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Encyclopedia > Krzysztof Kieslowski
Krzysztof Kieślowski

Krzysztof Kieślowski (June 27, 1941, WarsawMarch 13, 1996, Warsaw) was an influential Polish film director and screenwriter, known internationally for his film cycles Three Colors and The Decalogue. Krzysztof Kieslowski File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Krzysztof Kieslowski File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... June 27 is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 187 days remaining. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Film refers to the celluloid media on which movies are printed Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... Screenwriters, scenarists or script writers, are authors who write the screenplays from which movies are made. ... Three Colors is the collective title of three films directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski, two made in French and one primarily in Polish: Trois couleurs: Bleu (Blue) (1993), Trzy kolory: Biały (White) (1994), and Trois couleurs: Rouge (Red) (1994). ... Dekalog (The Decalogue) (1988) is a Polish film series, originally made as a television miniseries, directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski and co-written by Kieślowski with Krzysztof Piesiewicz, with music by Zbigniew Preisner. ...

Contents

Early life

Kieślowski was born in Warsaw, Poland, and grew up in several small towns. At sixteen, he briefly attended a firemen's training school, but dropped out after three months. Without any career goals, he then entered the College for Theatre Technicians in Warsaw because it was run by a relative. He decided to become a theatre director, but at the time there was no specific training program for directors, so he chose to study film as an intermediate step. Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Fire exercise aboard the frigate La Motte-Picquet. ... A theatre director oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a play by unifying various endeavors and aspects of production. ...


Leaving college and working as a theatrical tailor, Kieślowski applied to the Łódź Film School and was rejected twice. To avoid compulsory military service during this time, he briefly became an art student, and also went on a drastic diet in an attempt to make himself medically unfit for service. After several months of successfully avoiding the draft, he was accepted to the Łódź Film School on his third attempt. . Łódź (pronunciation: ) is the second-largest city (population 776,297 in 2004) of Poland, located in the centre of the country. ... Conscription is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority, e. ...


He attended from 1964 to 1968, during a period in which the government allowed a relatively high degree of artistic freedom at the school. Kieślowski quickly lost his interest in theatre and decided to make documentary films. Documentary film is a broad category of cinematic expression united by the intent to remain factual or non-fictional. ...


Documentaries

Kieślowski's early documentaries focused on the everyday lives of city dwellers, workers, and soldiers. Though he was not an overtly political filmmaker, he soon found that attempting to depict Polish life accurately brought him into conflict with the authorities. His television film Workers '71, which showed workers discussing the reasons for the mass strikes of 1970, was only shown in a drastically censored form.


After Workers '71, he turned his eye on the authorities themselves in Curriculum Vitae, a film that combined documentary footage of Politburo meetings with a fictional story about a man under scrutiny by the officials. Though Kieślowski believed the film's message was anti-authoritarian, he was criticized by his colleagues for cooperating with the government in its production. Politburo is short for Political Bureau. ...


Kieślowski later said that he abandoned documentary filmmaking due to two experiences: the censorship of Workers '71, which caused him to doubt whether truth could be told literally under an authoritarian regime, and an incident during the filming of Station (1981) in which some of his footage was nearly used as evidence in a criminal case. He decided that fiction not only allowed more artistic freedom, but could portray everyday life more truthfully.


Polish feature films

His first non-documentary feature, Personnel (1975), was made for television and won him first prize at the Mannheim Film Festival. Both Personnel and his next feature, The Scar, were works of social realism with large casts: Personnel was about technicians working on a stage production, based on his early college experience, and The Scar showed the upheaval of a small town by a poorly-planned industrial project. These films were shot in a documentary style with many nonprofessional actors; like his earlier films, they portrayed everyday life under the weight of a flawed system, but without overt commentary. Social Realism is a term used to describe visual and other realistic arts depicting working class activities as heroic, especially common in communist countries. ...


