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Encyclopedia > Kronstadt rebellion
Kronstadt Rebellion
Part of Kronstadt Rebellion
Date March, 1921
Location Kronstadt, Kotlin Island, Russia
Result Rebellion defeated
Bolshevik victory
Casus
belli
Anger over War communism economic policy
Combatants
Soviet Sailors Red Army
Commanders
Stepan Petrichenko Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky
Strength
c. 10,000 c. 50,000
Casualties
Thousands killed in battle and executions that followed Over 10,000

The Kronstadt rebellion was an unsuccessful uprising of Soviet sailors, led by Stepan Petrichenko, against the government of the early Russian SFSR. It proved to be the last major rebellion against Bolshevik rule. March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), or Kronshtadt, Cronstadt, is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at , . It lies thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg, of which it is the chief port. ... Kotlin (or Kettle; Finn. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... War communism or wartime communism (1917-1921) was the harsh economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with an aim to keep towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food in the conditions when all normal economical mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by... The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Stepan Petrichenko was the leader of the revolution comiteé appointed which led to the Kronstadt Rebellion of 1921. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский, Polish: MichaÅ‚ Tuchaczewski) (February 16, 1893 [O.S. February 4] – June 12, 1937), Soviet military commander, was one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... Stepan Petrichenko was the leader of the revolution comiteé appointed which led to the Kronstadt Rebellion of 1921. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ...


The rebellion took place in the first weeks of March, 1921 in Kronstadt, a naval fortress on Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland. Traditionally, Kronstadt has served as the base of the Russian Baltic Fleet and as a guardpost for the approaches to Saint Petersburg, 35 miles away. Saint Petersburg was named Petrograd from 1914 to 1924 (and therefore during the rebellion), and then Leningrad until 1991 when its original name was restored. Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), or Kronshtadt, Cronstadt, is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at , . It lies thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg, of which it is the chief port. ... Kotlin (or Kettle; Finn. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and...

Contents

Causes of the rebellion

Red Army troops attack Kronstadt
Red Army troops attack Kronstadt

At the end of the Civil War, Bolshevik Russia was exhausted and ruined. The droughts of 1920 and 1921 and the frightful famine during the latter year added the final chapter to the disaster. In the years following the October Revolution, epidemics, starvation, fighting, executions, and the general economic and societal breakdown had taken some twenty million lives. Another million persons had left Russia - with General Wrangel, through the Far East, or in numerous other ways - in order to escape the ravages of the war or to escape one or more of the warring factions. A large proportion of the emigres were educated and skilled. Red Army troops attacking Kronstadt, March, 1921. ... Red Army troops attacking Kronstadt, March, 1921. ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1920. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Red October redirects here. ... Baron Wrangel At a prayer vigil upon accepting command. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ...


The economic policy War communism assisted the Soviet government in achieving victories in the Russian Civil War, but it damaged the nation's economy. With private industry and trade proscribed and the newly-constructed state unable to adequately perform these functions, much of the Russian economy ground to a standstill. It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories fell in 1921 to 20% of the pre-World War I level, with many crucial items experiencing an even more drastic decline. Production of cotton, for example, fell to 5%, and iron to 2%, of the prewar level. The peasants responded to requisitioning by refusing to till their land. By 1921 cultivated land had shrunk to some 62% of the prewar area, and the harvest yield was only 37% of normal. The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920, and cattle fell from 58 to 37 million during the same span. The exchange rate of the US dollar, which had been two rubles in 1914, rose to 1,200 in 1920. Economic policy refers to the actions that governments take in the economic field. ... War communism or wartime communism (1917-1921) was the harsh economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with an aim to keep towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food in the conditions when all normal economical mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 10. ...


This situation led to uprisings in the countryside, such as the Tambov rebellion, and to strikes and violent unrest in the factories. In some urban areas, a wave of spontaneous strikes occurred. The Tambov Rebellion of 1919–1921 was a large peasant rebellion against the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War. ...


