FACTOID # 7: The top five best educated states are all in the Northeast.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Krypton" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Krypton
36 brominekryptonrubidium
Ar

Kr

Xe
General
Name, Symbol, Number krypton, Kr, 36
Chemical series noble gases
Group, Period, Block 18, 4, p
Appearance colorless
Standard atomic weight 83.798(2) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p6
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 8
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
3.749 g/L
Melting point 115.79 K
(-157.36 °C, -251.25 °F)
Boiling point 119.93 K
(-153.22 °C, -244.12 °F)
Triple point 115.775 K, 73.2 kPa[1]
Critical point 209.41 K, 5.50 MPa
Heat of fusion 1.64 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 9.08 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 20.786 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 59 65 74 84 99 120
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic face centered
Oxidation states 4,[2] 2
Electronegativity 3.00 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 1350.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 2350.4 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3565 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius (calc.) 88 pm
Covalent radius 110 pm
Van der Waals radius 202 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 9.43x10-3  W·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (gas, 23 °C) 220 m/s
Speed of sound (liquid) 1120 m/s
CAS registry number 7439-90-9
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of krypton
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
78Kr 0.35% 2.3×1020 y ε ε - 78Se
79Kr syn 35.04 h ε - 79Br
β+ 0.604 79Br
γ 0.26, 0.39, 0.60 -
80Kr 2.25% 80Kr is stable with 44 neutrons
81Kr syn 2.29×105 y ε - 81Br
γ 0.281 -
82Kr 11.6% 82Kr is stable with 46 neutrons
83Kr 11.5% 83Kr is stable with 47 neutrons
84Kr 57% 84Kr is stable with 48 neutrons
85Kr syn 10.756 y β- 0.687 85Rb
86Kr 17.3% 86Kr is stable with 50 neutrons
References

Krypton (pronounced /ˈkrɪptən/ or /ˈkrɪptɒn/; from Greek: kryptos "hidden") is a chemical element with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It is a member of Group 18 and Period 4. A colorless, odorless, tasteless noble gas, krypton occurs in trace amounts in the atmosphere, is isolated by fractionally distilling liquified air, and is often used with other rare gases in fluorescent lamps. Krypton is inert for most practical purposes, but it is known to form compounds with fluorine. Krypton can also form clathrates with water when atoms of it are trapped in a lattice of the water molecules. Krypton is a chemical element and a noble gas. ... Bromo redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... Krypton table image created for Wikipedia by Schnee on June 26, 2003, 11:21 UTC. Licensed under the terms of the GNU FDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Krypton User:Femto/elements e3 Categories: GFDL images ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The noble gases are a chemical series. ... A period 4 element is one of the chemical elements in the fourth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... The p-block of the periodic table of elements consists of the last six groups. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Krypton sample (gas, doesnt look like much). ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... In physics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance may coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... These tables list the ionization energy in kJ/mol necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom (first energy), respectively from a singly, doubly, etc. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... K value redirects here. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Krypton (Kr) Standard atomic mass: 83. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Double electron capture is a decay mode of atomic nucleus. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Bromo redirects here. ... Positron emission is a type of beta decay, sometimes referred to as beta plus (β+). In beta plus decay, a proton is converted to a neutron via the weak nuclear force and a beta plus particle (a positron) and a neutrino are emitted. ... Bromo redirects here. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... Bromo redirects here. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Krypton 85 is a radioactive synthetic isotope of krypton. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... Air redirects here. ... Fluorescent lamps in Shinbashi, Tokyo, Japan Assorted types of fluorescent lamps. ... In English, to be inert is to be in a state of doing little or nothing. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... A clathrate or clathrate compound is a chemical substance consisting of a Greek klethra, meaning bars (in the sense of a lattice). ...


Krypton, like the other noble gases, can be used in lighting and photography. Krypton light has a large number of spectral lines, and krypton's high light output in plasmas allows it to play an important role in many high-powered gas lasers, which pick out one of the many spectral lines to amplify. There is also a specific krypton fluoride laser. The high power and relative ease of operation of krypton discharge tubes caused (from 1960 to 1983), the official meter (metric distance) to be defined in terms of one orange-red spectral line of krypton-86. The noble gases are a chemical series. ... A krypton fluoride laser (KrF laser) utilizes the small but utilizable chemical property of krypton gas and the strong oxidizing power of fluorine gas to produce laser between the two with the stimulation of a strong electron energy input. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ...

Contents

Physical properties

A krypton filled discharge tube in the shape of the element's atomic symbol.
A krypton filled discharge tube in the shape of the element's atomic symbol.

