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Encyclopedia > Kristallnacht
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Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of the Broken Glass, was a pogrom that occurred throughout Nazi Germany on November 9November 10, 1938. Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On November 7, 1938 a young Jew, by the name of Herschel Grynszpan, enraged by his family's expulsion from Germany, walked into the German Embassy in Paris and fired five shots at a junior diplomat. Three days later, the diplomat was dead and Germany in the grip of skillfully orchestrated anti-Jewish violence. In the early hours of 10 November, an orgy of co-ordinated destruction broke out in cities, towns and villages throughout the Third Reich. A total of 91 Jews were killed in the incident. The consequences of this violence were disastrous for the Jews of the Third Reich. is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ...


Kristallnacht saw the destruction in a single night of more than a thousand Synagogues, the ransacking of tens of thousands of Jewish businesses and homes, and more than 30,000 Jewish men were rounded up and taken to concentration camps.[1] It marked the beginning of the systematic eradication of a people who could trace their ancestry in Germany to Roman times, and served as a prelude for the Holocaust that was to follow. A synagogue (from Greek synagoge place of assembly literally meeting, assembly,) is a Jewish house of prayer and study. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Context

For more details on this topic, see History of the Jews in Germany and Nuremberg Laws.

By the end of the 1920s, most German Jews had been assimilated and were relatively prosperous. They served in the German army and contributed to every field of German science, business and culture. The Nazis were elected to power on January 30, 1933,[2] however Hitler did not gain absolute power until the passing of the Enabling act after the Reichstag fire on March 23rd.[3] By 1938, Jews had been almost completely excluded from German social and political life.[4] Many sought asylum abroad, and thousands did manage to leave, but as Chaim Weizmann wrote in 1936, "The world seemed to be divided into two parts — those places where the Jews could not live and those where they could not enter."[5] German Jews have lived in Germany for over 1700 years, through both periods of tolerance and spasms of antisemitic violence, culminating in the Holocaust and the near-destruction of the Jewish community in Germany and much of Europe. ... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An enabling act is a piece of legislation by which a legislature grants an entity which depends on it for authorization or legitimacy to take a certain action(s). ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ...


Historian Eric Johnson notes that in the year preceding Kristallnacht the Germans “had entered a new radical phase in anti-Semitic activity.”[6] Although controversial, some historians believe that the Nazi government had been contemplating a planned outbreak of violence against the Jews for some time and were waiting for an appropriate provocation; there is evidence of this planning that dates to 1937[7]. The Zionist leadership in Palestine wrote in February 1938 “a very reliable private source – one which can be traced back to the highest echelons of the SS leadership, that there is an intention to carry out a genuine and dramatic pogrom in Germany on a large scale in the near future.”[8]


Timeline of events

Kristallnacht was the result of more than five years and nine months of discrimination and persecution. From its inception in Germany, Hitler's regime moved quickly to introduce anti-Jewish policy. The half a million Jews in Germany, who accounted for only 0.76% of the overall population,[9] were singled out by the Nazi propaganda machine as the enemy within who were responsible for Germany's defeat in 1918 and her subsequent economic difficulties. The prominence of the Jewish people in the scientific and professional life made them the objects of jealousy which the Nazis skilfully exploited.[10] Hitler redirects here. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ...


During 1933 the German government enacted forty-two laws restricting the rights of German Jews to earn a living, to enjoy full citizenship and to educate themselves. The most draconian of these laws, the law "for the reconstruction of the civil service", forbade Jews to work in any branch of the civil service.[11] The pressure against the Jews continued unabated. During 1934, a further nineteen discriminatory laws were introduced. During 1935, the government had enacted a further 29 anti-Jewish laws. The most draconian were the Nuremberg Laws 'for the protection of German blood and honour'. Signed personally by Hitler, these laws prohibited Jews from being citizens of the Reich and forbade marriage between "those of German or related blood" and Jews, Roma (Gypsies), blacks, or their offspring. The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ...