Demands are issued

On February 26, delegates from the Kronstadt sailors visited Petrograd to investigate the situation. On February 28, in response to the delegates' report of heavy-handed Bolshevik repression of strikes in Petrograd (claims which might have been inaccurate or exaggerated [1]), the crews of the battleships Petropavlovsk and Sevastopol held an emergency meeting which approved a resolution raising fifteen demands [1]: February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  1. Immediate new elections to the Soviets. The present Soviets no longer express the wishes of the workers and peasants. The new elections should be by secret ballot, and should be preceded by free electoral propaganda.
  2. Freedom of speech and of the press for workers and peasants, for the Anarchists, and for the Left Socialist parties.
  3. The right of assembly, and freedom for trade union and peasant organisations.
  4. The organisation, at the latest on 10th March 1921, of a Conference of non-Party workers, soldiers and sailors of Petrograd, Kronstadt and the Petrograd District.
  5. The liberation of all political prisoners of the Socialist parties, and of all imprisoned workers and peasants, soldiers and sailors belonging to working class and peasant organisations.
  6. The election of a commission to look into the dossiers of all those detained in prisons and concentration camps.
  7. The abolition of all political sections in the armed forces. No political party should have privileges for the propagation of its ideas, or receive State subsidies to this end. In the place of the political sections various cultural groups should be set up, deriving resources from the State.
  8. The immediate abolition of the militia detachments set up between towns and countryside.
  9. The equalisation of rations for all workers, except those engaged in dangerous or unhealthy jobs.
  10. The abolition of Party combat detachments in all military groups. The abolition of Party guards in factories and enterprises. If guards are required, they should be nominated, taking into account the views of the workers.
  11. The granting to the peasants of freedom of action on their own soil, and of the right to own cattle, provided they look after them themselves and do not employ hired labour.
  12. We request that all military units and officer trainee groups associate themselves with this resolution.
  13. We demand that the Press give proper publicity to this resolution.
  14. We demand the institution of mobile workers' control groups.
  15. We demand that handicraft production be authorised provided it does not utilise wage labour.

Of the fifteen demands, only two were related to what Marxists term the "petty-bourgeoisie", the reasonably wealthy peasantry and artisans. These demanded "full freedom of action" for all peasants and artisans who did not hire labour. Like the Petrograd workers, the Kronstadt sailors demanded the equalisation of wages and the end of roadblock detachments which restricted both travel and the ability of workers to bring food into the city. An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anarchism is a political philosophy or group of doctrines and attitudes centered on rejection of any form of compulsory government (cf. ... Group of women holding dick placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that... A Trade Union (Labour union) ... is a continuous association of wage-earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment. ... (Redirected from 10th March) March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Marxism refers to the philosophy and social theory based on Karl Marxs work on one hand, and to the political practice based on Marxist theory on the other hand (namely, parts of the First International during Marxs time, communist parties and later states). ... Petit-bourgeois or Anglicised petty bourgeois is a French term that reffered to the members of the lower middle social-classes. ...


On March 1, a general meeting of the Garrison was held, attended also by Mikhail Kalinin and Commissar of the Baltic Fleet Kuzmin who made speeches for the Government. The general meeting passed a resolution including the 15 demands given above. On March 2 a conference of sailor, soldier and worker organization delegates, after hearing speeches by Kuzmin and Vasiliev, President of the Kronstadt Executive Committee, arrested these two and amid incorrect rumors of immediate attack approved formation of a Provisional Revolutionary Committee [2]. The Government responded with an ultimatum the same day. This asserted that the revolt had "undoubtedly been prepared by French counterintelligence" and that the Petropavlovsk resolution was a "SR-Black Hundred" resolution ,(SR stood for "Social Revolutionaries", a democratic socialist party that had been dominant in the soviets before the return of Lenin, and whose right-wing had refused to support the Bolsheviks; the "Black Hundreds" were a reactionary, indeed proto-fascist, force dating back to before the revolution which attacked Jews, labour militants and radicals, among others). March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... Mikhail Kalinin A 1919 image showing Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Mikhail Kalinin (right) Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Russian: ) (November 19 [O.S. November 7] 1875 – June 3, 1946) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a... The Black Hundred, also known as the black-hundredists (Чёрная сотня, черносотенцы in Russian, or Chernaya sotnya, chernosotentsy) was a Russia in the early 20th century, a supplemental organ of... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ...


Lenin's suspicion of an international conspiracy linked up with the Kronstadt events has been supported by the discovery of a handwritten memorandum preserved in the Columbia University Russian Archive, dated 1921 and marked 'Top Secret.' The document includes remarkably detailed information about the resources, personnel, arms and plans of the Kronstadt rebellion. It also details plans regarding White army and French government support for the Kronstadt sailors' March rebellion. Its title is 'Memorandum on the Question of Organising an Uprising in Kronstadt.'


The memorandum was part of a collection of documents written by an organisation called the National Centre, which originated at the beginning in 1918 as a self identified 'underground organisation formed in Russia for the struggle against the Bolsheviks.' After suffering military defeat and the arrest of many of its central members, the group reconstituted itself in exile by late 1920. General Wrangel, with a trained army of tens of thousands ready and waiting, was their principal military base of support. This memorandum was written between January and early February of 1921 by an agent of the National Centre in Finland.


