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Encyclopedia > Krzysztof Penderecki
Krzysztof Penderecki.
Krzysztof Penderecki.

Krzysztof Penderecki (born November 23, 1933 in Dębica) is a Polish composer and conductor of classical music. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1494x1498, 168 KB)Photograph of Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1494x1498, 168 KB)Photograph of Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... DÄ™bica (or Debica) is a town in southeastern Poland with 47,187 inhabitants (2005). ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... See Conductor for other possible uses of the word. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...


After taking private composition lessons with Franciszek Skolyszewski, Penderecki studied music at Krakow University and the Academy of Music in Krakow under Artur Malawski and Stanislaw Wiechowicz. After graduating in 1958, he took up a teaching post at the Academy. The Academy of Music in Krakow is located in downtown Krakow, Poland and was first conceived as a Conservatory in 1888 by Władysław Żeleński. ...


Penderecki's early works show the influence of Anton Webern and Pierre Boulez (he has also been influenced by Igor Stravinsky). Penderecki's international recognition began in 1959 at the Warsaw Autumn Festival with the premiere of works, Strophen, Psalms of David, and Emanations, but the piece that truly brought him to international attention was Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima (see threnody and Hiroshima), written for 52 string instruments. In it, Penderecki makes use of extended instrumental techniques (for example, playing on the wrong side of the bridge, bowing on the tailpiece). There are many novel textures in the work, which makes great use of tone clusters (notes close together played at the same time). See sound mass. The work was originally titled 8' 37", perhaps in a nod to John Cage, but changed the title after his publisher suggested he give it a more colorful name. Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer. ... Pierre Boulez Pierre Boulez (IPA: /pjɛʁ.buˈlɛz/) (born March 26, 1925) is a conductor and composer of classical music. ... Igor Stravinsky Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: И́горь Фёдорович Страви́нский Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian-born composer of modern classical music. ... The musical composition Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima (Tren ofiarom Hiroszimy in Polish), for 52 string instruments, was composed in 1959 by Krzysztof Penderecki (b. ... A threnody is a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person (synonyms include dirge, coronach, lament, elegy, and requiem). ... Hiroshima City Hall Mayor Tadatoshi Akiba Address 〒730-8586 Hiroshima-shi, Naka-ku, Kokutaiji 1-6-34 Phone number 082-245-2111 Official website: Hiroshima City , // The city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of... A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... A tone cluster, in music and in Western tuning, is a chord or simultaneity comprised of consecutive tones separated chromatically. ... In contrast to more traditional musical textures, sound mass composition minimizes the importance of individual pitches in preference for texture, timbre, and dynamics as primary shapers of gesture and impact. ... John Cage For the character of John Cage from the TV show Ally McBeal see: John Cage (Character) John Milton Cage (September 5, 1912 – August 12, 1992) was an American experimental music composer, writer and visual artist. ...


The St. Luke Passion (1963–66) brought Penderecki further popular acclaim, not least because it was a major, devoutly religious work, written in an avant-garde musical language, composed within Communist Eastern Europe. Western audiences saw it as a snub to the Soviet authorities and were keen to give it their support. Various different musical styles can be seen in the piece. The experimental textures, such as were seen in the Threnody, are balanced by the baroque form of the work and the occasional use of more traditional harmonic and melodic writing. Penderecki makes use of serialism in this piece, and one of the tone rows he uses includes the BACH motif, which acts as a bridge between the conventional and more experimental elements. The Stabat Mater section towards the end of the piece concludes on a simple major chord of D major, and this gesture is repeated at the very end of the work, which finishes on a triumphant E major chord. These are the only tonal harmonies in the work, and both come as a surprise to the listener; Penderecki's use of tonal triads such as these remains a controversial aspect of the work. The St. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 to 1750 (see Dates of classical music eras for a discussion of the problems inherent in defining the beginning and end points). ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity and chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the European classical music theory, serialism is a set of methods for composing and analyzing works of music based on structuring those works around the parameterization of parts of music: that is, ordering pitch, dynamics, instrumentation, rhythm and on occasion other elements into a row or series in which... The BACH motif. ... Fingering for a C-major trichord on a guitar in standard tuning (assuming all six strings are played). ...