Krypton is characterized by a brilliant green and orange spectral signature. It is one of the products of uranium fission.[3] Solidified krypton is white and crystalline with a face-centered cubic crystal structure, which is a common property of all noble gases. The original name of krypton is "Hidden One." The melting point of krypton is -157.2 degrees Celsius, and its boiling point is -153.4 degrees Celsius. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 130 KB) Summary Image of a krypton filled discharge tube shaped like the elements atomic symbol. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 130 KB) Summary Image of a krypton filled discharge tube shaped like the elements atomic symbol. ... For other uses, see Green (disambiguation). ... The orange, the fruit from which the modern name of the orange colour comes. ... Spectral signatures are the specific combination of reflected and absorbed electromagnetic (EM) radiation at varying wavelengths which can uniquely identify an object. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... This box:      For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system (or isometric crystal system) is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ...


History

Krypton (Greek κρυπτόν, kryptos meaning "hidden") was discovered in Great Britain in 1898 by Sir William Ramsay and Morris Travers in residue left from evaporating nearly all components of liquid air[4]. William Ramsay was awarded the 1904 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovery of a series of noble gases, including krypton. Sir William Ramsay (October 2, 1852 – July 23, 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 (along with Lord Rayleigh who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for the discovery of argon). ... Morris Travers (1872-1961) was an English chemist who discovered xenon with Sir William Ramsay. ... This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to 2006. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...


Metric role

In 1960, an international agreement defined the Meter in terms of wavelength of light emitted by the krypton-86 isotope. This agreement replaced the longstanding standard meter located in Paris, which was a metal bar made of a platinum-iridium alloy (the bar was originally estimated to be one ten-millionth of a quadrant of the earth's polar circumference), and was itself replaced by a definition based on the speed of light — a fundamental physical constant. In October 1983, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (International Bureau of Weights and Measures) defined the meter as the distance that light travels in a vacuum during 1/299,792,458 s.[5] For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (International Bureau of Weights and Measures, or BIPM) is a standards organization, one of the three organizations established to maintain the SI system under the terms of the Metre Convention. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Occurrence

The earth has retained all of the noble gases that were present at its formation except for helium. Helium molecules are light and move fast enough to eventually escape the earth's gravity.[6] Krypton's concentration in the atmosphere is about 1 ppm. It can be extracted from liquid air by fractional distillation.[7] The amount of krypton in space is uncertain, as is the amount is derived from the meteoritic activity and that from solar winds. The first measurements suggest an overabundance of krypton in space.[8] General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... Air redirects here. ... Parts per million (ppm) is a measure of concentration that is used where low levels of concentration are significant. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ...


Compounds

Like the other noble gases, krypton is chemically unreactive. However, following the first successful synthesis of xenon compounds in 1962, synthesis of krypton difluoride was reported in 1963.[9] There are unverified reports of other fluorides and a salt of a krypton oxoacid. ArKr+ and KrH+ molecule-ions have been investigated and there is evidence for KrXe or KrXe+.[10] General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... Krypton difluoride, KrF2, was the first compound of krypton discovered. ... This article is about common table salt. ... An oxoacid is an acid which contains oxygen. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... This article is about the electrically charged particle. ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ...


At the University of Helsinki in Finland, HKrCN and HKrCCH (krypton hydride-cyanide and hydrokryptoacetylene) were synthesized and determined to be stable up to 40K (M. Räsänen et al.).[9] University of Helsinki is not to be confused with Helsinki University of Technology. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ...


If the kryptonite found in Superman stories followed the naming conventions of chemical compounds, it would be an oxyanion of krypton. Krypton cannot form an oxyanion. This article is about the fictional substance. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... Look up chemical compound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Definition An oxyanion is a polyatomic ion with a negative charge that contains oxygen. ...


Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of krypton

There are 31 known isotopes of krypton.[11] Naturally occurring krypton is made of five stable and one slightly radioactive isotope. Its spectral signature can be produced with some very sharp lines. 81Kr, the product of atmospheric reactions is produced with the other naturally occurring isotopes of krypton. Being radioactive it has a half-life of 230,000 years. Krypton is highly volatile when it is near surface waters but 81Kr has been used for dating old (50,000 - 800,000 year) groundwater.[12] Krypton (Kr) Standard atomic mass: 83. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ...


