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Encyclopedia > Ku Klux Klan
Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally in 1922.
Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally in 1922.

Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is the name of several past and present fraternal organizations in the United States that have advocated white supremacy, antisemitism, racism, anti-Catholicism, homophobia, and nativism. These organizations have often used terrorism, violence and acts of intimidation such as cross burning to oppress African Americans and other groups. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A fraternal organization, sometimes also known as a fraternity, is an organization that represents the relationship between its members as akin to brotherhood. ... White supremacy is a racist ideology which holds the belief that white people are superior to other races. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church, which can range in expression from individual hatred to institutionalized, violent persecution. ... Homophobia is the fear of, aversion to, or discrimination against homosexuality or homosexuals. ... Although opposition to immigration is a feature of all countries with immigration, the term nativism originated in American politics has a specific meaning. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


The Klan's first incarnation was in 1866. Founded by veterans of the Confederate Army, its main purpose was to resist Reconstruction, and it focused as much on intimidating "carpetbaggers" and "scalawags" as on putting down the freed slaves. The KKK quickly adopted violent methods. A rapid reaction set in, with the Klan's leadership disowning violence and Southern elites seeing the Klan as an excuse for federal troops to continue their activities in the South. The organization was in decline from 1868 to 1870 and was destroyed in the early 1870s by President Ulysses S. Grant's vigorous action under the Civil Rights Act of 1871 (also known as the Ku Klux Klan Act). Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven Southern states seceded from the United States (four more states soon followed). ... Reconstruction was the attempt from 1865 to 1877 in U.S. history to resolve the issues of the American Civil War, when both the Confederacy and slavery were destroyed. ... In United States history, the term carpetbagger was a term for Northerners (Yankees) who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ... In the United States, Scalawags were Southern whites who joined the Republican party in the ex-Confederate South during Reconstruction. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what became the United States. ... Historic Southern United States. ... Ulysses S. Grant[2] (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... The Civil Rights Act of 1871, now codified and known as , is one of the most important federal statutes in force in the United States. ...

William Joseph Simmons founded the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915.
William Joseph Simmons founded the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915.

In 1915, a second distinct group was founded using the same name. It was inspired by the newfound power of the modern mass media, via the film The Birth of a Nation and inflammatory anti-Semitic newspaper accounts surrounding the trial and lynching of accused murderer Leo Frank. The second KKK was a formal membership organization, with a national and state structure, that paid thousands of men to organize local chapters all over the country. At its peak in the early 1920s, the organization included about 15% of the nation's eligible population, approximately 4-5 million men.[1] The second KKK typically preached racism, anti-Catholicism, anti-Communism, nativism, and anti-Semitism, and some local groups took part in lynchings and other violent activities. Its popularity fell during the Great Depression, and membership fell further during World War II, because of scandals resulting from prominent members' crimes and its support of the Nazis. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (573x700, 238 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (573x700, 238 KB) (All user names refer to en. ... William Joseph Simmons (1880–May 18, 1945) founded the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915. ... The Birth of a Nation is a famously controversial film which promoted the superiority of the white race. ... Postcard depicting the lynching of Lige Daniels, Center, Texas, August 3, 1920. ... Lucille and Leo Frank at Franks trial. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Great Depression was a time of economic down turn, which started after the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The name "Ku Klux Klan" has since been used by many different unrelated groups, including many who opposed the Civil Rights Act and desegregation in the 1950s and 1960s, with members of these groups eventually being convicted of murder and manslaughter in the deaths of Civil Rights workers and children (such as in the bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Alabama). Today, it is estimated that there are as many as 150 Klan chapters with up to 8,000 members nationwide.[2] These groups, with operations in separated small local units, are considered extreme hate groups. The modern KKK has been repudiated by all mainstream media and political and religious leaders. Several United States laws have been called the Civil Rights Act: Civil Rights Act of 1866 aimed to buttress Civil Rights Laws to protect freedmen and to grant full citizenship to those born on U.S. soil except Indians. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was a racially motivated terrorist incident at 16th Street Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama, in the United States. ... A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility, or violence towards members of a race, ethnicity, religion, gender or other designated sector of society, or that supports and publishes assertions and argumentation characteristic of hate groups without necessarily explicitly advocating such hate or violence that... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Politics of the United States of America takes place in a framework of a presidential... The Washington National Cathedral, located in the capital of the U.S., is one of the largest churches in the country. ...

Contents

First Klan

Creation

A cartoon threatening that the KKK would lynch carpetbaggers, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Independent Monitor, 1868
A cartoon threatening that the KKK would lynch carpetbaggers, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, Independent Monitor, 1868
A political cartoon depicting the KKK and the Democratic Party as continuations of the Confederacy
A political cartoon depicting the KKK and the Democratic Party as continuations of the Confederacy

The original Ku Klux Klan was created after the end of the American Civil War on December 24, 1865, by six educated, middle-class Confederate veterans[3] from Pulaski, Tennessee, who were bored with postwar routine. The name was constructed by combining the Greek "kyklos" (circle) with "clan"[4] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (808x556, 70 KB)kkk cartoon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (808x556, 70 KB)kkk cartoon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Postcard depicting the lynching of Lige Daniels, Center, Texas, August 3, 1920. ... In United States history, the term carpetbagger was a term for Northerners (Yankees) who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (804x946, 295 KB)anti-kkk cartoon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (804x946, 295 KB)anti-kkk cartoon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nathan Bedford Forrest (19th century photo) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Nathan Bedford Forrest (19th century photo) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... For the World War II general, see Nathan Bedford Forrest III. Nathaniel Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821 – October 29, 1877) was a Confederate army general and figured in the founding of the Ku Klux Klan. ... This article is becoming very long. ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (traditional) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic President... Pulaski is a city in Giles County, Tennessee, United States. ... A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ...


The Ku Klux Klan soon spread into nearly every southern state, launching a "reign of terror" against Republican leaders both black and white. Those assassinated during the campaign included Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds, three members of the South Carolina legislature, and several men who had served in constitutional conventions."[5] The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ... James M. Hinds of Little Rock, represented Arkansas in the United States Congress from June 24, 1868 through October 22, 1868 when he was assassinated by a member of the Ku Klux Klan. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35...


From 1866 to 1867, the Klan began breaking up black prayer meetings and invading black homes at night to steal firearms. Some of these activities may have been modeled on previous Tennessee vigilante groups such as the "Yellow Jackets" and "Redcaps."


In an 1867 meeting in Nashville, Tennessee, an effort was made to create a hierarchical organization with local chapters reporting to county leaders, counties reporting to districts, districts reporting to states, and states reporting to a national headquarters. The proposals, in a document called the "Prescript," were written by George Gordon, a former Confederate brigadier general. The Prescript included inspirational language about the goals of the Klan along with a list of questions to be asked of applicants for membership, which confirmed the focus on resisting Reconstruction and the Republican Party. The applicant was to be asked whether he was a Republican, a Union Army veteran, or a member of the Loyal League; whether he was "opposed to Negro equality both social and political;" and whether he was in favor of "a white man's government," "maintaining the constitutional rights of the South," "the reenfranchisement and emancipation of the white men of the South, and the restitution of the Southern people to all their rights," and "the inalienable right of self-preservation of the people against the exercise of arbitrary and unlicensed power."[6] Nickname: Music City Location in Davidson County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates: Country United States State Tennessee Counties Davidson County Founded: 1779 Incorporated: 1806 Government  - Mayor Bill Purcell (D) Area  - City  526. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties Libertarian Party State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... George W. Gordon was an officer in the Confederate Army, rising to be the youngest brigadier general in the confederacy by the last year of the war. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... A Union League is one of a number of organizations established during the American Civil War to promote loyalty to the Union side and the policies of Abraham Lincoln. ...


Despite the work that came out of the 1867 meeting, the Prescript was never accepted by any of the local units. They continued to operate autonomously, and there never were county, district or state headquarters.


According to one oral report, Gordon went to former slave trader and Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest in Memphis, Tennessee, and told him about the new organization, to which Forrest replied, "That's a good thing; that's a damn good thing. We can use that to keep the niggers in their place."[7] A few weeks later, Forrest was selected as Grand Wizard, the Klan's national leader. In later interviews, however, Forrest denied the leadership role and stated that he never had any effective control over the Klan cells. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the World War II general, see Nathan Bedford Forrest III. Nathaniel Bedford Forrest (July 13, 1821 – October 29, 1877) was a Confederate army general and figured in the founding of the Ku Klux Klan. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... // Nigger is a racial slur used to refer to dark-skinned people, especially those of African ancestry. ... Grand Wizard was the title used by the overall leader of earliest form of the Ku Klux Klan, during Reconstruction in the South. ...