Around the mid-1970s Penderecki's style began to change. The Violin Concerto No. 1 largely leaves behind the dense tone clusters with which he had been associated, and instead focuses on two melodic intervals: the semitone and the tritone. Some commentators went so far as to compare this new direction to Anton Bruckner. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1971 to 1980, inclusive. ... A violin concerto is a concerto for solo violin and orchestra. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A semitone (also known in the USA as a half step) is a musical interval. ... The augmented fourth between C and F# forms a tritone. ... Anton Bruckner Anton Bruckner (4 September 1824 – 11 October 1896) was an Austrian composer who wrote the majority of his mature music near the end of the Romantic era. ...


This direction continued with the Symphony No. 2, Christmas (1980), which is rather straightforward from a harmonic and melodic standpoint for a composer who had been one of the most experimental in Europe. It makes frequent use of the tune of the Christmas carol, "Silent Night".


In 1980, Penderecki was commissioned by Solidarity to compose a piece to accompany the unveiling of a statue at the Gdańsk shipyards to commemorate those killed at anti-government riots there in 1970. Penderecki responded with the Lacrimosa, which he later expanded to become one of the best known works of his later period, the Polish Requiem (1980-84, revised 1993). Here again the harmonies are quite lush, although there are moments which evoke his earlier work in the 1960s. The tendency in recent years has been towards more conservative romanticism, however, as seen in works like the Cello Concerto No. 2 and the Credo. Solidarity (Polish: Solidarność; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the GdaÅ„sk Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... GdaÅ„sk (Polish pronunciation: (?), German: ( ), Kashubian: GduÅ„sk, Latin: Gedania; also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodship. ... The Requiem or Requiem Mass, also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church and its Eastern Rite. ... Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... A violoncello concerto is a concerto for solo violoncello with orchestra or, very occasionally, smaller groups of instruments. ...


Some of Penderecki's music has been adapted to film tracks. Portions of the 1971 Cello Concerto have been used in both The Shining and The Exorcist. The Shining may mean: The Shining (novel), by Stephen King The Shining (film), Stanley Kubricks adaptation of the novel The Shining (mini-series), the ABC mini-series scripted by Stephen King The Shining (band), an English music group named after Kings novel This is a disambiguation page: a... The Exorcist is an influential and successful 1973 horror film, adapted by William Peter Blatty from his 1971 novel of the same name. ...


Penderecki received an honorary doctorate from the University of Münster, Germany in 2006. The University of Münster (German Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU) is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents


Works

Operas

Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was a British writer who emigrated to the United States. ... Paradise Lost is an opera in two acts by Krzysztof Penderecki to an English libretto by Christopher Fry, based on the epic poem of the same name by Milton. ... Title page of the first edition Paradise Lost (1667) is an epic poem by the 17th century English poet John Milton. ... John Milton, English poet John Milton (December 9, 1608 – November 8, 1674) was an English poet, best-known for his epic poem Paradise Lost. ...