85Kr is an inert radioactive noble gas with a half-life of 10.76 years. It is produced by the fission of uranium and plutonium, such as in nuclear bomb testing and nuclear reactors. 85Kr is released during the reprocessing of fuel rods from nuclear reactors. Concentrations at the North Pole are 30% higher than at the South Pole as most nuclear reactors are in the northern hemisphere.[13] Krypton 85 is a radioactive synthetic isotope of krypton. ... For the generation of electrical power by fission, see Nuclear power plant. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ...


Applications

Krypton's multiple emission lines make ionized krypton gas discharges appear whitish, which in turn makes krypton-based bulbs useful in photography as a brilliant white light source. Krypton is thus used in some types of photographic flashes used in high speed photography. Krypton gas is also combined with other gases to make luminous signs that glow with a bright greenish-yellow light.[14] Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...


Krypton is mixed with argon as the fill gas of energy saving fluorescent lamps. This reduces their operating voltage and power consumption. Unfortunately it also reduces their light output and raises their cost.[15] Krypton costs 100 times as much as argon. It is also used to fill incandescent lamps to reduce filament evaporation and allow higher operating temperatures to be used for the filament.[16] A brighter light results which contains more blue than conventional lamps.


Krypton's white discharge is often used to good effect in colored gas discharge tubes, which are then simply painted or stained in other ways to allow the desired color (for example, "neon" type advertising signs where the letters appear in differing colors, are often entirely krypton-based). Krypton is also capable of much higher light power density than neon in the red spectral line region, and for this reason, red lasers for high power laser light shows are often krypton lasers with mirrors which select out the red spectral line for laser amplification and emission, rather than the more familiar helium-neon variety, which could never practically achieve the multi-watt red laser light outputs needed for this application.[17] For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ...


Krypton has an important role in production and usage of the krypton fluoride laser. The laser has been important in the nuclear fusion energy research community in confinement experiments. The laser has high beam uniformity, short wavelength, and the ability to modify the spot size to track an imploding pellet.[18] A krypton fluoride laser (KrF laser) utilizes the small but utilizable chemical property of krypton gas and the strong oxidizing power of fluorine gas to produce laser between the two with the stimulation of a strong electron energy input. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wavelength (disambiguation). ...


In experimental particle physics, liquid krypton is used to construct quasi-homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeters. A notable example is the calorimeter of the NA48 experiment at CERN containing about 27 tons of liquid krypton. This usage is rare, since the cheaper liquid argon is typically used. The advantage of krypton over agron is a small Molière radius of 4.7cm, which allows for excellent spatial resolution and low degree of overlapping. The other parameters relevant for calorimetry application are: radiation length of X0 = 4.7cm, density of 2.4g/cm³. Thousands of particles explode from the collision point of two relativistic (100 GeV per nucleon) gold ions in the STAR detector of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. ... In particle physics, a calorimeter is an experimental apparatus that measures the energy of particles. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... The Molière radius is a characteristic constant of a material giving the scale of the transverse dimension of the fully contained electromagnetic showers initiated by an incident high energy electron or gamma quantum. ... Radiation Length , High-energy electrons predominantly lose energy in matter by bremsstrahlung, and high-energy photons by pair production. ...


The sealed spark gap assemblies contained in ignition excitors used in some older Turbine/Jet engines contain a very small amount of Krypton 85 in order to obtain consistent ionization levels and uniform operation. The amount of radiation from the average gap is approximatley the same as that of a radium-dialed wrist watch but should be handled carefully.