Activities

The Klan sought to control the political and social status of the freed slaves. Specifically, it attempted to curb black education, economic advancement, voting rights, and the right to bear arms. However, although the Klan's focus was mainly African Americans, Southern Republicans also became the target of vicious intimidation tactics. The violence achieved its purpose. For example, in the April 1868 Georgia gubernatorial election, Columbia County cast 1,222 votes for Republican Rufus Bullock, but in the November presidential election, the county cast only one vote for Republican candidate Ulysses Grant.[8] Voting rights refers to the right of a person to vote in an election. ... This article refers to the right to bear arms (weapons) and bear arms(military service). ... Columbia County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Rufus Bullock Rufus Brown Bullock (March 28, 1834 – April 27, 1907) was an American politician. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Klan intimidation was often targeted at schoolteachers and operatives of the federal Freedmen's Bureau. Black members of the Loyal Leagues were also the frequent targets of Klan raids. In a typical episode in Mississippi, according to the Congressional inquiry[9] A Bureau agent stands between an armed group of Southern whites and a group of freed slaves in this 1868 picture from Harpers Weekly The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, popularly known as the Freedmens Bureau, was a federal agency that was formed during Reconstruction to aid... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

One of these teachers (Miss Allen of Illinois), whose school was at Cotton Gin Port in Monroe County, was visited ... between one and two o'clock in the morning on March, 1871, by about fifty men mounted and disguised. Each man wore a long white robe and his face was covered by a loose mask with scarlet stripes. She was ordered to get up and dress which she did at once and then admitted to her room the captain and lieutenant who in addition to the usual disguise had long horns on their heads and a sort of device in front. The lieutenant had a pistol in his hand and he and the captain sat down while eight or ten men stood inside the door and the porch was full. They treated her "gentlemanly and quietly" but complained of the heavy school-tax, said she must stop teaching and go away and warned her that they never gave a second notice. She heeded the warning and left the county.

In other violence, Klansmen killed more than 150 African Americans in a single county in Florida, and hundreds more in other counties.[10] Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Monroe County is a county located in the state of Mississippi. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...


An 1868 proclamation by Gordon[11] demonstrates several of the issues surrounding the Klan's violent activities.

  • Many black men were veterans of the Union Army and were armed. From the beginning, one of the original Klan's strongest focuses was on confiscating firearms from blacks. In the proclamation, Gordon warned that the Klan had been "fired into three times," and that if the blacks "make war upon us they must abide by the awful retribution that will follow."
  • Gordon also stated that the Klan was a peaceful organization. Such claims were common ways for the Klan to attempt to protect itself from prosecution. However, a federal grand jury in 1869 determined that the Klan was a "terrorist organization." Hundreds of indictments for crimes of violence and terrorism were issued. Klan members were prosecuted, and many fled jurisdiction, particularly in South Carolina.[12]
  • Gordon warned that some people had been carrying out violent acts in the name of the Klan. It was true that many people who had not been formally inducted into the Klan found the Klan's uniform to be a convenient way to hide their identities when carrying out acts of violence. However, it was also convenient for the higher levels of the organization to disclaim responsibility for such acts, and the secretive, decentralized nature of the Klan made membership difficult to prove. In many ways the Klan was a military force serving the interests of the Democratic Party, the planter class, and those who desired the restoration of white supremacy.[13]
Three Ku Klux Klan members arrested in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, September 1871, for the attempted murder of an entire family.
Three Ku Klux Klan members arrested in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, September 1871, for the attempted murder of an entire family.

By 1868, only two years after the Klan's creation, its activity was already beginning to decrease[14] and, as Gordon's proclamation shows, to become less political and more simply a way of avoiding prosecution for violence. Many influential southern Democrats were beginning to see it as a liability, an excuse for the federal government to retain its power over the South.[15] Georgian B.H. Hill went so far as to claim "that some of these outrages were actually perpetrated by the political friends of the parties slain."[16] Original caption reads: This appeared in Harpers Weekly January 27, 1872. ... Original caption reads: This appeared in Harpers Weekly January 27, 1872. ... Tishomingo County is a county located in the state of Mississippi. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ...


In an 1868 newspaper interview,[17] Forrest boasted that the Klan was a nationwide organization of 550,000 men, and that although he was not a member, he was "in sympathy" and would "cooperate" with them, and he could muster 40,000 Klansmen with five days' notice. He stated that the Klan did not see blacks as its enemy so much the Loyal Leagues, Republican state governments like Tennessee governor Brownlow's, and other carpetbaggers and scalawags. This was a half truth since one of the main reasons for targeting these white groups was that they were impediments to efforts against the former slaves. The Klan went after white members of these groups, especially the schoolteachers brought south by the Freedmen's Bureau, many of whom had before the war been abolitionists or active in the underground railroad. Many white southerners believed, for example, that blacks were voting for the Republican Party only because they had been hoodwinked by the Loyal Leagues. Black members of the Loyal Leagues were also the frequent targets of Klan raids. One Alabama newspaper editor declared that "The League is nothing more than a nigger Ku Klux Klan."[18] William Gannaway Brownlow (August 29, 1805 - April 29, 1877) was Governor of Tennessee from 1865 to 1869 and a Senator from Tennessee from 1869 to 1875. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Decline and suppression

The first Klan was never centrally organized. As a secret or "invisible" group, it had no membership rosters, no dues, no newspapers, no spokesmen, no chapters, no local officers, no state or national officials. Its popularity came from its reputation, which was greatly enhanced by its outlandish costumes and its wild and threatening theatrics. As historian Elaine Frantz Parsons discovered:[19] An invisible dictatorship was a term coined by Mikhail Bakunin to describe his concept of clandestine revolutionary leadership. ...

Lifting the Klan mask revealed a chaotic multitude of antiblack vigilante groups, disgruntled poor white farmers, wartime guerrilla bands, displaced Democratic politicians, illegal whiskey distillers, coercive moral reformers, bored young men, sadists, rapists, white workmen fearful of black competition, employers trying to enforce labor discipline, common thieves, neighbors with decades-old grudges, and even a few freedmen and white Republicans who allied with Democratic whites or had criminal agendas of their own. Indeed, all they had in common, besides being overwhelmingly white, southern, and Democratic, was that they called themselves, or were called, Klansmen.
Gov. William Holden of North Carolina attempted to use the state militia against the Klan and was removed from office.
Gov. William Holden of North Carolina attempted to use the state militia against the Klan and was removed from office.

Forrest's national organization had little control over the local Klans, which were highly autonomous. One Klan official complained that his own "so-called 'Chief'-ship was purely nominal, I having not the least authority over the reckless young country boys who were most active in 'night-riding,' whipping, etc., all of which was outside of the intent and constitution of the Klan..." Forrest ordered the Klan to disband in 1869, stating that it was "being perverted from its original honorable and patriotic purposes, becoming injurious instead of subservient to the public peace."[20] Because of the national organization's lack of control, this proclamation was more a symptom of the Klan's decline than a cause of it. Historian Stanley Horn writes that "generally speaking, the Klan's end was more in the form of spotty, slow, and gradual disintegration than a formal and decisive disbandment."[21] A reporter in Georgia wrote in January 1870 that "A true statement of the case is not that the Ku Klux are an organized band of licensed criminals, but that men who commit crimes call themselves Ku Klux."[22] Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Categories: Stub | 1818 births | 1892 deaths | Governors of North Carolina ...


Although the Klan was being used more often as a mask for nonpolitical crimes, state and local governments seldom acted against it. In lynching cases, whites were almost never indicted by all-white coroner's juries, and even when there was an indictment, all-white trial juries were unlikely to vote for conviction. In many states, there were fears that the use of black militiamen would ignite a race war.[23] When Republican Governor of North Carolina William Woods Holden called out the militia against the Klan in 1870, the result was a backlash that led to Republicans losing their majority in the legislature, and ultimately, to his own impeachment and removal from office.[24] The Governor of North Carolina is the top executive of the government of the U.S. state of North Carolina. ... Categories: Stub | 1818 births | 1892 deaths | Governors of North Carolina ...


Despite this power, there was resistance to Klan terror. "Occasionally, organized groups successfully confronted the Klan. White Union Army veterans in mountainous Blount County, Alabama, organized 'the anti-Ku Klux,' which put an end to violence by threatening Klansmen with reprisals unless they stopped whipping Unionists and burning black churches and schools. Armed blacks patrolled the streets of Bennettsville, South Carolina, to prevent Klan assaults."[25] Blount County is a county located in the U.S. state of Alabama. ... Bennettsville is a city located in Marlboro County, South Carolina. ...


There was also a national movement to crack down on the Klan, even though many Democrats at the national level questioned whether the Klan even existed or was just a creation of nervous Republican governors in the South.[26] In January 1871, Pennsylvania Republican Senator John Scott convened a committee which took testimony from 52 witnesses about Klan atrocities. Many southern states had already passed anti-Klan legislation, and in February Congressman (and former Union General) Benjamin Franklin Butler of Massachusetts (who was widely reviled by Southern whites) introduced federal legislation modeled on it.[27] The tide was turned in favor of the bill by the Governor of South Carolina's appeal for federal troops, and by reports of a riot and massacre in a Meridian, Mississippi, courthouse, from which a black state representative escaped only by taking to the woods.[28] Official language(s) English, Pennsylvania Dutch Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... John Scott (July 24, 1824–November 29, 1896) was an American lawyer and Republican party politician from Huntingdon, Pennsylvania. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Meridian is a city located in, and the county seat of, Lauderdale County in Mississippi, a state of the United States of America. ...