Camera Buff (1979) (which won the grand prize at the Moscow International Film Festival) and Blind Chance (1981) continued along similar lines, but focused more on the ethical choices faced by a single character rather than a community. During this period, Kieślowski was considered part of a loose movement with other Polish directors of the time, including Janusz Kijowski, Andrzej Wajda, and Agnieszka Holland, called the Cinema of Moral Anxiety. His links with these directors (Holland in particular) caused some raised eyebrows within the Polish government, and each of his early films was subjected to censorship and enforced re-shooting/re-editing, if not banned outright (Blind Chance was not released domestically until 1987, almost six years after it was completed). Moscow International Film Festival is a film festival held in Moscow. ... Filmography Pokolenie (The Generation, 1954) Idę do słońca (Towards the Sun, document on Xawery Dunikowski, 1955) Kanał (1956) Popiol i diament or Ashes And Diamonds (1958) Lotna (1959) Niewinni czarodzieje (Innocent Sorcerers, 1960) Powiatowa lady Makbet (Siberian Lady Macbeth, 1961) Samson (1961) Lamour à vingt ans (1962) Popioły (Ashes... Agnieszka Holland (born November 28, 1948 in Warsaw, Poland) is a film and TV director and screenplay writer. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


No End (1984) was perhaps his most clearly political film, depicting political trials in Poland during martial law, from the unusual point of view of a lawyer's ghost and his widow. It was harshly criticized by both the government and dissidents. Starting with No End, Kieślowski's career was closely associated with two regular collaborators, the screenwriter Krzysztof Piesiewicz and the composer Zbigniew Preisner. Piesiewicz was a trial lawyer whom Kieślowski met while researching political trials under martial law for a planned documentary on the subject; Piesiewicz co-wrote the screenplays for all of Kieślowski's subsequent films. Preisner provided the musical score for No End and most of the subsequent films; the score often plays a prominent part in Kieślowski's films and many of Preisner's pieces are referred to within the films themselves. In these cases, they are usually discussed by the films' characters as being the work of the (fictional) Dutch composer van den Budenmayer. Krzysztof Marek Piesiewicz (born on October 25, 1945 in Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish lawyer, screenwriter, and politician, who is currently a member of the Polish Parliament and head of the Ruch Społeczny (RS) or Social Movement Party. ... Zbigniew Preisner (born May 20, 1955) is Polands leading film score composer, best known for his work for the director Krzysztof Kieślowski. ... Zbigniew Preisner (born May 20, 1955) is Polands leading film score composer, best known for his work for the director Krzysztof Kieślowski. ...


The Decalogue (1988), a series of ten short films set in a Warsaw tower block, each nominally based on one of the Ten Commandments, was created for Polish television with funding from West Germany; it is now one of the most critically acclaimed film cycles of all time. Co-written by Kieślowski and Piesiewicz, the ten hour-long episodes had originally been intended for ten different directors, but Kieślowski found himself unable to relinquish control over the project; in the end, each episode featured a different director of photography. Episodes five and six were also filmed in longer feature-length versions, and released internationally as A Short Film About Killing and A Short Film About Love respectively. Kieślowski had also planned to shoot a full-length version of Episode 9 under the title A Short Film About Jealousy, but exhaustion eventually prevented him from making what would have been his thirteenth film in less than a year. Dekalog (The Decalogue) (1988) is a Polish film series, originally made as a television miniseries, directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski and co-written by Kieślowski with Krzysztof Piesiewicz, with music by Zbigniew Preisner. ... The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that feature prominently in Judaism and Christianity. ... A cinematographer (from cinema photographer) is one photographing with a motion picture camera. ...


Foreign productions

Kieślowski's last four films were foreign co-productions, made mainly with money from France and in particular producer Marin Karmitz. These focused on moral and metaphysical issues along similar lines to The Decalogue and Blind Chance but on a more abstract level, with smaller casts, more internal stories, and less interest in communities. Poland appeared in these films mostly through the eyes of European outsiders. The four films were his most commercially successful by some distance. Marin Karmitz (born on October 7, 1938 in Bucharest, Romania) is a French movie director, producer, and executive producer. ...