The revolt is put down

The Petrograd workers were under martial law and could offer little support to Kronstadt.[2] The Bolshevik government began its attack on Kronstadt on March 7.[3] Some 50,000 troops under command of Mikhail Tukhachevsky took part in the attack.[4] Many Red Army units were forced onto the ice at gunpoint and some actually joined the rebellion.[5] On March 17, the Bolshevik forces finally entered the city of Kronstadt after having suffered over 10,000 fatalities.[6] Although there are no reliable figures for the rebels' battle losses, historians estimate that thousands were executed in the days following the revolt, and a like number were jailed, many in the Solovki labor camp.[7] A large number of more fortunate rebels managed to escape to Finland. These people caused the first major refugee problem for the newly-independent state of Finland. Among the refugees was Petrichenko himself, who lived in Finland as a refugee until he was returned to Soviet Union after the Second World War.[8] Official Soviet figures claim approxmiately 1000 rebels were killed, 2000 wounded, 2500 captured, and 8000 defected to Finland, while the Red Army lost 527 killed and 3285 wounded.[9] For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in leap years). ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Russian: Михаил Николаевич Тухачевский, Polish: Michał Tuchaczewski) (February 16, 1893 [O.S. February 4] – June 12, 1937), Soviet military commander, was one of the most prominent victims of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Solovki is located in the Solovetsky Islands, White Sea, Russia. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


The day after the surrender of Kronstadt, the Bolsheviks celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of the Paris Commune. Le Père Duchesne looking at the statue of Napoleon I on top of the Vendome column: Eh ben ! bougre de canaille, on va donc te foutre en bas comme ta crapule de neveu !… (Here! savage rascal, we will put you down just like your crook of a nephew!…) The...


Although Red Army units suppressed the uprising, the general dissatisfaction with the state of affairs could not have been more forcefully expressed. Against this background of discontent, Lenin, who also concluded that world revolution was not imminent, proceeded in the spring of 1921 to replace the War Communism economic policy with his New Economic Policy. Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Anarchist Emma Goldman, who was in St. Petersburg at the time of the rebellion, has criticized Leon Trotsky for his role in the suppression of the rebellion, arguing that this makes his later criticism of Stalin's regime hypocritical.[10] Trotsky, however, responded that Goldman's criticisms were mainly perfunctory, and ignored the differing social composition between the pro-Bolshevik Kronstadt Uprising of 1917 and the mainly "petty bourgeois" Kronstadt Uprising of 1921.[11] Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Emma Goldman Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) aka Red Emma, was a Kaunas, Lithuania-born anarchist known for her writings and speeches. ... Note: This page is very long. ... Hypocrisy is the act of pretending to have beliefs, virtues and feelings that one does not truly possess. ...


Composition of the garrison

Defenders of the Bolshevik policy, such as Abbie Bakan, have claimed that the Kronstadt rebels were not the same sailors as those who had been revolutionary heroes in 1917. [12]


However, Israel Getzler's book Kronstadt, 1917-1921: The Fate of a Soviet Democracy and others (including Evan Mawdsley's and Norman Saul's) present evidence that undermines that claim:

... that the veteran politicized Red sailor still predominated at Kronstadt at the end of 1920 is borne out by the hard statistical data available regarding the crews of the two major battleships, the Petropavlovsk and the Sevastopol, both renowned since 1917 for their revolutionary zeal and Bolshevik allegiance. Of 2,028 sailors whose years of enlistment are known, no less than 1,904 or 93.9% were recruited into the navy before and during the 1917 revolution, the largest group, 1,195, having joined in the years 1914-16. Only some 137 sailors or 6.8% were recruited in the years 1918-21, including three who were conscripted in 1921, and they were the only ones who had not been there during the 1917 revolution. As for the sailors of the Baltic Fleet in general (and that included the Petropavlovsk and Sevastopol), of those serving on 1 January 1921 at least 75.5% are likely to have been drafted into the fleet before 1918. Over 80% were drawn from Great Russian areas (mainly central Russia and the Volga area), some 10% from the Ukraine, and 9% from Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Poland.
...