In 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant signed Butler's legislation, the Ku Klux Klan Act, which was used along with the 1870 Force Act to enforce the civil rights provisions of the constitution. Under the Klan Act, federal troops were used rather than state militias, and Klansmen were prosecuted in federal court, where juries were often predominantly black.[23] and decimated throughout the rest of the country, where it had already been in decline for several years. Prosecutions were led by Attorney General Amos Tappan Ackerman. The tapering off of the federal government's actions under the Klan Act, ca. 1871–74, went along with the final extinction of the Klan,[29] although in some areas similar activities, including intimidation and murder of black voters, continued under the auspices of local organizations such as the White League, Red Shirts, saber clubs, and rifle clubs.[30] Even though the Klan no longer existed, it had achieved many of its goals, such as denying voting rights to Southern blacks. Image File history File links BenFrankButler. ... Image File history File links BenFrankButler. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... The Civil Rights Act of 1871, now codified and known as , is one of the most important federal statutes in force in the United States. ... Amos Tappan Akerman (1821 - 1880) was Attorney General of the United States from 1870 to 1871 under President Ulysses S. Grant. ...

However, it took several more years for all Klan elements to be destroyed. On Easter Sunday, 1873, the bloodiest single instance of racial violence in the Reconstruction era happened during the Colfax massacre. The massacre began when black citizens fought back against the Klan and its allies in the White League. As Louisiana black teacher and legislator John G. Lewis later remarked, "They attempted (armed self-defense) in Colfax. The result was that on Easter Sunday of 1873, when the sun went down that night, it went down on the corpses of two hundred and eighty negroes."[31] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... On April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, a group of white men (including members of the White League and the Ku Klux Klan) clashed with members of Louisianas almost all-black state militia at the local courthouse. ...


In 1882, long after the end of the first Klan, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. Harris that the Klan Act was partially unconstitutional, saying that Congress's power under the Fourteenth Amendment did not extend to private conspiracies.[32] However, the Force Act and the Klan Act have been invoked in later civil rights conflicts, including the 1964 murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner;[33] the 1965 murder of Viola Liuzzo;[34] and Bray v. Alexandria Women's Health Clinic in 1991. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Constitutionality is the status of a law, a procedure, or an acts accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments, intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The Mississippi Civil Rights Workers Murders involved the 1964 slayings of three political activists during the American Civil Rights Movement. ... Viola Liuzzo with her husband Anthony, 1949. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Second Klan

In the four and a half decades after the suppression of the first Ku Klux Klan, race relations in the United States remained very bad—the nadir of American race relations is often placed in this era, and according to Tuskegee Institute, the 1890s was the peak decade for lynchings. The nadir of American race relations refers to the period in United States history at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th. ... There is also the Tuskegee Airmen, a corps of African-American military pilots trained there during World War II Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama. ... Postcard depicting the lynching of Lige Daniels, Center, Texas, August 3, 1920. ...


Creation

Movie poster for The Birth of a Nation
Movie poster for The Birth of a Nation

The founding of the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915 demonstrated the newfound power of modern mass media. Three closely related events sparked the resurgence: Image File history File links poster for Birth of a Nation, 1915 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links poster for Birth of a Nation, 1915 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Birth of a Nation is a famously controversial film which promoted the superiority of the white race. ...

  • The film The Birth of a Nation was released, mythologizing and glorifying the first Klan.
  • Leo Frank, a Jewish man accused of the rape and murder of a young white girl named Mary Phagan, was lynched against a backdrop of media frenzy.
  • The second Ku Klux Klan was founded with a new anti-immigrant and anti-Semitic agenda. The bulk of the founders were from an organization calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan, and the new organization emulated the fictionalized version of the original Klan presented in The Birth of a Nation.
An illustration from The Clansman: "Take dat f'um yo equal—"
An illustration from The Clansman: "Take dat f'um yo equal—"

D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation glorified the original Klan, which was by then a fading memory. His film was based on the book and play The Clansman and the book The Leopard's Spots, both by Thomas Dixon who said his purpose was "to revolutionize northern sentiment by a presentation of history that would transform every man in my audience into a good Democrat!" The film created a nationwide craze for the Klan. At a preview in Los Angeles, actors dressed as Klansmen were hired to ride by as a promotional stunt, and real-life members of the newly reorganized Klan rode up and down the street at its later official premiere in Atlanta. In some cases, enthusiastic southern audiences fired their guns into the screen.[35] The Birth of a Nation is a famously controversial film which promoted the superiority of the white race. ... Lucille and Leo Frank at Franks trial. ... Image File history File links illustration from The Clansman, by Thomas Dixon, 1905 cropped from Image:The-clansman. ... Image File history File links illustration from The Clansman, by Thomas Dixon, 1905 cropped from Image:The-clansman. ... Illustration from The Clansman. ... D. W. Griffith David Llewelyn Wark Griffith, commonly known as D. W. Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American film director. ... Illustration from The Clansman. ... The Leopards Spots: A Romance of the White Mans Burden—1865–1900 is a book by Thomas Dixon, written in 1902, and published by Doubleday, Page & Co. ... Illustration from The Clansman. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... Nickname: City of Angels Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D)  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... Hotlanta redirects here. ...


The film's popularity and influence were enhanced by a widely reported endorsement of its factual accuracy by historian and U.S. President Woodrow Wilson as a favor to an old friend. Much of the modern Klan's iconography, including the standardized white costume and the burning cross, are imitations of the film, whose imagery was based on Dixon's romanticized concept of old Scotland as portrayed in the novels and poetry of Sir Walter Scott rather than on the Reconstruction Klan. Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic, Scots3 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  -  First Minister Jack McConnell... Portrait of Sir Walter Scott, by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe during his time. ...

A quote from Woodrow Wilson used in the film
A quote from Woodrow Wilson used in the film

The Birth of a Nation includes extensive quotations from Woodrow Wilson's History of the American People,[36] for example, "The white men were roused by a mere instinct of self-preservation ... until at last there had sprung into existence a great Ku Klux Klan, a veritable empire of the South, to protect the Southern country." Wilson, on seeing the film in a special White House screening on February 18, 1915, exclaimed, "It is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so terribly true."[37] Wilson's family had sympathized with the Confederacy during the Civil War and cared for wounded Confederate soldiers at a church. When he was a young man, his party had vigorously opposed Reconstruction, and as president he resegregated the federal government for the first time since Reconstruction. Image File history File links Wilson-quote-in-birth-of-a-nation. ... Image File history File links Wilson-quote-in-birth-of-a-nation. ... North façade of the White House, seen from Pennsylvania Avenue. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Given the film's strong Democratic partisan message and Wilson's documented views on race and the Klan, it is not unreasonable to interpret the statement as supporting the Klan, and the word "regret" as referring to the film's depiction of Radical Republican Reconstruction. Later correspondence with Griffith, the film's director, confirms Wilson's enthusiasm about the film. Wilson's remarks were widely reported and immediately became controversial. Wilson tried to remain aloof from the controversy, but finally, on April 30, he issued a non-denial denial.[38] His endorsement of the film greatly enhanced its popularity and influence, and helped Griffith to defend it against legal attack by the NAACP; the film, in turn, was a major factor leading to the creation of the second Klan in the same year. The Radical Republicans were an influential faction of American politicians in the Republican party during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras, 1860-1876. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Non-denial denial is a term for a particular kind of equivocation; specifically, an apparent denial that, though it appeared clearcut and unambiguous when heard, on examination turns out to be ambiguous and not a denial at all. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ...

The lynching of Leo Frank
The lynching of Leo Frank

In the same year, an important event in the coalescence of the second Klan was the lynching of Leo Frank, a Jewish factory manager. In sensationalistic newspaper accounts, Frank was accused of fantastic sexual crimes and of the murder of Mary Phagan, a girl employed at his factory. He was convicted of murder after a questionable trial in Georgia (the judge asked that Frank and his counsel not be present when the verdict was announced because of the violent mob of people surrounding the court house). His appeals failed (Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes dissented, condemning the intimidation of the jury as failing to provide due process of law). The governor then commuted his sentence to life imprisonment, but a mob calling itself the Knights of Mary Phagan kidnapped Frank from the prison farm and lynched him. Ironically, much of the evidence in the murder actually pointed to the factory's black janitor, Jim Conley, who the prosecution claimed only helped Frank to dispose of the body. Leo Frank lynched (large) (1915 photograph) File links The following pages link to this file: Ku Klux Klan Leo Frank User:Xiaopo/Scratchpad Talk:Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Categories: Images in the public domain in the United States ... Leo Frank lynched (large) (1915 photograph) File links The following pages link to this file: Ku Klux Klan Leo Frank User:Xiaopo/Scratchpad Talk:Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Categories: Images in the public domain in the United States ... Lucille and Leo Frank at Franks trial. ... Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. ...


For many southerners who believed Frank to be guilty, there was a strong resonance between the Frank trial and The Birth of a Nation, because they saw an analogy between Mary Phagan and the film's character Flora, a young virgin who throws herself off a cliff to avoid being raped by the black character Gus, described as "a renegade, a product of the vicious doctrines spread by the carpetbaggers."