The first of these was La double vie de Véronique (The Double Life of Véronique) (1990), starring Irene Jacob. The relative commercial success of this film allowed Kieślowski the opportunity to raise the funding for his amibitious final films, the trilogy Three Colors (Blue, White, Red), his most acclaimed works next to The Decalogue and his first international commercial successes. La Double vie de Véronique (The Double Life of Véronique; Polish title, Podwójne życie Weroniki) is a 1991 French- and Polish-language film directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski, co-written by Kieślowski and Krzysztof Piesiewicz, starring Irène Jacob, with music by Zbigniew Preisner. ... Irène Marie Jacob (born July 15, 1966) is a French-born Swiss actress. ... Three Colors is the collective title of three films directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski, two made in French and one primarily in Polish: Trois couleurs: Bleu (Blue) (1993), Trzy kolory: Biały (White) (1994), and Trois couleurs: Rouge (Red) (1994). ... Blue is the English language title of the 1993 French language film, Trois Couleurs: Bleu (available with English subtitles). ... White is the English language title of the 1993 French- and Polish-language film, Trois couleurs: Blanc or Trzy kolory: Biały (available with English subtitles). ... Red is the English language title of the 1994 French language film, Trois Couleurs: Rouge (available with English subtitles). ...


Death and legacy

Krzysztof Kieślowski died on March 13, 1996 during open-heart surgery following a heart attack, and was interred in Powazki Cemetery, Warsaw, Poland. Situation of his grave: on entering by the main entrance turn right and you will see his grave a short distance in, off the path to the right (very close to the perimeter wall). The grave has a sculpture of the thumb and forefingers of two hands forming an oblong—the classic view as if through a movie camera. March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Powazki Cemetery Powązki Cemetery (Polish Cmentarz powązkowski) is the oldest and most famous cemetery in Warsaw, Poland, which is situated in the western part of the city. ...


The small sculpture is in black marble on a pedestal slightly over a meter tall. The slab with Kieślowski's name and dates lies below.


Years after his death, he remains one of Europe's most influential directors, his works the study of film classes at universities throughout the world. The 1993 book Kieślowski on Kieślowski describes his life and work in his own words, based on interviews by Danusia Stok. He is also the subject of a biographical film, Krzysztof Kieślowski: I'm So-So (1995), directed by Krzysztof Wierzbicki. 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Though he had claimed to be retiring after Three Colors, at the time of his death Kieślowski was working on a new trilogy co-written with Piesiewicz, consisting of Heaven, Hell, and Purgatory and inspired by Dante's La commedia. As was originally intended for the Decalogue, the scripts were ostensibly intended to be given to other directors for filming, but Kieślowski's untimely death means it is unknown whether he might have broken his self-imposed retirement to direct the trilogy himself. The only completed screenplay, Heaven, was filmed by Tom Tykwer and released in 2002 at the Toronto International Film Festival. The other two scripts existed only as thirty-page treatments at the time of Kieślowski's death; Piesiewicz has since completed these screenplays, with Hell - directed by Bosnian director Danis Tanovic and starring Emmanuelle Beart - being released in 2005. Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... Categories: 2002 films | Drama films | German films | Thriller films | Movie stubs ... Tom Tykwer (born May 23, 1965) is a German film director. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF) is generally considered to be one of the five top film festivals in the world. ... Missing image Danis Tanović Danis Tanović (b. ... Emmanuelle Béart (born August 14, 1965) is a French actress. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


The Polish actor-director Jerzy Stuhr, who starred in several Kieślowski films and co-wrote the script for Camera Buff, filmed his own adaptation of an unfilmed Kieślowski script as Big Animal (Duze zwierze) in 2002. Jerzy Stuhr (born April 18th 1947 in Cracow) is one of the most popular Polish actors. ...


Filmography

Documentaries/short subjects

  • From the City of Łódź (Z miasta Łodzi) (1969)
  • I Was a Soldier (Byłem żołnierzem) (1970)
  • Workers '71: Nothing About Us Without Us (Robotnicy '71: Nic o nas bez nas) (1971)
  • Pedestrian Subway (Przejście podziemne) (1973)
  • First Love (Pierwsza miłość) (1974)
  • Curriculum Vitae (Życiorys) (1975)
  • Hospital (Szpital) (1976)
  • The Calm (Spokój) (1976)
  • I Don't Know (Nie wiem) (1977)
  • From a Night Porter's Point of View (Z punktu widzenia nocnego portiera) (1978)
  • Station (Dworzec) (1981)
  • Short Working Day (Krótki dzień pracy) (1981)

1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1977 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1977 calendar). ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Features