Nor, as has so often been claimed, did new recruits, some 400 of whom Yasinsky had interviewed, arrive in numbers large enough to dilute or even 'demoralize' Kronstadt's Red sailors. As Evan Mawdsley has found, 'only 1,313 of a planned total of 10,384 recruits had arrived' by 1 December 1920 and even they seem to have been stationed in the barracks of the Second Baltic Crew in Petrograd. (Getzler 2002) The Petropavlovsk (Russian: ) was a Russian battleship of the Gangut Class. ... The Sevastopol (Севастополь) was a Russian Dreadnought battleship of the Gangut class The Sevastopol built by Admiralty Shipyard, St. ... National motto: None Official language Russian (among many others in political subdivisions) Official script Cyrillic alphabet Capital Moscow Largest city Moscow President Vladimir Putin Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st 17,075,200 km² 0. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ...

Tony Cliff, defending Bolshevik policy, states that "the number of industrial workers in Russia, always a minority, fell from 3 million in 1917 to 1,240,000, a decline of 58.7%, in 1921-22. So was there a decline in the agricultural proletariat, from 2,100,000 in 1917, to 34,000 only two years later (a decline of 98.5%). But the number of peasant households (not individuals which is many times greater) had risen with the parcelization of land from 16.5 million in early 1918 to over 25 million households by 1920, an increase of some 50%." (Cliff, vol. 3, p. 143)


By 1921, more than three-quarters of the sailors in the Baltic Fleet stationed at Kronstadt were recent recruits of peasant origin (Avrich, p. 134). But even if the issue of the changing composition of the Kronstadt forces is put aside, the Kronstadt sailors who survived were also influenced by the crisis in the countryside. Petrichenko, a leader of the Kronstadt uprising of March 1921, was himself a Ukrainian peasant. He later acknowledged that many of his fellow mutineers were peasants from the south who were in sympathy with the peasant opposition movement against the Bolsheviks. In the words of Petrichenko: "When we returned home our parents asked us why we fought for the oppressors. That set us thinking." (Lincoln, p. 495)


Further reading

  • Kronstadt, 1917-1921: The Fate of a Soviet Democracy, Israel Getzler ISBN 0-521-89442-5, Cambridge University Press 2002
  • Kronstadt, 1921, Paul Avrich ISBN 0-691-08721-0, Princeton University Press
  • The Russian Revolution and the Baltic Fleet: War and Politics, Evan Mawdsley, London, 1978
  • Sailors in Revolt: The Russian Baltic Fleet in 1917, Norman Saul, Kansas, 1978
  • A History of Russia, N.V. Riasanovsky ISBN 0-19-515394-4, Oxford University Press (USA)
  • The Russian Revolution, W.H.Chamberlin ISBN 0-691-00816-7, Princeton University Press
  • Lenin: A Biography, Robert Service ISBN 0-330-49139-3, Pan
  • Lenin, Tony Cliff, London, 4 vols., 1975-1979
  • Red Victory, W. Bruce Lincoln, New York, 1989
  • Kronstadt, V.I. Lenin and Leon Trotsky, Pathfinder Press, ISBN 0-87348-883-0
  • The Unknown Revolution, Voline, Free Life Editions, New York, 1974
  • The Kronstadt Commune, Ida Mett

Paul Avrich is a professor and historian. ... Robert Service (born 1947) is a historian of Russia. ... Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was... Note: This page is very long. ... Logo of the Pathfinder grouping The Pathfinder tendency is the unofficial name of a group of historically Trotskyist organizations that have now adopted positions of political convergence with the Cuban Communist Party. ... Vsevolod Mikhailovich Eikhenbaum (August 11, 1882 - September 18, 1945), known in later life as Voline (Волин), was a leading Russian anarchist. ...

References

  1. ^ Kronstadt, 1921, Paul Avrich ISBN 0-691-08721-0, Princeton University Press
  2. ^ Orlando Figes, A People's Tradegy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924 (New York: Viking Press 1997), 760.
  3. ^ Figes, 763.
  4. ^ Figes, 767.
  5. ^ Figes, 763.
  6. ^ Figes, 767.
  7. ^ Figes, 767.
  8. ^ Kronstadtin kapina 1921 ja sen perilliset Suomessa (Kronstadt Rebellion 1921 and Its Descendants in Finland) by Erkki Wessmann.
  9. ^ Pukhov, A. S. Kronshtadtskii miatezh v 1921 g. Leningrad, OGIZ-Molodaia Gvardiia.
  10. ^ "Trotsky Protests Too Much" by Emma Goldman
  11. ^ "Hue and Cry Over Kronstadt by Leon Trotsky.
  12. ^ "A Tragic Necessity" by Abbie Bakan

Additional external links


  Results from FactBites:
 
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Kronstadt is a naval base on Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland, about 18 miles west of St Petersburg/Petrograd.
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