The Frank trial was used skillfully by Georgia politician and publisher Thomas E. Watson, the editor for The Jeffersonian magazine at the time and later a leader in the reorganization of the Klan who was later elected to the U.S. Senate. The new Klan was inaugurated in 1915 at a meeting led by William J. Simmons on top of Stone Mountain, and attended by aging members of the original Klan, along with members of the Knights of Mary Phagan. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 456 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (683 × 898 pixel, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 456 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (683 × 898 pixel, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) http://hdl. ... Thomas Edward Watson (5 September 1856–26 September 1922), generally known as Tom Watson, was a United States politician from Georgia. ... Thomas Edward Watson (5 September 1856–26 September 1922), generally known as Tom Watson, was a United States politician from Georgia. ... William Joseph Simmons (1880–May 18, 1945) founded the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915. ... Stone Mountain Close up of the carving Stone Mountain is a granite dome located in Stone Mountain, Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta. ...


Simmons found inspiration for this second Klan in the original Klan's "Prescripts," written in 1867 by George Gordon in an attempt to give the original Klan a sense of national organization.[39] The Prescript states as the Klan's purposes:[40]

  • First: To protect the weak, the innocent, and the defenseless from the indignities, wrongs and outrages of the lawless, the violent and the brutal; to relieve the injured and oppressed; to succor the suffering and unfortunate, and especially the widows and orphans of the Confederate soldiers.
  • Second: To protect and defend the Constitution of the United States ...
  • Third: To aid and assist in the execution of all constitutional laws, and to protect the people from unlawful seizure, and from trial except by their peers in conformity with the laws of the land.

Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...

Membership

Historians in recent years have obtained membership rosters of some local units and matched the names against city directory and local records to create statistical profiles of the membership. Big city newspapers were unanimously hostile and often ridiculed the Klansmen as ignorant farmers. Detailed analysis from Indiana[41] shows the stereotype was false: This article is about the U.S. State. ...

The huge Confederate memorial at Stone Mountain, site of the founding of the second Klan; work was begun in 1923 with funding mainly from the Klan, and was completed in 1970.
The huge Confederate memorial at Stone Mountain, site of the founding of the second Klan; work was begun in 1923 with funding mainly from the Klan, and was completed in 1970.
Indiana's Klansmen represented a wide cross section of society: they were not disproportionately urban or rural, nor were they significantly more or less likely than other members of society to be from the working class, middle class, or professional ranks. Klansmen were Protestants, of course, but they cannot be described exclusively or even predominantly as fundamentalists. In reality, their religious affiliations mirrored the whole of white Protestant society, including those who did not belong to any church.

The Klan was successful in recruiting throughout the country, but the membership turned over rapidly. Still, millions joined, and at its peak in the 1920s the organization included about 15% of the nation's eligible population[42] and had chapters across the United States. There were clans founded in Canada, most notably in Saskatchewan, where there was a large clan movement against Catholic immigrants.[43] Image File history File links Small Image of StoneMountain in Georgia, USA Image by: Tomato, retouched by User:bcrowell The image before retouching is Image:StoneMountainGaSm. ... Image File history File links Small Image of StoneMountain in Georgia, USA Image by: Tomato, retouched by User:bcrowell The image before retouching is Image:StoneMountainGaSm. ... Stone Mountain Close up of the carving Stone Mountain is a granite dome located in Stone Mountain, Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In comparative religion, fundamentalism has come to refer to several different understandings of religious thought and practice, through literal interpretation of religious texts such as the Bible or the Quran and sometimes also anti-modernist movements in various religions. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart - Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (9th (province)) Area Ranked 7th...


This Klan was operated as a profit-making venture by its leaders, and it participated in the boom in fraternal organizations at the time. Organizers signed up hundreds of new members, who paid initiation fees and bought KKK costumes. The organizer kept half the money and sent the rest to state or national officials. When the organizer was done with an area, he organized a huge rally, often with burning crosses and perhaps a ceremonial presentation of a Bible to a local Protestant minister. He left town with all the money. The local units operated like many fraternal organizations, occasionally bringing in speakers. The state and national officials had little or no control over the locals and rarely attempted to forge them into political activist groups. A fraternal organization, sometimes also known as a fraternity, is an organization that represents the relationship between its members as akin to brotherhood. ...


Activities

The burning cross is a symbol used by the Klan to create terror. Cross burning is said to have been introduced by William J. Simmons, the founder of the second Klan in 1915.
The burning cross is a symbol used by the Klan to create terror. Cross burning is said to have been introduced by William J. Simmons, the founder of the second Klan in 1915.

In keeping with its origins in the Leo Frank lynching, the reorganized Klan had a new anti-Jewish, anti-Catholic, anti-Communist and anti-immigrant slant. This was consistent with the new Klan's greater success at recruiting in the U.S. Midwest than in the South. As in the Nazi party's propaganda in Nazi Germany, recruiters made effective use of the idea that America's problems were caused by blacks or by Jewish bankers, or by other such groups. The Ku Klux Klan burning a cross. ... The Ku Klux Klan burning a cross. ... William Joseph Simmons (1880–May 18, 1945) founded the second Ku Klux Klan in 1915. ... Anti-immigration is a label often applied to those who are opposed to having significant levels of immigration in their countries. ... Midwest as shown by U.S. Census Bureau official map from [3] Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... The (German: Nazional- socialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) [National Socialist German Workers Party]); generally known in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The new Klan differed from the original one in that while the first Klan had been Southern, the new Klan was influential throughout the United States, with major political influence on politicians in several states.


In the 1920s and 1930s a faction of the Klan called the Black Legion was very active in the Midwestern U.S. Rather than wearing white robes, the Legion wore black uniforms reminiscent of pirates. The Black Legion was the most violent and zealous faction of the Klan and were notable for targeting and assassinating communists and socialists. The Black Legion was an offshoot organization of the Ku Klux Klan and operated in the midwestern United States in the 1930s. ... Look up pirate and piracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ...


In addition, Klan groups also took part in lynchings, even going so far at to murder Black soldiers returning from World War I while they were still in their military uniforms.[44] The Klan warned Blacks that they must respect the rights of the white race "in whose country they are permitted to reside."[45] Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna...


Political influence

Sheet music to "We Are All Loyal Klansmen," 1923
Sheet music to "We Are All Loyal Klansmen," 1923

The second Ku Klux Klan rose to great prominence and spread from the South into the Midwest and Northern states and even into Canada. At its peak, Klan membership exceeded 4 million and comprised 20% of the adult white male population in many broad geographic regions, as high as 40% in some areas. Most of the membership resided in Midwestern states. This article discusses presidents, Supreme Court judges, and other highly notable figures in U.S. and Canadian national politics who, according to at least hearsay evidence, were members of the Ku Klux Klan or were claimed as members of that organization as young men, years before they became important figures. ... Image File history File links cover of sheet music for the song We All Loyal Klansmen It is copyright 1923 by William Davis, William M. Hart, Charles E. Downey, and E. M. McMahon. ... Image File history File links cover of sheet music for the song We All Loyal Klansmen It is copyright 1923 by William Davis, William M. Hart, Charles E. Downey, and E. M. McMahon. ...


Through sympathetic elected officials, the KKK controlled the governments of Tennessee, Indiana, Oklahoma, and Oregon, in addition to some of the Southern legislatures. Klan influence was particularly strong in Indiana, where Republican Klansman Edward Jackson was elected governor in 1924, and the entire apparatus of state government was riddled with Klansmen. In another well-known example from the same year, the Klan decided to make Anaheim, California, into a model Klan city; it secretly took over the city council but was voted out in a special recall election.[46] Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,960 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Edward L. Ed Jackson (1873 - 1954) was governor of the U.S. state of Indiana from January 12, 1925 to January 14, 1929. ... Location of Anaheim within Orange County, California Coordinates: Country United States State California County Orange Mayor Curt Pringle Area    - City 130. ...

