improvements which he was able to make. This pleased Kublai Khan and led to Guo being asked to undertake similar projects in other parts of the country. In 1264 he was asked to go to Gansu province to repair the damage that had been caused to the irrigation systems by the years of war during the Mongul advance through the region. Guo travelled extensively along with his friend Zhang taking notes of the work which needed to be done to unblock damaged parts of the system and to make improvements to its efficiency. He sent his report directly to Kublai Khan.


Later life

In the later part of his life, Kublai developed severe gout. He also gained weight due to a fondness for eating animal organs and other delicacies. His overeating may have been related the recent deaths of not only his favorite wife, but also his chosen heir. This also more than likely increased the amount of purines in his blood, likely leading to his problems with gout, and ultimately to his death in 1294. Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring that is fused with an imidazole ring. ...


Notes

General note: Dates given here are in the Julian calendar. They are not in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The proleptic Gregorian calendar is produced by extending the Gregorian Calendar to dates preceding its official introduction in 1582. ...

  1. ^ This is the singular. The plural is Borjigid.
  2. ^ This is the most frequent Chinese version of the clan name nowadays.
  3. ^ This Chinese version of the clan name was the most frequent during the Qing Dynasty.
  4. ^ The Cambridge History of China thinks that Khiyad was a sublineage inside the larger Borjigin clan, but other scholars disagree and think that Borjigin was a sublineage inside the larger Khiyad clan, while there are those who think that Khiyad and Borjigin were both used interchangeably.
  5. ^ This is the plural. The singular is Khiyan.
  6. ^ This Chinese version of Khiyad is the one that appears in the Chinese history of the Yuan Dynasty.
  7. ^ Founded the Yuan Dynasty on that day. However, was not in control of southern China until February 1276, when the Southern Song emperor was captured and the imperial seal was relinquished to the Yuan. The last pockets of resistance in southern China fell in 1279.
  8. ^ Rossabi, Morris (1988). Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times. University of California Press, 13. ISBN 0-520-06740-1. 
  9. ^ Rossabi, Morris (1988). Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times. University of California Press, 227-228. ISBN 0-520-06740-1. 

Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...

External links

The Archaeological Institute of America (AIA) is a North American is a nonprofit organization devoted to the promotion of public interest in archaeology, and the preservation of archaeological sites. ...

References

  • Morgan, David. The Mongols (Blackwell Publishers; Reprint edition, April 1990), ISBN 0-631-17563-6.
  • Rossabi, Morris. Khubilai Khan: His Life and Times (University of California Press (May 1, 1990)) ISBN 0-520-06740-1.
  • Saunders, J.J. The History of the Mongol Conquests (University of Pennsylvania Press (March 1, 2001)) ISBN 0-8122-1766-7.
  • Man, John. "Kublai Khan"
  • Man, John. "Genghis Khan"
Kublai Khan
Born: 1215 Died: 1294
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Möngke Khan
Great Khan of Mongol Empire
1260-1271
No-one accepted as Great Khan
Preceded by
Emperor Bing of Song Dynasty
Emperor of China
1271-1294
Succeeded by
Temür Khan, Emperor Chengzong

zk:Zeus


  Results from FactBites:
 
Electronic Passport to Genghis and Kublai Khan (336 words)
Genghis Khan was one of the world’s greatest conquerors.
Kublai Khan moved his capital to the city now known as Beijing in 1271.
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Kublai Khan - LoveToKnow 1911 (1713 words)
KUBLAI KHAN (or Ikaan, as the supreme ruler descended from Jenghiz was usually distinctively termed in the 13th century) (1216-1294), the most eminent of the successors of Jenghiz (Chinghiz), and the founder of the Mongol dynasty in China.
Kublai was born in 1216, and, young as he was, took part with his younger brother Hulagu (afterwards conqueror of the caliph and founder of the Mongol dynasty in Persia) in the last campaign of Jenghiz (1226-27).
Kublai assumed the succession, but it was disputed by his brother Arikbugha and by his cousin Kaidu, and wars with these retarded the prosecution of the southern conquest.
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