In an attempt to provide help to the Jews affected by these laws an international conference was held on 6 July 1938 on the shores of Lake Geneva. The conference hoped to address the issue of Jewish immigration to other countries. When the conference was held, more than 250,000 Jews had fled Germany and Austria (Austria had been annexed by Germany in March 1938); however, more than 300,000 German and Austrian Jews were seeking shelter from the oppression. As the number of Jews wanting to leave grew, the restrictions against them also grew with many countries tightening their rule for admission. The Evian Conference was convened at the initiative of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt in July, 1938 to discuss the problem of Jewish refugees. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lake Geneva or Lake Léman (French Lac Léman, le Léman, or Lac de Genève) is the second largest freshwater lake in Central Europe (after Lake Balaton). ... German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938. ...


Expulsion of Jews from Germany

1938 Jews arrested during Kristallnacht line up for roll call at Buchenwald
1938 Jews arrested during Kristallnacht line up for roll call at Buchenwald

On 18 October 1938, on Hitler's orders, more than 12,000 Jews were expelled from Germany. They were Polish-born Jews who had been living in Germany, legally, for many years. They were ordered to leave their homes in a single night, and were only allowed one suitcase per person to store their belongings. As the Jews were taken away, all of their remaining possessions were seized as booty by both the Nazi authorities and by their neighbours. Image File history File links 1938_Jews_arrested_during_Kristallnacht_line_up_for_roll_call_at_Buchenwald. ... Image File history File links 1938_Jews_arrested_during_Kristallnacht_line_up_for_roll_call_at_Buchenwald. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


The deportees were taken from their homes to the nearest railway stations, where they were put on trains to the Polish border. Four thousand were granted entry into Poland; however, the remaining 8,000 were forced to stay at the border. There, in harsh conditions, they waited for the Polish government to allow them into the country. Hundreds more, one British newspaper told its readers, 'are reported to be lying about, penniless and deserted, in little villages along the frontier near where they had been driven out by the Gestapo and left'.[12] Poland is a republican representative democracy under a parliamentary system. ...


Killing of Vom Rath

One expelled couple, who had been living in Hanover for more than 27 years, had a seventeen-year-old son, Herschel Grynszpan, living in Paris. From the border his sister Berta sent him a postcard describing their expulsion: "No one told us what was up, but we realised this was going to be the end." Her final appeal: "We haven't a penny. Could you send us something…?"[13] , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Police Photo of Herschel Grynszpan, 1938 Herschel Feibel Grynszpan (sometimes spelled in the German form Grünspan) (born March 28, 1921, died between 1943 and 1945), political assassin and victim of the Holocaust, was born in Hanover, Germany, of Polish-Jewish parents. ... For the computer diagnostic tool, see POST card. ...


Grynszpan received his sister's short message on November 3. The next day he read a graphic account of the deportations in a Paris Yiddish newspaper, which reported a number of instances of insanity and suicide among the expellees. Grynszpan was outraged. On the morning on Sunday, November 6 he bought a pistol, loaded it with 5 bullets, and on the following day went to the German embassy where, "in the name of 12,000 persecuted Jews," he shot Ernst vom Rath, fatally wounding him.[14] is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ernst Eduard vom Rath (June 3, 1909–November 9, 1938) was a German diplomat. ...


Initial response to the shooting

On November 8, the first collective punitive measures were announced. All Jewish newspapers and magazines were to cease publication immediately. This ban cut off Jews from their leadership, whose task was to advise and guide them, particularly about emigration. It was a measure, one British newspaper explained, "intended to disrupt the Jewish community and rob it of the last frail ties which hold it together". There were at the time three German Jewish newspapers with a national circulation, four cultural papers, several sports papers, and several dozen community bulletins, of which the one in Berlin had a circulation of 40,000.[15] This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Also on November 8 it was announced that Jewish children could no longer attend "Aryan" state elementary schools, something that had hitherto been allowed where there were not sufficient Jewish elementary schools. At the same time all Jewish cultural activities were suspended "indefinitely".[16]