Klansmen in Anaheim, California, 1924
Klansmen in Anaheim, California, 1924

Klan delegates played a significant role at the pathsetting 1924 Democratic National Convention in New York City, often called the "Klanbake Convention" as a result. The convention initially pitted Klan-backed candidate William McAdoo against New York Governor Al Smith, who drew the opposition of the group because of his Catholic faith. After days of stalemates and rioting, both candidates withdrew in favor of a compromise. Klan delegates defeated a Democratic Party platform plank that would have condemned their organization. On July 4, 1924, thousands of Klansmen converged on a nearby field in New Jersey where they participated in cross burnings, burned effigies of Smith, and celebrated their defeat of the platform plank. Image File history File links Klansmen in Anaheim, CA, 1924 I believe this photo to be public domain; to be copyrighted now, it would have had to have its copyright renewed in 1952, which is unlikely. ... Image File history File links Klansmen in Anaheim, CA, 1924 I believe this photo to be public domain; to be copyrighted now, it would have had to have its copyright renewed in 1952, which is unlikely. ... The 1924 Democratic National Convention, also called the Klanbake was held at the Madison Square Garden in New York City from June 24 to July 9, took a record 103 ballots to nominate a presidential candidate. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... The Klanbake convention is a designation given to the 1924 Democratic National Convention held in New York City. ... William Gibbs McAdoo (October 31, 1863–February 1, 1941) was a U.S. Senator and United States Secretary of the Treasury. ... For other uses, see Al Smith (disambiguation). ... For the United States holiday, the Fourth of July, see Independence Day (United States). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


There is also evidence that in certain states, such as Alabama, the KKK was not a mere hate group and showed a genuine desire for political and social reform.[47] Because of the elite conservative political structure in Alabama, the state's Klansmen were among the foremost advocates of better public schools, effective prohibition enforcement, expanded road construction, and other "progressive" political measures. In many ways these progressive political goals, which benefited ordinary and lower class white people in the state, were the result of the Klan offering these same people their first chance to install their own political champions into office.[48] By 1925, the Klan was a powerful political force in the state, as powerful figures like J. Thomas Heflin, David Bibb Graves, and Hugo Black manipulated the KKK membership against the power of the "Big Mule" industrialists and Black Belt planters who had long dominated the state. Black was elected senator in 1926 and became a leading supporter of the New Deal. When he was appointed to the Supreme Court in 1937, the revelation that he was a former Klansman shocked the country, but he stayed on the court. In 1926, Bibb Graves, a former chapter head, won the governor's office with KKK members' support. He led one of the most progressive administrations in the state's history, pushing for increased education funding, better public health, new highway construction, and pro-labor legislation. The term Prohibition, also known as Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... Progressivism is a term that refers to a broad school of contemporary international social and political philosophies. ... James Thomas Heflin, (April 9, 1869–April 22, 1951), nicknamed Cotton Tom, was a colorful United States Senator from Alabama. ... David Bibb Graves (April 1, 1873–March 14, 1942) was an American Democratic politician who was the Governor of Alabama from 1927 to 1931, and again from 1935 to 1939. ... Hugo Black Hugo LaFayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1937 - 1971). ... The New Deal was the name President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs between 1933–1938 with the goal of relief, recovery and reform of the United States economy during the Great Depression. ... David Bibb Graves (April 1, 1873–March 14, 1942) was an American Democratic politician and the Governor of Alabama 1927-1931 and 1935-1939, the first Alabama governor to serve two four-year terms. ...


However, as a result of these political victories, KKK vigilantes, thinking they enjoyed governmental protection, launched a wave of physical terror across Alabama in 1927, targeting both blacks and whites. The Klan not only targeted people for violating racial norms but also for perceived moral lapses. In Birmingham, the Klan raided local brothels and roadhouses. In Troy, Alabama, the Klan reported to parents the names of teenagers they caught making out in cars. One local Klan group also "kidnapped a white divorcee and stripped her to her waist, tied her to a tree, and whipped her savagely."[49] The conservative elite counterattacked. Grover C. Hall, Sr., editor of the Montgomery Advertiser, began a series of editorials and articles attacking the Klan for their "racial and religious intolerance." Hall won a Pulitzer Prize for his crusade.[50] Other newspapers also kept up a steady, loud attack on the Klan as violent and "un-American." Sheriffs cracked down on Klan violence. The counterattack worked; the state voted for Catholic Al Smith for president in the 1928 election, and the Klan's official membership in Alabama plunged to under six thousand by 1930. Nickname: The Magic City, Pittsburgh of the South, BHam, The Ham Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: Country United States State Alabama County Jefferson, Shelby  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (D) Area    - City  151. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Troy is a city located in Pike County, Alabama. ... The Montgomery Advertiser is a daily newspaper located in Montgomery, Alabama. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


At the peak of the Klan's political power, several highly notable political figures in the U.S. and Canada joined the Klan or flirted with membership. The list includes two Supreme Court justices and, according to evidence which is in some cases contested, possibly two presidents.


Decline

The second Klan collapsed partly as a result of the backlash against their actions and partly as a result of a scandal involving David Stephenson (at the time a member of the Republican Party, after previous active membership in the Socialist Party and then in the Democratic Party), the Grand Dragon of Indiana and fourteen other states, who was convicted of the rape and murder of Madge Oberholtzer in a sensational trial (she was bitten so many times that one man who saw her described her condition as having been "chewed by a cannibal"). According to historian Leonard Moore, at the heart of the backlash to the Klan's actions and the resulting scandals was a leadership failure which caused the organization's collapse:[51] D.C. Stephensons prison mugshot, 1926 David Curtiss (“Steve”) Stephenson (21 August 1891 – 28 June 1966) was Grand Dragon (state leader) of the Indiana Ku Klux Klan, whose conviction for murder led to the end of the second wave of Klan activity. ... The Socialist Party of America (SPA) is a socialist political party in the United States. ... Madge Oberholtzer Madge Augustine Oberholtzer (10 November 1896 – 14 April 1925) was an American schoolteacher who was born in Clay City, Indiana, grew up in Fulton County, Indiana, and worked in an Indiana state program to combat illiteracy. ... This article is about consuming ones own species. ...

Stephenson and the other salesmen and office seekers who maneuvered for control of Indiana's Invisible Empire lacked both the ability and the desire to use the political system to carry out the Klan's stated goals. They were disinterested in, or perhaps even unaware of, grass roots concerns within the movement. For them, the Klan had been nothing more than a means for gaining wealth and power. These marginal men had risen to the top of the hooded order because, until it became a political force, the Klan had never required strong, dedicated leadership. More established and experienced politicians who endorsed the Klan, or who pursued some of the interests of their Klan constituents, also accomplished little. Factionalism created one barrier, but many politicians had supported the Klan simply out of expedience. When charges of crime and corruption began to taint the movement, those concerned about their political futures had even less reason to work on the Klan's behalf.

As a result of these scandals, the Klan fell out of public favor in the 1930s and withdrew from political activity. Grand Wizard Hiram Evans sold the organization in 1939 to James Colescott, an Indiana veterinarian, and Samuel Green, an Atlanta obstetrician, but they were unable to staunch the exodus of members. The Klan's image was further damaged by Colescott's association with Nazi-sympathizer organizations, the Klan's involvement with the 1943 Detroit Race Riot, and efforts to disrupt the American war effort during World War II. In 1944, the IRS filed a lien for $685,000 in back taxes against the Klan, and Colescott was forced to dissolve the organization in 1944. James Colescott disbanded the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, the second wave of the original Klu Klux Klan, in 1944. ... Look up veterinarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs cleanup. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... The 1943 Detroit Race Riot was a race riot which occurred during World War II. The racial tension in Detroit during WWII increased as migration of blacks from the South to the industrial cities of the Rust Belt accelerated. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Seal of the Internal Revenue Service The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) is the United States government agency that collects taxes and enforces the internal revenue laws. ...

Ku Klux Klan members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. in 1928.
Ku Klux Klan members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. in 1928.

Folklorist and author Stetson Kennedy infiltrated the Klan after World War II and provided information on the Klan to media and law enforcement agencies. He also provided Klan information, including secret code words, to the writers of the Superman radio program, resulting in a series of four episodes in which Superman took on the KKK. Kennedy's intention to strip away the Klan's mystique and trivialize the Klan's rituals and code words likely did have a negative impact on Klan recruiting and membership.[52] Kennedy eventually wrote a book based on his experiences, which became a bestseller during the 1950s and further damaged the Klan.[53] Ku Klux Klan members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington DC 1928 with the Capitol in the background. ... Ku Klux Klan members march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington DC 1928 with the Capitol in the background. ... Stetson Kennedy (born October 5, 1916 in Jacksonville, Florida) is an award-winning author and human rights activist from Florida. ... Announcer Jackson Beck (left) with Bud Collyer and Joan Alexander The Adventures of Superman, adapted from the DC Comics character created in 1938 (see Superman), came to radio as a syndicated show on New York Citys WOR on February 12, 1940. ... Superman is a comic book superhero, originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ...


Later Klans

After the breakup of the second Klan, the name "Ku Klux Klan" began to be used by several independent groups. The following table shows the change in the Klan's estimated membership over time.[54] (The years given in the table represent approximate time periods.)

year membership
1920 4,000,000
1924 6,000,000
1930 30,000
1970 2,000
2000 3,000

Beginning in the 1950s, a large number of the individual Klan groups began to resist the civil rights movement. This resistance involved numerous acts of violence and intimidation. Among the more notorious events of this time period were: Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ...

