2. This is the most frequent Chinese version of the clan name nowadays.
3. This Chinese version of the clan name was the most frequent during the Qing Dynasty.
4. The Cambridge History of China thinks that Khiyad was a sublineage inside the larger Borjigin clan, but other scholars disagree and think that Borjigin was a sublineage inside the larger Khiyad clan, while there are those who think that Khiyad and Borjigin were both used interchangeably.
5. This is the plural. The singular is Khiyan.
6. This Chinese version of Khiyad is the one that appears in the Chinese history of the Yuan Dynasty.
7. Founded the Yuan Dynasty on that day. However, was not in control of southern China until February 1276 when the Southern Song emperor was captured and the imperial seal was relinquished to the Mongols. The last pockets of resistance in southern China fell in 1279.
8. This was the Mongolian transliteration of the Chinese name Yuan in the 13th and 14th centuries.
9. This is the name of the dynasty in modern Mongolian.
The empire was separated into four khanates, each ruled by a separate khan and overseen by the Great Khan. The Kipchak Khanate (also called the Golden Horde) ruled Russia; the Ilkhanate ruled the Middle East, the Chagatai Khanate ruled over western Asia, and the Great Khanate controlled Mongolia and eventually China. The empire reached its greatest extent under Kublai with his conquest of China, completed with the final defeat of the Song Dynasty in 1279. He ruled well, promoting economic growth with the rebuilding of the Grand Canal, repairing public buildings, extending highways and introducing paper currency. He encouraged Chinese arts and demonstrated religious tolerance, except to Taoism. His capital was at Beijing (then Cambuluc or Dadu 大都 lit. big capital). The empire was visited by several Europeans, notably Marco Polo in the 1270s who may have seen the summer capital in Shangdu (上都 lit. upper capital or Xanadu?).
He conquered Dali (Yunnan) and Goryeo (Korea). Under pressure from his Mongolian advisors, Kublai attempted to conquer Japan, Myanmar, Vietnam and Indonesia . All those attempts failed and the cost of these expeditions and the paper currency he created caused inflation.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote a poem fragment in 1798 entitled "Kubla Khan", which invokes Kublai Khan among opium-induced imagery of exoticism. It begins "In Xanadu did Kubla Khan a stately pleasure-dome decree..."
KUBLAI KHAN (or Ikaan, as the supreme ruler descended from Jenghiz was usually distinctively termed in the 13th century) (1216-1294), the most eminent of the successors of Jenghiz (Chinghiz), and the founder of the Mongoldynasty in China.
Kublai was born in 1216, and, young as he was, took part with his younger brother Hulagu (afterwards conqueror of the caliph and founder of the Mongoldynasty in Persia) in the last campaign of Jenghiz (1226-27).
Kublai assumed the succession, but it was disputed by his brother Arikbugha and by his cousin Kaidu, and wars with these retarded the prosecution of the southern conquest.
In June of 1259, while Kublai was in the midst of a siege against the city of Wuchang on the Yangtze River in western Hubei Province, devastating news arrived; his brother, Mangu Khan was dead.
Kublai short-circuited the growing internal feuds by inducing his own relatives, the Mongol generals of his armies in China and the Mongol viceroys of the Chinese provinces, to gather at his own quriltai in the oasis city of Shangdu, north of the Jin capital at Yench'ing (Zhongdu).
Kublai Khan already held possession of a greater expanse of territory than that acquired by either Alexander the Great or the Roman Empire, and the Japanese felt he could hardly be expected to give the conquest of a little offshore principality like Japan a very high priority.
Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Want to know more? Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:
Press Releases |
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m