Orchestral works

  • Symphonies:
    • Symphony No. 1 (1973)
    • Symphony No. 2 Christmas (1980)
    • Symphony No. 3 (1988-1995)
    • Symphony No. 4 Adagio (1989)
    • Symphony No. 5 Korean (1991-2)
    • Symphony No. 7 Seven Gates of Jerusalem, for voices and orchestra
    • Symphony No. 8 Lieder der Vergänglichkeit (2004-05), for voices and orchestra
  • Emanations (Emanacje, 1959) for two string orchestras
  • Anaklasis (1959) for strings and percussion
  • Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima (Tren Ofiarom Hiroszimy, 1960) for 52 string instruments, probably Penderecki's best known piece
  • Polymorphia (1961) for 48 string instruments, featured on Stanley Kubrick's The Shining soundtrack and in The Exorcist
  • Fluorescences (Fluorescencje, 1961-62) for orchestra
  • Canon (1962) for string orchestra
  • Three Pieces in the Old Style (1963, from the music for the film Manuscript found in Saragossa)
  • De Natura Sonoris No. 1 (1966) (featured on Stanley Kubrick's The Shining soundtrack)
  • Pittsburgh Overture (1967) for wind band
  • Kosmognia (1970)
  • De Natura Sonoris No. 2 (1971) (featured on Stanley Kubrick's The Shining soundtrack)
  • Prélude (1971) for winds, percussion and double basses
  • Actions (1971) for jazz orchestra
  • Intermezzo (1973) for 24 strings
  • The Dream of Jacob (1974)
  • Adagietto from Paradise Lost (1979)
  • Sinfonietta for string orchestra (1992, arranged from String Trio)
  • Music from Ubu Rex (1994)
  • Entrata (1994) for small wind band
  • Burlesque Suite from Ubu Rex (1995) for large wind band
  • Serenade for string orchestra (1996-97)
  • Luzerner Fanfare (1998) for eight trumpets and percussion
  • Fanfarria Real (2003)

The musical composition Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima (Tren ofiarom Hiroszimy in Polish), for 52 string instruments, was composed in 1959 by Krzysztof Penderecki (b. ... Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director and producer. ... The Shining may mean: The Shining (novel), by Stephen King The Shining (film), Stanley Kubricks adaptation of the novel The Shining (mini-series), the ABC mini-series scripted by Stephen King The Shining (band), an English music group named after Kings novel This is a disambiguation page: a... The Exorcist is an influential and successful 1973 horror film, adapted by William Peter Blatty from his 1971 novel of the same name. ... Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director and producer. ... The Shining may mean: The Shining (novel), by Stephen King The Shining (film), Stanley Kubricks adaptation of the novel The Shining (mini-series), the ABC mini-series scripted by Stephen King The Shining (band), an English music group named after Kings novel This is a disambiguation page: a... Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director and producer. ... The Shining may mean: The Shining (novel), by Stephen King The Shining (film), Stanley Kubricks adaptation of the novel The Shining (mini-series), the ABC mini-series scripted by Stephen King The Shining (band), an English music group named after Kings novel This is a disambiguation page: a...

Concertante works

  • Piano:
    • Piano Concerto, Resurrection (2001-02)
  • Violin:
    • Capriccio for violin and orchestra (1967)
    • Violin Concerto No. 1 (1976-77, revised 1987)
    • Violin Concerto No. 2 Metamorphosen (1992–5)
  • Viola:
    • Viola Concerto (1983, also version with clarinet, version with cello, version with chamber orchestra)
  • Cello:
    • Sonata for cello and orchestra (1964)
    • Cello Concerto No. 1 (1972)
    • Cello Concerto No. 2 (1982)
    • Concerto Grosso for three cellos and orchestra (2000-01)
    • Largo for cello and orchestra (2003)
  • Flute:
    • Fonogrammi for flute and chamber orchestra (1961)
    • Flute Concerto, for flute and chamber orchestra (1992)
  • Oboe:
    • Capriccio for oboe and eleven strings (1964)
  • Clarinet:
    • Sinfonietta No. 2 for clarinet and strings (1994, arranged from Clarinet Quartet)
    • Concerto Grosso No. 2 for five clarinets and orchestra (2004)
  • Others:
    • Partita for harpsichord, electric guitar, bass guitar, harp, double bass and orchestra (1971, revised 1991)
    • Music for alto flute, marimba and strings (2000)