Anthony and Viola Liuzzo, 1949
Anthony and Viola Liuzzo, 1949
  • The assassination of NAACP organizer Medgar Evers in Mississippi. In 1994, former Ku Klux Klansman Byron De La Beckwith was convicted of Evers' murder.
  • The 1966 firebombing death of NAACP leader Vernon Dahmer Sr., 58, also in Mississippi. In 1998 former Ku Klux Klan wizard Sam Bowers was convicted of Dahmer's murder. Two other Klan members were indicted with Bowers, but one died before trial, and the other's indictment was dismissed.[55]
  • The 1963 bombing of the 16th Street Baptist Church in Alabama, which killed four children. Four Klansmen were named as suspects; they were not prosecuted until years later. The Klan members were Robert Chambliss, convicted in 1977, Thomas Blanton and Bobby Frank Cherry, convicted of murder in 2001 and 2002. The fourth suspect, Herman Cash, died before he was indicted.
  • The murder of Willie Edwards, Jr., in 1957. Edwards was forced by Klansmen to jump to his death from a bridge into the Alabama River.[56]
  • The 1964 murders of civil rights workers Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner in Mississippi. In June 2005, Klan member Edgar Ray Killen was convicted of manslaughter in the murders.[57]
  • The 1965 murder of Viola Liuzzo, a Southern-raised white mother of five who was visiting the South from her home in Detroit to attend a civil rights march. At the time of her murder Liuzzo was transporting Civil Rights Marchers.

Klan groups also killed several others during this time period, with many of the acts going unreported. For example, in 1951 Harry T. Moore, a school teacher and state director of the NAACP, died with his wife, Harriette, when their house was bombed. Even though an FBI investigation at the time turned up several suspects, no one was prosecuted in the case. "Forty years later, a former Marine and Ku Klux Klansman told NAACP officials that he and other Klansmen had conspired with law enforcement officials to plan and carry out the murder.... According to a subsequent report from the Southern Regional Council in Atlanta, the homes of forty black Southern families were bombed during 1951 and 1952. Some, like Harry Moore, were social activists whose work exposed them to danger, but most were either people who had refused to bow to racist convention or were innocent bystanders, unsuspecting victims of random white terrorism."[58] Anthony and Viola Liuzzo, 1949 I believe this photo is in the public domain. ... Anthony and Viola Liuzzo, 1949 I believe this photo is in the public domain. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925 – June 12, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist from Mississippi. ... Image:ByronDeLaBeckwith. ... Samuel Bowers (born 1924) was the leader (imperial wizard) of the White Knights of the Ku Klux Klan of Mississippi, a militant offshoot of the Ku Klux Clan. ... The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was a racially motivated terrorist incident at 16th Street Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama, in the United States. ... Bobby Frank Cherry (June 20, 1930 in Mineral Springs, Alabama - November 18, 2004 at Kilby Correctional Facility, Montgomery) was convicted in 2002 for the 16th Street Baptist Church bombing. ... Willie Edwards, Jr. ... The Alabama River at Montgomery in 2004 The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about six miles above Montgomery. ... The Mississippi Civil Rights Workers Murders involved the 1964 slayings of three political activists during the American Civil Rights Movement. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Viola Liuzzo with her husband Anthony, 1949. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Harry Tyson Moore (November 18, 1905–December 25, 1951) was a African American teacher who founded the first branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Brevard County, Florida, and later ran the NAACP for the state of Florida. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces to global crises. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ...


However, while the post-war Klan groups were extremely violent, it was also a period in which the Klan was successfully pushed back. For example, in a 1958 North Carolina incident, the Klan burned crosses at the homes of two Lumbee Native Americans who had associated with white people, and then held a nighttime rally nearby, only to find themselves surrounded by hundreds of armed Lumbees. Gunfire was exchanged, and the Klan was routed.[59] Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... The Lumbee are a Native American tribe of North Carolina, though their origins are disputed. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Violence at a Klan march in Mobile, Alabama, 1977
Violence at a Klan march in Mobile, Alabama, 1977

In 1964, the FBI's COINTELPRO program began attempts to infiltrate and disrupt the Klan. COINTELPRO occupied an ambiguous position in the civil rights movement, since it used its tactics of infiltration, disinformation, and violence against violent far-left and far-right groups such as the Klan and the Weathermen, but simultaneously against peaceful organizations such as Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Southern Christian Leadership Conference. This ambivalence was shown dramatically in the case of the murder of Liuzzo, who was shot on the road by four Klansmen in a car, of whom one was an FBI informant. After she was murdered, the FBI spread false rumors that she was a communist and that she had abandoned her children in order to have sex with black civil rights workers. Regardless of the FBI's ambivalence, Jerry Thompson, a newspaper reporter who infiltrated the Klan in 1979, reported that COINTELPRO's efforts had been highly successful in disrupting the Klan. Rival Klan factions both accused each other's leaders of being FBI informants, and one leader, Bill Wilkinson of the Invisible Empire, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, was later revealed to have been working for the FBI.[60] Image File history File links Kkk-march-violence. ... Image File history File links Kkk-march-violence. ... COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) was a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... John Jacobs and Terry Robbins at the Days of Rage, Chicago, October 1969 (Photo credit: David Fenton; publicity photo for film Weather Underground) Weatherman, known colloquially as the Weathermen and later the Weather Underground Organization, was a U.S. Radical Left organization consisting of splintered-off members and leaders of... Martin Luther King, Jr. ... The Southern Christian Leadership Conference Logo. ...


Once the century-long struggle over black voting rights in the South had ended, the Klans shifted their focus to other issues, including affirmative action, immigration, and especially busing ordered by the courts in order to desegregate schools. In 1971, Klansmen used bombs to destroy ten school buses in Pontiac, Michigan, and charismatic Klansman David Duke was active in South Boston during the school busing crisis of 1974. Duke also made efforts to update its image, urging Klansmen to "get out of the cow pasture and into hotel meeting rooms." Duke was leader of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan from 1974 until he resigned from the Klan in 1978. In 1980, he formed the National Association for the Advancement of White People, a white nationalist political organization. He was elected to the Louisiana State House of Representatives in 1989 as a Republican, even though the party threw its support to a different Republican candidate. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with reverse discrimination. ... Desegregation busing, referred to as forced busing by opponents to desegregated schools in some areas, is the practice of remedying past racial discrimination in American public schools by busing children to specific schools in an effort to counteract discriminatory school construction and district assignments. ... Pontiac is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan named after the Ottawa Chief Pontiac. ... David Ernest Duke (born July 1, 1950) is a former Louisiana state representative, a candidate in presidential primaries for both the Democratic and Republican parties, and former Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, Athens of America, The Hub (of the Universe)1 Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Government  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area  - City  89. ... The National Association for the Advancement of White People is a white nationalist political organization in the United States founded in 1980 by David Duke, former Grand Wizard of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city Baton Rouge [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W...

An inflammatory cartoon that was used as evidence in the civil trial resulting from Michael Donald's murder
An inflammatory cartoon that was used as evidence in the civil trial resulting from Michael Donald's murder

In this period, resistance to the Klan became more common. Thompson reported that in his brief membership in the Klan, his truck was shot at, he was yelled at by black children, and a Klan rally that he attended turned into a riot when black soldiers on an adjacent military base taunted the Klansmen. Attempts by the Klan to march were often met with counterprotests, and violence sometimes ensued. Image File history File links KKK cartoon used in the trial of the lynchers of Michael Donald. ... Image File history File links KKK cartoon used in the trial of the lynchers of Michael Donald. ...

The lynching of Michael Donald, 1981
The lynching of Michael Donald, 1981

Vulnerability to lawsuits has encouraged the trend away from central organization, as when, for example, the lynching of Michael Donald in 1981 led to a civil suit that bankrupted one Klan group, the United Klans of America.[61] Thompson related how many Klan leaders who appeared indifferent to the threat of arrest showed great concern about a series of multimillion-dollar lawsuits brought against them as individuals by the Southern Poverty Law Center as a result of a shootout between Klansmen and a group of African Americans, and curtailed their activities in order to conserve money for defense against the suits. Lawsuits were also used as tools by the Klan, however, and the paperback publication of Thompson's book was canceled because of a libel suit brought by the Klan. Image File history File links Lynching-of-michael-donald. ... Image File history File links Lynching-of-michael-donald. ... The lynching of Michael Donald, 1981. ... The lynching of Michael Donald, 1981. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education, and litigation. ...


Klan activity has also been diverted into other racist groups and movements, such as Christian Identity, neo-Nazi groups, and racist skinheads. Christian Identity is a label applied to a wide variety of loosely-affiliated groups and churches with a racialized theology. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... A Nazi skinhead from Germany Nazi skinheads are a far right revolutionary subculture that developed in the United Kingdom around the late 1970s. ...


Present

KKK members displaying the Nazi salute and advocating Holocaust denial.
KKK members displaying the Nazi salute and advocating Holocaust denial.

Although often still discussed in contemporary American politics as representing the quintessential "fringe" end of the far-right spectrum, today the group only exists in the form of isolated, scattered groups with a total membership numbering no more than a few thousand.[62] In a 2002 report on "Extremism in America", the Jewish Anti-Defamation League wrote "Today, there is no such thing as the Ku Klux Klan. Fragmentation, decentralization and decline have continued unabated." However, they also noted that the "need for justification runs deep in the disaffected and is unlikely to disappear, regardless of how low the Klan's fortunes eventually sink."[63] Since late 2006 the Anti-Defamation League has revised its assessment of the Ku Klux Klan, claiming that "The Ku Klux Klan, which just a few years ago seemed static or even moribund [...], has experienced a surprising and troubling resurgence due to the successful exploitation of hot-button issues including immigration, gay marriage and urban crime".[64] Holocaust denial by the members of Ku Klux Klan Credits: ADL Source: Neo-Nazis: A Growing Threat by Kathlyn Gay, 1997 (p. ... Holocaust denial by the members of Ku Klux Klan Credits: ADL Source: Neo-Nazis: A Growing Threat by Kathlyn Gay, 1997 (p. ... The Roman salute is a closed finger, flat-palm-down hand raised at an angle (usually 45 degrees) and was used by the Roman Republic. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or relative position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... // Le de décentralisation de de est le processus de la dispersion prise de décision plus près du point de service ou action. ...