Contemporaneous German response

The reaction of non-Jewish Germans to Kristallnacht was varied. Martin Gilbert believes that “many non-Jews resented the round up”,[17] his opinion being supported by German witness Dr Arthur Flehinger who recalls seeing “people crying while watching from behind their curtains”.[18] Some even went as far as to help Jews, but the majority merely sat inside watching in horror, feeling helpless to do anything. Other non-Jewish Germans took part in the violence, as it was not just Stormtroopers rioting. Evidence of this can be established in that riots broke out on the night of November 7 and continued in some places after the pogrom was called to a halt; thus it may be surmised that these successive actions were not those of the Nazis. Also, several sources mention women and children as participating in the riots, and these were clearly not Stormtroopers but ordinary citizens. The number of German citizens involved in the riots is impossible to know, as many Stormtroopers were wearing civilian clothes and were thus indistinguishable. Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ...


According to Daniel Goldhagen, Bishop Martin Sasse, a leading Protestant churchman, published a compendium of Martin Luther's writings shortly after the Kristallnacht; Sasse "applauded the burning of the synagogues and the coincidence of the day, writing in the introduction, "On November 10, 1938, on Luther's birthday, the synagogues are burning in Germany." The German people, he urged, ought to heed these words "of the greatest antisemite of his time, the warner of his people against the Jews."[19] Diarmaid MacCulloch argued that Luther's 1543 pamphlet On the Jews and Their Lies was a "blueprint" for the Kristallnacht.[20] Daniel Jonah Goldhagen (born 1959) is an American political scientist. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Diarmaid MacCulloch is Professor of the History of the Church in the University of Oxford (at St Cross College, Oxford. ... Title page of Martin Luthers On the Jews and their Lies. ...


In an article released for publication on the evening of November 11, Goebbels ascribed the events of Kristallnacht to the "healthy instincts" of the German people. He went on to explain: "The German people is anti-Semitic. It has no desire to have its rights restricted or to be provoked in the future by parasites of the Jewish race."[21]


Contemporaneous foreign response

The frontpage of The New York Times of November 11, 1938 did not mention that the German Nazi government initiated the attacks, but said that Goebbels called to stop it.
The frontpage of The New York Times of November 11, 1938 did not mention that the German Nazi government initiated the attacks, but said that Goebbels called to stop it.

The Kristallnacht pogrom sparked international outrage. It discredited pro-Nazi movements in Europe and North America, leading to eventual decline of their support. Many newspapers condemned Kristallnacht, with some comparing it to the murderous pogroms incited by Imperial Russia in the 1880s. The U.S. recalled its ambassador (but did not break off diplomatic relations) while other governments severed diplomatic relations with Germany in protest. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x844, 112 KB) Summary The frontpage of The New York Times, November 11, 1938. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x844, 112 KB) Summary The frontpage of The New York Times, November 11, 1938. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Joseph Goebbels Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was Adolf Hitlers Propaganda Minister (see Propagandaministerium) in Nazi Germany. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American...


As such, Kristallnacht also marked a turning point in relations between Nazi Germany and the rest of the world. The brutality of the pogrom and the Nazi government's deliberate policy of encouraging the violence once it had begun, laid bare the repressive nature and widespread anti-Semitism entrenched in Germany, and turned world opinion sharply against the Nazi regime, with some politicians even calling for war.


Importance

Kristallnacht changed the nature of persecution from economic, political, and social to the physical with beatings, incarceration, and murder; the event is often referred to as the beginning of the Holocaust. In the words of historian Max Rein in 1988, "Kristallnacht came…and everything was changed."[22] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


While November 1938 predated overt articulation of "the Final Solution," it nonetheless foreshadowed the genocide to come.[23] Around the time of Kristallnacht, the SS newspaper "Das Schwarze Korps" called for a "destruction by swords and flames." At a conference on the day after the pogrom, Herman Goerring said: "The Jewish problem will reach its solution if, in any time soon, we will be drawn into war beyond our border—than it is obvious that we will have to manage a final account with the Jews." This article is about the term with respect to the Jewish Question in World War II. For other uses, see Final Solution (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... SS redirects here. ... Das Schwarze Korps (The Black Corps), the official SS newspaper. ...