1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dekalog (The Decalogue) (1988) is a Polish film series, originally made as a television miniseries, directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski and co-written by Kieślowski with Krzysztof Piesiewicz, with music by Zbigniew Preisner. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Short Film About Love (Polish: Krótki film o miłości) is an expanded film version of the sixth episode of director Polish language ten-part made-for-television drama, The Decalogue. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... La Double vie de Véronique (The Double Life of Véronique; Polish title, Podwójne życie Weroniki) is a 1991 French- and Polish-language film directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski, co-written by Kieślowski and Krzysztof Piesiewicz, starring Irène Jacob, with music by Zbigniew Preisner. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Blue is the English language title of the 1993 French language film, Trois Couleurs: Bleu (available with English subtitles). ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... White is the English language title of the 1993 French- and Polish-language film, Trois couleurs: Blanc or Trzy kolory: Biały (available with English subtitles). ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Red is the English language title of the 1994 French language film, Trois Couleurs: Rouge (available with English subtitles). ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...

References

  • Amiel, Vincent. (1995). Kieslowski. Paris: Editions Payot and Rivages. ISBN 2869309929
  • Andrew, Geoff. (1998). The Three Colours trilogy. London: BFI Publishing. ISBN 0851705693
  • Attolini, Vito. (1998). Krzysztof Kieslowski. Taranto: Barbieri. ISBN 8886187343
  • Bleeckere, Sylvian de. (1994). Levenswaarden en levensverhalen: een studie van de decaloog van Kieslowski. Leuven: Acco. ISBN 9033428520
  • Campan, Veronique. (1993). Dix breves histoires d'image: le Decalogue de Krzysztof Kieslowski. Paris: Presses de la Sorbonne nouvelle. ISBN 2878540417
  • Coates, Paul. (1999). Lucid Dreams: The Films of Krzysztof Kieslowski. Wiltshire: Flicks Books. ISBN 0948911638
  • Dalla Rosa, Richard. (2003). La fascination des doubles: selon La double vie de Veronique de Krzysztof Kieslowski. Sarreguemines: Edition Pierron. ISBN 2708503073
  • Dzieko'nska, El'zbieta. (2002). The best of all worlds: public, personal and inner realms in the films of Krzysztof Kieślowski. London: University of London (PhD Thesis).
  • Enser, Martha. (1995). Krzysztof Kieslowski: das Gesamtwerk. Wien: Universtat Diplomarbeit.
  • Erbstein, Monika. Untersuchungen zur Filmsprache im Werk von Kryzstof Kieslowski. Alfeld: Coppi Verlag. ISBN 3930258579
  • Esteve, Michel, ed. (1994). Krzysztof Kieslowski. Paris: Lettres Modernes. ISBN 2256909344
  • Franca, Andrea. (1996). Cinema em azul, branco e vermelo: a trilogia de Kieslowski. Rio de Janerio: Sette Letras. ISBN 8585625511
  • Fritz, Heiko. (2004). Was von der DDR bleibt oder die produzierte Geschichte mit einem Blick auf das filmwerk von Krzysztof Kieslowski. Oldenberg: Igel Verlag. ISBN 3896211781
  • Furdal, Malgorzata, ed. (2001). Remembering Krzysztof: il cinema di Kieslowski. Udine: Centro espressioni cinematografiche; Pordenone: Cinemazero.
  • Furdal, Malgorzata, Turigliatto, Roberto, eds. (1989). Kieslowski. Torino: Museo nazionale del cinema.
  • Garbowski, Christopher. (1996). Krzysztof Kieslowski's Decalogue series: the problem of the protagonists and their self-transcendence. Boulder: East European Monographs. ISBN 0880333499
  • Haltof, Marek. (2004). The cinema of Krzysztof Kieslowski: variations on destiny and chance. London: Wallflower Press. ISBN 1903364922 (hbk) ISBN 1903364914 (pbk)
  • Insdorf, A. (2002). Double lives, second chances: the cinema of Krzysztof Kieslowski. New York: Hyperion Miramax Books. ISBN 0786884746