Today the only known former member of the Klan to hold a federal office in the United States is Democratic Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia, who says he "deeply regrets" joining the Klan over half a century ago, when he was about 24 years old. Robert Carlyle Byrd (born November 20, 1917) is the senior United States Senator from West Virginia and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ...


Some of the larger KKK organizations currently in operation include:

  • Bayou Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, prevalent in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana and other areas of the Southeastern U.S.
  • Church of the American Knights of the Ku Klux Klan[65]
  • Imperial Klans of America
  • Knights of the White Kamelia
  • Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, headed by National Director Pastor Thom Robb, and based in Zinc, Arkansas. Claims to be biggest Klan organization in America today. It refers to itself as the "sixth era Klan" and continues to be a racist group.

There are also numerous smaller organizations using the Klan name.[66] Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Thom Robb is the current leader of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... Zinc is a town located in Boone County, Arkansas. ...


As of 2005, there were an estimated 3,000 Klan members, divided between estimates of 100[67] and 158 chapters of a variety of splinter organizations, about two-thirds of which were in former Confederate states. The other third are primarily in the Midwest.[68][69][70]


Despite the large number of rival KKK's, the media and popular discourse generally speaks of the Ku Klux Klan, as if there was only one organization.


The ACLU has provided legal support to various factions of the KKK in defense of their First Amendment rights to hold public rallies, parades, and marches, and their right to field political candidates. The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives The First Amendment to the United States Constitution is a part of the United States Bill of Rights. ...


In a July 2005 incident, a Hispanic man's house was burned down in Hamilton, Ohio, after accusations that he sexually assaulted a nine-year-old white girl. Klan members in Klan robes showed up afterward to distribute pamphlets. In May 2006, a Ku Klux Klan group led an anti-immigration march in Russellville, Alabama.[71] The Hispanic world. ... Hamilton is a city in Butler County, Ohio, United States. ... Russellville, Alabama, is a city in Franklin County in the U.S. state of Alabama. ...


Vocabulary

Membership in the Klan is secret, and the Klan, like many fraternal organizations, has signs members can use to recognize one another. A member may use the acronym AYAK (Are you a Klansman?) in conversation to surreptitiously identify himself to another potential member. The response AKIA (A Klansman I am) completes the greeting.[72]


Throughout its varied history, the Klan has coined many words[73] beginning with "KL" including:

  • Klabee: treasurers
  • Kleagle: recruiter
  • Klecktoken: initiation fee
  • Kligrapp: secretary
  • Klonvocation: gathering
  • Kloran: ritual book
  • Kloreroe: delegate
  • Kludd: chaplain

All of the above terminology was created by William Simmons, as part of his 1915 revival of the Klan. The Reconstruction-era Klan used different titles; the only titles to carry over were "Wizard" (or Imperial Wizard) for the overall leader of the Klan, "Night Hawk" for the official in charge of security, and a few others, mostly for regional officers of the organization. Imperial Wizard was the title used by the national leader of the white supremacist group the Ku Klux Klan in the 20th century. ...


See also

The American Protective Association or APA was an American anti-Catholic, secret society (similar to the Know Nothings) that was founded on March 13, 1887 by Attorney Henry F. Bowers in Clinton, Iowa. ... The history of the United States (1865–1918) covers Reconstruction and the rise of industrialization in the United States. ... Johnny Lee Clary (born 1959) is a former Ku Klux Klan leader who became a born again Christian and now travels around the globe preaching the gospel and teaching against racism and hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan, Neo Nazis, and Aryan Nation. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and Border States of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965 and affected African Americans and many other races. ... The Knights of the Golden Circle (KGC) was a secret society originally founded to promote Southern interests and prepare the way for annexation of a golden circle of territories in Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean which would be included into the United States as southern or slave states. ... The costume of the Ku Klux Klan is perhaps the most distinctive feature of that organization, and is recognised worldwide. ... The Order (AKA Bruders Schweigen or Silent Brotherhood) is a largely-defunct faction of the Aryan Nations Church of Northwest Idaho active in the 1980s. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... The Wide Awakes were a paramilitary organization affiliated with the Republican Party during the 1860 election and American Civil War. ... Hugo Black Hugo LaFayette Black (February 27, 1886 – September 25, 1971) was a Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (1937 - 1971). ... The WKKK or Womanss Ku Klux Klan was one of a number of auxiliaries of the Ku Klux Klan. ... The second Ku Klux Klan (KKK), often called the Klan of the 1920s, was officially the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Birth of a Nation is a famously controversial film which promoted the superiority of the white race. ... Illustration from The Clansman. ... The Leopards Spots: A Romance of the White Mans Burden—1865–1900 is a book by Thomas Dixon, written in 1902, and published by Doubleday, Page & Co. ... The Five Orange Pips, one of the 56 short Sherlock Holmes stories written by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is the fifth of the twelve stories in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. ... Christian terrorism is terrorism carried out in the name of furthering Christian goals or teachings. ... The timeline of racial tension in Omaha, Nebraska highlights an urban history of racism that predates the founding of a city and continues to this day. ...