Specifically, the Nazis managed to achieve in Kristallnacht all the theoretical targets they set for themselves: confiscation of Jewish belongings to provide finances for the military buildup to war, separation and isolation of the Jews, and most importantly, the move from the antisemitic policy of discrimination to one of physical damage, which began that night and continued until the end of World War II.


The event nonetheless showed the public attitude was not solidly behind the perpetrators. Many Germans at the time found the pogroms troubling, as they equated them with the days of the SA street rule and lawlessness. The British Embassy at Berlin and British Consular offices throughout Germany received many protests and expressions of disquiet from members of the German public about the anti-Jewish actions of the time. The widespread cooperation of ordinary people and the desired severity of atrocities occurred primarily in Vienna and less so in Germany.


Modern response

Many decades later, association with the Kristallnacht anniversary was cited as the main reason against choosing November 9 ("Schicksalstag"), the day the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, as the new German national holiday; a different day was chosen (October 3, 1990, German reunification). Schicksalstag (literally day of fate) is a label often used for 9 November due to the special importance of this day in German history. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ...


Avantgarde guitarist Gary Lucas's 1988 composition "Verklärte Kristallnacht", which juxtaposes the Israeli national anthem, "Hatikvah," with phrases from "Deutschland Über Alles" amid wild electronic shrieks and noise, is intended to be a sonic representation of the horrors of Kristallnacht. It was premiered at the 1988 Berlin Jazz Festival and received rave reviews. (The title is a reference to Arnold Schoenberg's 1899 work "Verklärte Nacht" that presaged his pioneering work on atonal music; Schoenberg was an Austrian Jew exiled by the Nazis). For the UK magazine, see Guitarist (magazine). ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Hatikvah (Hebrew: הַתִּקְוָה, “The Hope”, Arabic transliteration هاتكفا), sometimes styled HaTikva(h), is the national anthem of Israel. ... Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used, wholly or partially, as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnÉ”lt ˈʃøːnbÉ›rk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Verklärte Nacht, Op. ...


The German Power Metal band Masterplan's debut album (also titled "Masterplan" and released in 2003) features an anti-Nazism song entitled "Crystal Night" as the fourth track. For the Oasis album, see The Masterplan. ...


See also

The Evian Conference was convened at the initiative of US President Franklin D. Roosevelt in July, 1938 to discuss the problem of Jewish refugees. ... German Jews have lived in Germany for over 1700 years, through both periods of tolerance and spasms of antisemitic violence, culminating in the Holocaust and the near-destruction of the Jewish community in Germany and much of Europe. ... Austria first became a center of Jewish learning during the 13th century. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... At 10 a. ... The racial policy of Nazi Germany refers to the policies and laws implemented by Nazi Germany, asserting the superiority of the so-called Aryan race and based on a specific racist doctrine which claimed scientific legitimacy. ...