  • Jazdon, Mikolaj. (2002). Dokumenty Kieślowskiego. Pozna'n: Wydawnictwo Pozna'nskie. ISBN 8371770227
  • Kickasola, Joe. (2004). The films of Krzysztof Kieslowski. London: Continuum. ISBN 082641558X (hbk) ISBN 0826415598 (pbk)
  • Kieślowski, Krzysztof. (1998). Przypadek i inne teksty. Krak'ow: Znak. ISBN 8370067026
  • Kieślowski, Krzystof. Piesiewicz, Krzystof. (1999). Raj, czy'sciec, pieklo: [three novels in one case]. Warsaw: Skorpion. ISBN 8386466308 (vol 1) ISBN 8386466316 (vol 2) ISBN 8386466324 (vol 3)
  • Kieslowski, Krzystof. Piesiewicz, Krzystof. (1991). The decalogue: the ten commandments [screenplays]. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571144985
  • Kieslowski, Krzystof. Piesiewicz, Krzystof. (1998). Three colours trilogy [screenplays]. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571178928
  • Lagorio, Gina. (1992). Il decalogo di Kieslowski: ricreazione narritiva. Casale Monferrato: Piemme. ISBN 8838416346
  • Lesch, Walter. Loretan, Matthias, et al. (1993). Das Gewicht der Gebote und die Moglichkeiten der Kunst: Krzysztof Kieślowskis Dekalog Filme als ethische Modelle. Freiburg, Schweis: Universitatsverlag; Freiburg: Herder. ISBN 3727809108 (Univerlag) ISBN 3451232758 (Herder)
  • Lubelski, Tadeusz, ed. (1997). Kino Krzysztofa Kieślowskiego. Krak'ow: Universitas. ISBN 8370529267
  • Murri, Serafino. (1996). Krzysztof Kieslowski. Milan: Il Castoro. ISBN 8880330616
  • Rimini, Stefania. (2000). L'etica dello sguardo : introduzione al cinema di Krzysztof Kieslowski. Napoli: Liguori. ISBN 8820729962
  • Ripa di Meana, Gabriella. (1998). La morale dell'altro: scritti sull'inconscio dal Decalogo di Kieslowski. Firenze: Liberal libri. ISBN 8882700097
  • Rodriguez Chico, Julio. (2004). Azul, Blanco, Rojo : Kieslowski en busca de la libertad y el amor. Madrid: Ediciones Internacionales Universitarias. ISBN 848469111X
  • Simonigh, Chiara. (2000). La danza dei miseri destini: il Decalogo di Krzyzstof Kieślowski. Torino: Testo and immagine. ISBN 888649890X
  • Spadaro, Antonio. (1999). Lo sguardo presente : una lettura teologica di "Breve film sull'amore" di K. Kieslowski. Rimini: Guaraldi. ISBN 8880491660
  • Stok, Danusia, ed. (1993). Kieślowski on Kieślowski. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0571173284
  • Termine, Laborio. (2002). Immagine e rappresentazione. Torino: Testo and immagine. ISBN 8883820819
  • Wach, Margarete. (2000). Krzysztof Kieslowski: kino der moralischen Unruhe. Koln: KIM; Marburg: Schuren. ISBN 3934311067 (KIM) ISBN 3894723602 (Schuren)
  • Wilson, Emma. (2000). Memory and survival: the French cinema of Krzysztof Kieślowski. Oxford: Legenda. ISBN 1900755270
  • Wizner, Dariusz. (2002). Stile cinematografico di Krzysztof Kieslowski. Roma: Universita Pontificia Salesiana. Thesis.
  • Wollermann, Tobias. (2002). Zur musik in der Drei Farben: triologie von Krzysztof Kieslowski. Osnabruk: Epos Musik. ISBN 3923486383
  • Zawiśli'nski, Stanislaw, ed. (1996). Kieślowski: album pod redakcja Stanislawa Zawiśli'nskiego; teksty [by] Krzysztof Kieślowski ...[et al]. Warsaw: Skorpion. ISBN 8386466111
  • Zizek, Slavoj. (2001). The fright of real tears: Krzysztof Kieślowski between theory and post-theory. London: BFI Publishing. ISBN 0851707556 (hbk) ISBN 0851707548 (pbk)

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Krzysztof Kieślowski - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1775 words)
Krzysztof Kieślowski (June 27, 1941, Warsaw March 13, 1996, Warsaw) was an influential Polish film director and screenwriter, known internationally for his film cycles Three Colors and The Decalogue.
Krzysztof Kieślowski died on March 13, 1996 during open-heart surgery following a heart attack, and was interred in Powązki Cemetery, Warsaw, Poland.
Krzysztof Kieslowski's Decalogue series: the problem of the protagonists and their self-transcendence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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