Notes

  1. ^ According to the 1920 census, the population of white males 18 years and older was about 31 million, but many of these men would have been ineligible for membership because they were immigrants, Jews, or Roman Catholics. Klan membership peaked at about 4–5 million: The Ku Klux Klan, a brief biography!, accessed February 19, 2007.
  2. ^ Klan growing, fed by anti-immigrant feelings, ADL report says
  3. ^ Horn, 1939, p. 9. The founders were John C. Lester, John B. Kennedy, James R. Crowe, Frank O. McCord, Richard R. Reed, and J. Calvin Jones
  4. ^ Horn, 1939, p. 11, states that Reed proposed "κύκλος" ("kyklos") and Kennedy added "clan." Wade, 1987, p. 33 says Kennedy came up with both words, but Crowe suggested transforming "κύκλος" into "kuklux."
  5. ^ Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 by Eric Foner, Perennial (HarperCollins), March 1989, p. 342.
  6. ^ Ku Klux Klan, Organization and Principles, 1868
  7. ^ Horn, 1939. Horn casts doubt on some other aspects of the story.
  8. ^ Ku Klux Klan in the Reconstruction Era, accessed February 19, 2007.
  9. ^ History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896. Volume: 7. by James Ford Rhodes, 1920, pages 157–158
  10. ^ The Invisible Empire: The Ku Klux Klan in Florida by Michael Newton, pp.1–30. Newton quotes from the Testimony Taken by the Joint Select Committee to Enquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States. Vol. 13. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1872. Among historians of the Klan, this volume is also known as "The KKK testimony."
  11. ^ Horn, 1939.
  12. ^ White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction by Allen W. Trelease, Louisiana State University Press (Reprint edition) April 1995.
  13. ^ Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 by Eric Foner, Perennial (HarperCollins), March 1989, p. 426.
  14. ^ Horn, 1939, p. 375.
  15. ^ Wade, 1987, p. 102.
  16. ^ Horn, 1939, p. 375.
  17. ^ Cincinnati 'Commercial', August 28, 1868, quoted in Wade, 1987. Full text of the interview on wikisource.
  18. ^ Horn, 1939, p. 27.
  19. ^ Parsons, Elaine Frantz, "Midnight Rangers: Costume and Performance in the Reconstruction-Era Ku Klux Klan." The Journal of American History 92.3, 2005, page 816
  20. ^ quotes from Wade, 1987.
  21. ^ Horn, 1939, p. 360.
  22. ^ Horn, 1939, p. 362.
  23. ^ a b The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow — The enforcement acts (1870–1871), accessed February 19, 2006.
  24. ^ Wade, 1987, p. 85.
  25. ^ Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877 by Eric Foner, Perennial (HarperCollins), March 1989, p. 435.
  26. ^ Wade, 1987.
  27. ^ Horn, 1939, p. 373.
  28. ^ Wade, 1987, p. 88.
  29. ^ Wade, 1987, p. 109, writes that by ca. 1871–1874, "For many, the lapse of the enforcement acts was justified since their reason for being — the Ku-Klux Klan — had been effectively smashed as a result of the dramatic showdown in South Carolina." Klan "costumes or regalia" had disappeared by the early 1870s (Wade, p. 109). That the Klan was entirely nonexistent for a period of decades is shown by the fact that in 1915, Simmons's refounding of the Klan was attended by only two aging "former Reconstruction Klansmen" (Wade, p. 144). Horn, a very sympathetic Southern historian of the first Klan, was careful in an oral interview to distinguish it from the later "spurious Ku Klux organization which was in ill-repute—and, of course, had no connection whatsoever with the Klan of Reconstruction days." An Annotated Guide to Oral History Interviews of the Forest History Society, accessed February 19, 2006. A PBS web page (accessed February 19, 2006) states that "By 1872, the Klan as an organization was broken."
  30. ^ Wade, 1987, pp. 109–110.
  31. ^ Foner, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877, p. 437, and KKK Hearings, 46th Congress, 2d Session, Senate Report 693, and Joe G. Taylor, Louisiana Reconstructed, 1863–1877 (Baton Rouge, 1974), p. 268–270.
  32. ^ [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/jbalkin/opeds/historylesson1.pdf History Lesson, Jack M. Balkin], accessed February 19, 2007.
  33. ^ The Civil Rights Movement, 1964–1968, accessed February 19, 2007.
  34. ^ [1], accessed February 19, 2007.
  35. ^ Dray, 2002.
  36. ^ [2], accessed February 19, 2007.
  37. ^ Dray, 2002, p. 198. The comment was relayed to the press by Griffith and widely reported, and in subsequent correspondence, Wilson discussed Griffith's filmmaking in a highly positive tone, without challenging the veracity of the statement.
  38. ^ Wade, 1987, p. 137.
  39. ^ The Ku Klux Klan and Related American Racialist and Antisemitic Organizations: A History and Analysis by Chester L Quarles, Page 219. The second Klan's constitution and preamble, reprinted in Quarles book, states that the second Klan was indebted to the original Klan's Prescripts.
  40. ^ The quote is from the 1868 Revised Precept, from Horn, 1939.
  41. ^ Moore, Leonard J. Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921–1928 (Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina Press, 1991)
  42. ^ According to the 1920 census, the population of white males 18 years and older was about 31 million, but many of these men would have been ineligible for membership because they were immigrants, Jews, or Roman Catholics. Klan membership peaked at about 4–5 million: The Ku Klux Klan, a brief biography!, accessed February 19, 2007.
  43. ^ When the KKK rode high across the Prairies by Kevin Weedmark, World Spectator, accessed February 19, 2007.
  44. ^ Race and History: Selected Essays 1938–1988 by John Hope Franklin, Louisiana State University Press (reprint edition), February 1992, p. 145
  45. ^ Race and History: Selected Essays 1938–1988 by John Hope Franklin, Louisiana State University Press (reprint edition), February 1992, p. 145
  46. ^ It's been 70 years since Anaheim booted the Klan, reprinted from the Los Angeles Times
  47. ^ Feldman, Glenn. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915–1949. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1999.
  48. ^ Rogers, William; Ward, Robert; Atkins, Leah; and Flynt, Wayne. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1994. Pages 437 and 442.
  49. ^ Rogers et al. Pages 432–433.
  50. ^ Rogers et al. Page 433.
  51. ^ Moore, Leonard J. Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921–1928. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991, p. 186.
  52. ^ Richard von Busack, Superman Versus the KKK on the MetroActive site, accessed April 11, 2006
  53. ^ The Klan Unmasked by Stetson Kennedy, University Press of Florida, 1990.
  54. ^ . [http://www.alabamamoments.state.al.us/sec46qs.html The 20th Century Ku Klux Klan in Alabama], The Ku Klux Klan, a brief biography!, History of the Ku Klux Klan, What is the KKK?, Ku Klux Klan in the Twentieth Century, all retrieved August 26, 2005.
  55. ^ A Primer on Civil Rights. Accessed June 26, 2006.
  56. ^ Justice Still Absent in Bridge Death by Major W. Cox. Accessed June 26, 2006.
  57. ^ Mississippi verdict greeted by a generation gap by Kris Axtman. The Christian Science Monitor, June 23, 2005.
  58. ^ Speak Now Against the Day: The Generation Before the Civil Rights Movement in the South by John Egerton, Alfred a Knopf Inc, 1994, p. 562–563.
  59. ^ Ingalls, 1979; January 1958 — The Lumbees face the Klan, accessed February 19, 2007.
  60. ^ Thompson, 1982.
  61. ^ [3], accessed February 19, 2007.
  62. ^ Extremism in America, Jewish Anti-Defamation League, 2002, accessed Sept. 4, 2006. According to the report, the KKK's estimated size at the moment is "No more than a few thousand, organized into slightly more than 100 units.
  63. ^ Extremism in America, Jewish Anti-Defamation League, 2002, accessed Sept. 4, 2006.
  64. ^ The Ku Klux Klan Rebounds, Anti-Defamation League.
  65. ^ Church of the American Knights of the KKK, accessed February 19, 2007.
  66. ^ [4], retrieved June 26, 2005.
  67. ^ Extremism in America, Jewish Anti-Defamation League, 2002, accessed Sept. 4, 2006.
  68. ^ Southern Poverty Law Center. Active U.S. Hate Groups in 2004. Intelligence Report. Retrieved April 5, 2005 from Active U.S. Hate Groups in 2005.
  69. ^ Church of the American Knights of the KKK, retrieved June 26, 2005.
  70. ^ What is the KKK?, retrieved August 26, 2005.
  71. ^ Klan raises anti-immigrant clamor The Montgomery Advertiser, June 5, 2006, accessed June 5, 2006.
  72. ^ A Visual Database of Extremist Symbols, Logos and Tattoos
  73. ^ Axelrod, 1997, p. 160

Presidential electoral votes by state. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the Western United States. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ...

References

  • Axelrod, Alan. The International Encyclopedia of Secret Societies & Fraternal Orders, New York: Facts On File, 1997.
  • Dray, Philip. At the Hands of Persons Unknown: The Lynching of Black America, New York: Random House, 2002.
  • Feldman, Glenn. Politics, Society, and the Klan in Alabama, 1915–1949. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1999.
  • Horn, Stanley F. Invisible Empire: The Story of the Ku Klux Klan, 1866–1871, Patterson Smith Publishing Corporation: Montclair, NJ, 1939.
Horn, born in 1889, was a Southern historian who was sympathetic to the first Klan, which, in a 1976 oral interview [5], he was careful to distinguish from the later "spurious Ku Klux organization which was in ill-repute—and, of course, had no connection whatsoever with the Klan of Reconstruction days."
  • Ingalls, Robert P. Hoods: The Story of the Ku Klux Klan, New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1979.
  • Levitt, Stephen D. and Stephen J. Dubner. Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything. New York: William Morrow (2005).
  • Moore, Leonard J. Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921–1928 Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina Press, 1991.
  • Newton, Michael, and Judy Ann Newton. The Ku Klux Klan: An Encyclopedia. New York & London: Garland Publishing, 1991.
  • Parsons, Elaine Frantz, "Midnight Rangers: Costume and Performance in the Reconstruction-Era Ku Klux Klan." The Journal of American History 92.3 (2005): 811–836.
  • Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896. Volume: 7. (1920)
Winner of the Pulitzer Prize.
  • Rogers, William; Ward, Robert; Atkins, Leah; and Flynt, Wayne. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1994.
  • Steinberg. Man From Missouri. New York: Van Rees Press, 1962.
  • Thompson, Jerry. My Life in the Klan, Rutledge Hill Press, Nashville. Originally published in 1982 by G.P. Putnam's Sons, ISBN 0-399-12695-3.
  • Trelease, Allen W. White Terror: The Ku Klux Klan Conspiracy and Southern Reconstruction (Louisiana State University Press: 1995).
First published in 1971 and based on massive research in primary sources, this is the most comprehensive treatment of the Klan and its relationship to post-Civil War Reconstruction. Includes narrative research on other night-riding groups. Details close link between Klan and late 19th century and early 20th century Democratic Party.
  • Wade, Wyn Craig. The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America. New York: Simon and Schuster (1987).
An unsympathetic account of both Klans, with a dedication to "my Kentucky grandmother ... a fierce and steadfast Radical Republican from the wane of Reconstruction until her death nearly a century later."

The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...

Further reading

  • Kathleen M. Blee, Women of the Klan, University of California Press, 1992, ISBN 0-520-07876-4
  • The Growth of White Supremacist gangs in the USA. Gainesville.

Kathleen M. Blee is a professor of sociology at the University of Pittsburgh. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ku Klux Klan (6250 words)
The Kloran of the Klan defines a Klavalier as the soldier of the Klan.
(19) Leaflet circulated by the Ku Klux Klan in Mississippi in 1964.
A former Ku Klux Klansman was convicted yesterday of the murder of four fl girls in the 1963 church bombing in Alabama that acted as a catalyst for the civil rights movement.
Ku Klux Klan - MSN Encarta (1465 words)
Ku Klux Klan, secret terrorist organization that originated in the Southern states during the period of Reconstruction following the American Civil War (1861-1865) and was reactivated on a wider geographic basis in the 20th century.
A former grand wizard of the Klan, David Duke was elected to the Louisiana House of Representatives in 1989 and ran unsuccessfully in the state’s gubernatorial election in 1991.
In 1998 Ku Klux Klan imperial wizard Sam Bowers was convicted of the 1966 murder of NAACP leader Vernon Dahmer in Hattiesburg, Mississippi.
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