References

  1. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2006). Kristallnacht: Prelude to destruction. Hammersmith, London: Harper Collins. ISBN 13 978-0-00-719240-3. 
  2. ^ Nazi Germany - dictatorship. Retrieved on March 12, 2008.
  3. ^ Hitler's Enabling Act. Retrieved on March 12, 2008.
  4. ^ The Holocaust. Retrieved on 12 March, 2008.
  5. ^ Manchester Guardian, May 23, 1936, cited in A.J. Sherman, Island Refuge, Britain and the Refugees from the Third Reich, 1933–1939, (London, Elek Books Ltd, 1973), p.112, also in The Evian Conference — Hitler's Green Light for Genocide by Annette Shaw
  6. ^ Johnson, Eric. The Nazi Terror – Gestapo, Jews and Ordinary Germans. United States: Basic Books, 1999, pg 117.
  7. ^ Friedländer, Saul. Nazi Germany and The Jews – Volume 1 – The Years of Persecution 1933-1939. London: Phoenix, 1997, pg 270
  8. ^ Goerg Landauer to Martin Rosenbluth, 8 February 1938 cited in Friedländer, loc.cit.
  9. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2006). Kristallnacht prelude to destruction. Hammersmith, London: Harper Collins, 119. ISBN 13 978-0-00-719240-1. 
  10. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2006). Kristallnacht: Prelude to destruction. Hammersmith, London: Harper Collins, 23. ISBN 13 978-0-00-719240-3. 
  11. ^ (1992) Refugee Scholars:Conversations with Tess Simpson, 31. 
  12. ^ "[www.timesonline.co.uk Expelled Jews' Dark Outlook]", Newspaper article, The Times, 1 November 1938. Retrieved on 2008-03-12. 
  13. ^ German State Archives, Potsdam, quoted in Rita Thalmann and Emmanuel Feinermann, Crystal night, 9-10 November 1938, pages 33, 42
  14. ^ German State Archives, Potsdam, quoted in Rita Thalmann and Emmanuel Feinermann, Crystal night, 9-10 November 1938, pages 33, 42
  15. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2006). Kristallnacht: Prelude to destruction. London: HarperCollins publishers, 25. ISBN 13 978-0-00-719240-3. 
  16. ^ Nazis Planning Revenge on Jews, News Chronicle, 9 November, 1938
  17. ^ Gilbert, op. cit., pg 70
  18. ^ Dr. Arthur Flehinger, “Flames of Fury”, Jewish Chronicle, 9 November 1979, page 27 cited in Gilbert, loc. cit.
  19. ^ Bernd Nellessen, "Die schweigende Kirche: Katholiken und Judenverfolgung," in Büttner (ed), Die Deutchschen und die Jugendverfolg im Dritten Reich, p. 265, cited in Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners (Vintage, 1997).
  20. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, Reformation: Europe's House Divided, 1490-1700. New York: Penguin Books Ltd, 2004, pp. 666-667.
  21. ^ Daily Telegraph, November 12, 1938. Cited in Gilbert, Martin. Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction. Harper Collins, 2006, p. 142.
  22. ^ Krefeld, Stadt. Krefelder Juden in Amerika: Ehemalige Krefelder Juden berichten uber ihre Erlebnisse in der sogenannten Reichskristallnacht (vol. 3). Krefeld: Krefeld Stadt Archiv, 1988 cited in Johnson, Eric. The Nazi Terror – Gestapo, Jews and Ordinary Germans. United States: Basic Books, 1999, pg 117.
  23. ^ Gilbert, Martin (2006). Kristallnacht: Prelude to destruction. Hammersmith, London: Harper Collins. ISBN 13 978-0-00-719240-3. 

Hammersmith is an urban centre in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in West London, England, approximately 5 miles (8km) west of Charing Cross on the north bank of the River Thames. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... Hammersmith is an urban centre in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in West London, England, approximately 5 miles (8km) west of Charing Cross on the north bank of the River Thames. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Hammersmith is an urban centre in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in West London, England, approximately 5 miles (8km) west of Charing Cross on the north bank of the River Thames. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Diarmaid MacCulloch is Professor of the History of the Church in the University of Oxford (at St Cross College, Oxford. ... Hammersmith is an urban centre in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in West London, England, approximately 5 miles (8km) west of Charing Cross on the north bank of the River Thames. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...