Vocal works

  • Strophen (1959) for soprano, speaker and ten instruments

Choral works

  • Psalms of David (1958)
  • Dimensions of Time and Silence (1959-61)
  • Stabat Mater (1962)
  • Cantata (1964)
  • St. Luke Passion (1965)
  • Dies Irae (1967)
  • Kosmogonia (1970)
  • Utrenja (Morning Prayer) (1969-71) (featured on Stanley Kubrick's The Shining soundtrack)
  • Ecloga VIII (1972)
  • Canticum Canticorum Salomonis (1970-73)
  • Magnificat (1973-74)
  • Te Deum (1979)
  • Agnus Dei (1981)
  • Polish Requiem (1980-84, revised 1993)
  • Song of Cherubim (1986)
  • Veni creator (1987)
  • Benedicamus Domino (1992)
  • Benedictus (1993)
  • Angus Dei (1995, from the Requiem of Reconciliation)
  • De Profundis (1996)
  • Seven Gates of Jerusalem (1996, also known as Symphony No. 7)
  • Hymne an den heiligen Daniel (1997)
  • Hymne an den heiligen Adalbert (1997)
  • Credo (1997-98)
  • Benedictus (2002)
  • Symphony No. 8 Lieder der Vergänglichkeit (2004-05)

Mater dolorosa became an iconic type, as in this sixteenth-century Spanish version by Luis de Morales (c. ... The St. ... Dies Iræ (Day of Wrath) is a famous 13th-century Latin hymn thought to be written by Thomas of Celano. ... Stanley Kubrick (July 26, 1928 – March 7, 1999) was an American film director and producer. ... The Shining may mean: The Shining (novel), by Stephen King The Shining (film), Stanley Kubricks adaptation of the novel The Shining (mini-series), the ABC mini-series scripted by Stephen King The Shining (band), an English music group named after Kings novel This is a disambiguation page: a... Sandro Boticelli. ... Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. ... Agnus Dei is a Latin term meaning Lamb of God, and was originally used to refer to Jesus Christ in his role of the perfect sacrificial offering that atones for the sins of man in Christian theology, harkening back to ancient Jewish Temple sacrifices. ... The Requiem of Reconciliation was a collaborative work written to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the end of World War II. It sets the Roman Catholic mass for the dead in fourteen sections, each written by a different composer from a country involved in the war. ...

Chamber works

  • Violin Sonata No. 1 (1953)
  • Three Miniatures for clarinet and piano (1956)
  • Three Miniatures for violin and piano (1959)
  • String Quartet No. 1 (1960)
  • String Quartet No. 2 (1968)
  • Der unterbrochene Gedanke for string quartet (1988)
  • String Trio (1991)
  • Clarinet Quartet (1993)
  • Violin Sonata No. 2 (1999)
  • Sextet (2000)

Instrumental works

  • Capriccio per Siegfried Palm for solo cello (1968)
  • Capriccio for solo tuba (1980)
  • Cadenza for solo viola (1984)
  • Per Slava for solo cello (1986)
  • Prelude for solo clarinet (1987)
  • Divertimento for solo cello (1994)

See also

List of Polish composers: 19th century Frederic Chopin, (1810-1849) Stanislaw Moniuszko 20th century Mieczyslaw Karlowicz (Mieczysław Karłowicz) Karol Szymanowski, (1882-1937) Krzysztof Komeda Witold Lutoslawski (Witold Lutosławski) Andrzej Panufnik Krzysztof Penderecki, (born 1933) Henryk Górecki (Henryk Mikołaj Górecki) Zygmunt Konieczny Wojciech Kilar Zbigniew Preisner See also: List of famous...

External links

  • Penderecki page at the Polish Music Center
  • Penderecki homepage maintained by Schott Music publishers

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Penderecki erhielt mit jungen Jahren Violin- und Klavierunterricht, wurde mit achtzehn Jahren in das Krakauer Konservatorium aufgenommen, studierte gleichzeitig Philosophie, Kunst- und Literaturgeschichte an der dortigen Universität und ab 1954 an der Krakauer Staatsakademie für Musik Komposition zunächst bei Artur Malewski und nach dessen Tod 1957 bei Stanislas Wiechowicz.
In diesen Jahren erlangte Penderecki auf ausgedehnten Konzertreisen in aller Welt auch als Dirigent eigener und fremder Werke zunehmend internationale Anerkennung.
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