References

  1. ^ (2005) "Section 4, Properties of the Elements and Inorganic Compounds; Melting, boiling, triple, and critical temperatures of the elements", CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th edition, Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. 
  2. ^ Krypton: krypton(IV) fluoride compound data. Books.Google.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-10.
  3. ^ Krypton (English) 1. Argonne National Laboratory, EVS (08 2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  4. ^ William Ramsay, Morris W. Travers (1898). "On a New Constituent of Atmospheric Air". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 63: 405-408. 
  5. ^ Gibbs, Philip (1997). How is the speed of light measured? (English). Department of Mathematics, University of California. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  6. ^ Escape of Gases from the Atmosphere
  7. ^ How Products are Made: Krypton. Retrieved on 2006-07-02.
  8. ^ Cardelli, Jason A.; Meyer, David M. (18). The Abundance of Interstellar Krypton (English) 1-4. The American Astronomical Society. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  9. ^ a b Bartlett, Neil (2003). The Noble Gases (English). Chemical & Engineering News. Retrieved on 2006-07-02.
  10. ^ Periodic Table of the Elements (English) 100-101. Los Alamos National Laboratory's Chemistry Division. Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  11. ^ Isotopes of Krypton. Nuclear Science Division. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  12. ^ Thonnard, Norbert; Larry D. MeKay, Theodore C. Labotka (31). Development of Laser-Based Resonance Ionization Techniques for 81-Kr and 85-Kr Measurements in the Geosciences (English) 4-7. University of Tennessee, Institute for Rare Isotope Measurements. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  13. ^ Resources on Isotopes. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  14. ^ Mercury in Lighting. Cape Cod Cooperative Extension. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  15. ^ "Energy-saving" lamps
  16. ^ Properties, Applications and Uses of the "Rare Gases" Neon, Krypton and Xenon
  17. ^ Laser Devices, Laser Shows and Effect (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-04-05.
  18. ^ Sethian, J.; M. Friedman, M.Myers. Krypton Fluoride Laser Development for Inertial Fusion Energy (English) 1-8. Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir William Ramsay (October 2, 1852 – July 23, 1916) was a Scottish chemist who discovered the noble gases and received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 (along with Lord Rayleigh who received the Nobel Prize in Physics that same year for the discovery of argon). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are several different processes that can lead to the escape of a planetary atmosphere. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Los Alamos National Laboratory - Krypton
  • "Chemical Elements: From Carbon to Krypton" By: David Newton & Lawrence W. Baker
  • "Krypton 85: a Review of the Literature and an Analysis of Radiation Hazards" By: William P. Kirk