Further reading

  • Friedländer, Saul. Nazi Germany and The Jews – Volume 1 – The Years of Persecution 1933-1939. London: Phoenix, 1997.
  • Schultheis Herbert (Ed.): Die Reichskristallnacht in Deutschland nach Augenzeugenberichten. Bad Neustadt a. d. Saale 1986. ISBN 978-3-9800482-3-1
  • Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust – The Jewish Tragedy. London: William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd, 1986.
  • Johnson, Eric. The Nazi Terror – Gestapo, Jews and Ordinary Germans. United States: Basic Books, 1999.
  • November 9/10 1938 – Kristallnacht, The Night of Broken Glass, The History Place, 1996
  • Kristalnacht
  • Kristallnacht by Frieda Miller, Vancouver Holocaust Education Centre
  • What Was Kristallnacht? The Holocaust History Project, 2003
  • How Much Is That? by Samuel H Williamson, Miami University, 2005
  • Kristallnacht by Rabbi Eliahu Ellis & Rabbi Shmuel Silinsky, Aish.com, 2006
  • The Trial of Major German War Criminals Volume 20, Nizkor.org, 2006
  • George L. Mosse, Toward the Final Solution: A History of European Racism
  • ---- Confronting History: A Memoir
  • ---- Nazi Culture: Intellectual, Cultural, and Social Life in the Third Reich (George L. Mosse Series in Modern European Cultural and Intellectual History)
  • ---- The Crisis of German Ideology : Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich
  • Christopher R. Browning, Collected Memories: Holocaust History and Post-War Testimony (George L. Mosse Series in Modern European Cultural and Intellectual History)
  • William L. Shirer The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, 1960.
  • Leni Yahil, The Holocaust: the Fate of the European Jewry
  • US Holocaust Memorial Museum Enycylopedia on Kristallnacht
  • USHMM Special Topics - Kristallnacht
  • Kristallnacht by Rabbi Eliahu Ellis & Rabbi Shmuel Silinsky (Aish.com)
  • Kristallnacht from Yad Vashem’s Photo Archives
  • Kristallnacht at Eleanor Roosevelt National Historic Site
  • CNN: German people are naked Nazis era Kristallnacht (November 8, 1998)
  • Doscher, Hans-Jurgen, Reichskristallnacht. Die Novemberpogrome 1938, Ullstein Buch 33135,1990.
  • Kaul, Friedrich Karl, Der Fall des Herschel Grynszpan, Berlin 1965.
  • Lauber Hein, Judenpogrom. Reichskristallnacht November 1938 in Grossdeutschland, Bleicher Verlag 1981.
  • Patzold, Kurt & Runge, Irene, Kristallnacht. Zum Pogrom 1938, Pahl-Rugenstein 1988.
  • Pehle Walter H, Der Judenpogrom 1938. Von der Reichskristallnacht zum Volkermord, Fischer Taschenbuch 1988.
  • Schwab, Gerald, The Day the Holocaust Began. The Odyssey of Herschel Grynszpan, Praeger 1990.

George Lachmann Mosse (September 20, 1918-January 22, 1999) was an German-born American left-wing Jewish gay historian of fascism in general and Nazi Germany in particular who saw fascists as scavengers who took bits of other ideologies to create a new one. ... Christopher R. Browning (1944- ) is an American historian of the Holocaust. ... Shirer (at far left) after winning a National Book Award in 1961 for his The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, pictured with fellow authors and award winners Conrad Richter and Randall Jarrell. ... The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by journalist William L. Shirer was the first definitive history of Nazi Germany in English. ... Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (IPA: ; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) was First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


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Special Focus: Kristallnacht (333 words)
The interior of the Hechingen synagogue, destroyed during Kristallnacht.
In the months before Kristallnacht, synagogues in Munich, Nuremberg, Dortmund, and Kaiserslautern were demolished on the orders of local Nazi party officials; in other German towns, anti–Jewish vandalism was common.
In commemoration of the 60th anniversary of Kristallnacht, on November 9, 1998, the memo38 group presented their final project to the public, a video of the computer-generated reconstruction, on a 30x30 foot screen at the site of the original synagogue.
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