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Look up krypton in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Boron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Distinguished from fluorene and fluorone. ... For other uses, see Neon (disambiguation). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Aluminum redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, symbol, number argon, Ar, 18 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 3, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 39. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number scandium, Sc, 21 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 3, 4, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 44. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Not to be confused with Galium. ... General Name, Symbol, Number germanium, Ge, 32 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 14, 4, p Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 72. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... For other uses, see Selenium (disambiguation). ... Bromo redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rubidium, Rb, 37 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 5, s Appearance grey white Standard atomic weight 85. ... General Name, Symbol, Number strontium, Sr, 38 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 5, s Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 87. ... General Name, Symbol, Number yttrium, Y, 39 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 3, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 88. ... General Name, Symbol, Number zirconium, Zr, 40 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 5, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 91. ... General Name, Symbol, Number niobium, Nb, 41 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 92. ... General Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d Appearance gray metallic Standard atomic weight 95. ... General Name, Symbol, Number technetium, Tc, 43 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metal Standard atomic weight [98](0) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Ruthenium, Ru, 44 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 101. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... For other uses, see Palladium (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... General Name, Symbol, Number indium, In, 49 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 114. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tellurium, Te, 52 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 5, p Appearance silvery lustrous gray Standard atomic weight 127. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number xenon, Xe, 54 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 5, p Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 131. ... General Name, Symbol, Number caesium, Cs, 55 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 6, s Appearance silvery gold Standard atomic weight 132. ... For other uses, see Barium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number lanthanum, La, 57 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block 3, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 138. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number praseodymium, Pr, 59 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 140. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neodymium, Nd, 60 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white, yellowish tinge Standard atomic weight 144. ... General Name, Symbol, Number promethium, Pm, 61 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance metallic Atomic mass [145](0) g/mol Electron configuration [Xe] 4f5 6s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 23, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number samarium, Sm, 62 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 150. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gadolinium, Gd, 64 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 157. ... General Name, Symbol, Number terbium, Tb, 65 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 158. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dysprosium, Dy, 66 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 162. ... General Name, Symbol, Number holmium, Ho, 67 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 164. ... General Name, Symbol, Number erbium, Er, 68 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 167. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thulium, Tm, 69 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block ?, 6, f Appearance silvery gray Atomic mass 168. ... Yb redirects here; for the unit of information see Yottabit General Name, Symbol, Number ytterbium, Yb, 70 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 173. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lutetium, Lu, 71 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, d Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 174. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hafnium, Hf, 72 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 6, d Appearance grey steel Standard atomic weight 178. ... General Name, Symbol, Number tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 6, d Appearance gray blue Standard atomic weight 180. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhenium, Re, 75 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 186. ... General Name, Symbol, Number osmium, Os, 76 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 6, d Appearance silvery, blue cast Standard atomic weight 190. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thallium, Tl, 81 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 6, p Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 204. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous pink Standard atomic weight 208. ... General Name, Symbol, Number polonium, Po, 84 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 16, 6, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (209) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p4 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number astatine, At, 85 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 6, p Appearance metallic (presumed) Standard atomic weight (210) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 7 Physical properties Phase solid Melting point 575 K... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number francium, Fr, 87 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 7, s Appearance metallic Standard atomic weight (223) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 7s1 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 8, 1 Physical properties Phase  ? solid Density (near r. ... For other uses, see Radium (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number actinium, Ac, 89 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block 3, 7, f Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight (227) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number protactinium, Pa, 91 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance bright, silvery metallic luster Standard atomic weight 231. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number neptunium, Np, 93 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight (237) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number americium, Am, 95 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white sometimes yellow Standard atomic weight (243) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near... General Name, Symbol, Number curium, Cm, 96 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block ?, 7, f Appearance silvery Atomic mass (247) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 25, 9, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number berkelium, Bk, 97 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (247) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f9 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 27, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number californium, Cf, 98 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (251) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f10 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 28, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... General Name, Symbol, Number fermium, Fm, 100 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (257) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f12 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 30, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number mendelevium, Md, 101 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (258) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f13 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 31, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid... General Name, Symbol, Number nobelium, No, 102 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (259) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Melting... General Name, Symbol, Number lawrencium, Lr, 103 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight [262] g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d1 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 9, 2 Physical... General Name, Symbol, Number rutherfordium, Rf, 104 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 4, 7, d Standard atomic weight (265) g·mol−1 Electron configuration probably [Rn] 5f14 6d2 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 10, 2 Physical properties Phase presumably a solid Density (near r. ... General Name, Symbol, Number dubnium, Db, 105 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 5, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (262) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d3 7s2 (guess based on tantalum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 11... General Name, Symbol, Number seaborgium, Sg, 106 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (266) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d4 7s2 (guess based on tungsten) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 12... General Name, Symbol, Number bohrium, Bh, 107 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (264) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d5 7s2 (guess based on rhenium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 13... General Name, Symbol, Number hassium, Hs, 108 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (269) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d6 7s2 (guess based on osmium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14... General Name, Symbol, Number meitnerium, Mt, 109 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (268) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (guess based on iridium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number darmstadtium, Ds, 110 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (281) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d9 7s1 (guess based on platinum) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 17... General Name, Symbol, Number roentgenium, Rg, 111 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably yellow or orange metallic Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s1 (guess based on gold) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 1... General Name, Symbol, Number ununbium, Uub, 112 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 7, d Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray liquid Atomic mass (285) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (guess based on mercury) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununtrium, Uut, 113 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (284) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1 (guess based on thallium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununquadium, Uuq, 114 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (298) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p2 (guess based on lead) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununpentium, Uup, 115 Group, Period, Block 15, 7, p Atomic mass (299) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p3 (guess based on bismuth) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 5 CAS registry number 54085-64-2 Selected isotopes References... General Name, Symbol, Number ununhexium, Uuh, 116 Chemical series presumably poor metals Group, Period, Block 16, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Atomic mass (302) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p4 (guess based on polonium) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununseptium, Uus, 117 Chemical series presumably halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably dark metallic Standard atomic weight predicted, (310) g·mol−1 Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p5 (guess based on astatine) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32... General Name, Symbol, Number ununoctium, Uuo, 118 Chemical series noble gases Group, Period, Block 18, 7, p Appearance unknown, probably colorless Atomic mass predicted, (314) g/mol Electron configuration perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6 (guess based on radon) Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 8 Phase... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... The alkaline earth metals are a series of elements comprising Group 2 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). ... The lanthanide (or lanthanoid) series comprises the 15 elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium[1]. All lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell, except for lutetium which is a d-block lanthanide. ... The actinide (or actinoid) series encompasses the 15 chemical elements that lie between actinium and lawrencium on the periodic table, with atomic numbers 89 - 103[1]. The actinide series derives its name from the first element in the series, actinium. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... Metalloid is a term used in chemistry when classifying the chemical elements. ... Together with the metals and metalloids, a nonmetal is one of three categories of chemical elements as distinguished by ionization and bonding properties. ... This article is about the chemical series. ... This article is about the chemical series. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chemistry : Periodic Table : krypton : key information (253 words)
Krypton is present in the air at about 1 ppm.
Solid krypton is a white crystalline substance with a face-centered cubic structure which is common to all the "rare gases".
Krypton is present to a small extent (about 1 ppm by volume) in the atmosphere and is obtained as a byproduct from the liquefaction and separation of air.
It's Elemental - The Element Krypton (179 words)
Krypton is used in some types of photographic flashes used in high speed photography.
Krypton gas is also combined with other gases to make luminous signs that glow with a greenish-yellow light.
In 1960, the length of the meter was defined in terms of the orange-red spectral line of krypton-86, an isotope of krypton.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m