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Encyclopedia > Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine (KM)



Kriegsmarine Ensign
Active 19351945
Country Nazi Germany
Allegiance Nazi Germany
Type Navy
Battles/wars World War II
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Erich Raeder
Karl Dönitz

The Kriegsmarine (or "War Navy") was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945, during the Nazi regime, superseding the Reichsmarine. The Kriegsmarine was one of three official branches of the Wehrmacht (Armed Forces). Image File history File links War_Ensign_of_Germany_1938-1945. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Erich Raeder. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern Air... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Reichsmarine Jack The Reichsmarine was the name of the German Navy during the Weimar Republic. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ...

Contents

History

Post-WWI Origins

Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was only allowed a minimal navy of 15,000 personnel, six capital ships of no more than 10,000 tons, six cruisers, twelve destroyers, twelve torpedo boats and no submarines. However, even before the Nazi takeover German naval rearmament had begun with the launching of the first pocket battleship, Deutschland in 1931. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Pocket battleship is an English language term for a class of warships built by German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ...


When the Nazis came to power in 1933, Hitler soon began to ignore many of the Treaty restrictions and accelerated German rearmament. The Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 18 June 1935 then allowed Germany to build a navy equivalent to 35% of British surface ship tonnage and 45% of British submarine tonnage; battleships were to be limited to no more than 35,000 tons. That same year the Reichsmarine was renamed as the Kriegsmarine. The Anglo-German Naval Agreement (AGNA), was signed between United Kingdom and Germany in of June 18, 1935. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ...


The Build-up during the Third Reich

Following the 1938 crisis of German demands on Czechoslovakia, Germany abandoned all pretensions of adherence to treaty limitations on its navy. The Munich Agreement and the first Vienna Award After the Austrian Anschluss, Czechoslovakia was to become Hitlers next target. ...


Plan Z, the blueprint for the German naval construction program finalized in 1938, envisaged building a navy of approximately 800 ships between the period 1939 — 1947. The building programme was to include: Plan Z was the name given to the planned re-equipment and expansion of the Kriegsmarine from 1935 onwards. ...

  • ten battleships and battlecruisers,
  • four aircraft carriers, fifteen armored ships (Panzerschiffe),
  • five heavy cruisers, fourty-four light cruisers,
  • 158 destroyers and torpedo boats, and
  • 249 submarines, along with numerous smaller craft.

Personnel strength was planned to rise to over 200,000. The cancelled German H class battleships went through many design iterations: H class battleship (1939) H class battleship (1944) Category: ...


Since the simultaneous and rapid build-up of the German army and airforce demanded substantial effort and resources, the planned naval program was not very far advanced by the time World War II began. Indeed, implementation only began in January 1939 when three H-class battleships and two M-class light cruisers were laid down. On September 1, 1939, the navy still had a total personnel strength of only 78,000, and it was not at all ready for a major role in the war. With expectations in Germany of a quick victory by land, Plan Z was essentially shelved and the resources initially targeted for its realization were largely redirected to the construction of U-boats. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


Spanish Civil War

The first military action of the Kriegsmarine came during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). Following the outbreak of hostilities in July 1936 several capital ships of the German fleet were sent to the region. The Deutschland, Admiral Scheer, and light cruiser Köln were the first to be sent in July 1936. These capital ships were accompanied by the 2nd Torpedo-boat Flotilla. Ostensively, the German presence was used to covertly support Franco's Nationalists although the immediate involvement of the Deutschland was humanitarian relief operations and the rescuing of 9,300 refugees from the fighting, including 4.550 Germans. Following the brokering of the International Non-Intervention Patrol to enforce an international arms embargo the Kriegsmarine was alotted the patrol area between Cabo de Gata (Almeria) and Oropesa. Numerous vessels served as part of these duties including Admiral Graf Spee. Uboats also participated in covert action against Republican shipping as part of Operation Ursula. At least eight uboats engaged a small number of targets in the area throughout the conflict. By way of comparison the Italian Navy, Regia Marina, operated fifty-eight submarines in the area as part of Sottomarini Legionari. On 29 May 1937 the Deutschland was attacked in the Deutschland incident off Ibiza by two bombers from the Republican Airforce. Total casualties from the Republican attack were 31 dead and 110 wounded, 71 seriously, mostly burn victims and in retaliation the Admiral Scheer shelled the harbour of Almeria on 31 May. Following further attacks by Republican submarine forces against the Leipzig off port of Oran between 15 — 18 June 1937 Germany withdrew from the Non-Intervention Patrol although maintained a continuous presence in the area until the end of the conflict. Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... Admiral Scheer was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The vessel was named after Admiral Reinhard Scheer. ... Köln was a German light cruiser prior to and during World War II, one of three K-Class cruisers named after cities starting with the letter K. This ship was named after the city of Köln (Cologne). ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20th (or possibly 19th) November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino de España; Asturian: Reinu dEspaña) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... Cabo de Gata-Níjar Natural Park is a nature reserve near Almería, Spain. ... An Oropesa is a streamlined towed body used in the process of minesweeping. ... Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser which served with the Kriegsmarine of Germany during World War II. Originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff), she was later reclassified as a heavy cruiser, and was referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... The Italian Regia Marina (literally: Royal Navy) dates from the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861 after Italian unification. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... The Deutschland incident refers to two separate incidents involving ships named Deutschland. ... Ibiza (Eivissa) is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea (), belonging to Balearic Islands (Spain). ... May 31 is the 151st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (152nd in leap years), with 214 days remaining. ... The German light cruiser Leipzig was the lead ship of her class (Nürnberg was her improved sister ship). ... View of Oran Oran (Arabic: , pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ...


World War II

The major events for the Kriegsmarine during the first year of the war were the Battle of the River Plate and the sinking of the HMS Royal Oak and HMS Courageous. The Battle of the Atlantic started this year, although the German submarine fleet was hampered by the lack of good ports from which to attack Allied shipping. Combatants Nazi Germany United Kingdom New Zealand Commanders Hans Langsdorff Henry Harwood Strength 1 pocket battleship (Panzerschiffe) Admiral Graf Spee 1 heavy cruiser 2 light cruisers Casualties 1 pocket battleship scuttled 36 killed 1 heavy cruiser Exeter heavily damaged 72 killed The Battle of the River Plate (December 13, 1939... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, sunk early in World War II. She was laid down at Devonport on 15 January 1914 and launched on 17 November of that year. ... HMS Courageous was a warship of the Royal Navy. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic...

German warships in a Norwegian port, probably Trondheim, in June 1940. Gneisenau is at left, with Scharnhorst in the left middle distance and heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper in right center.

In April 1940, the main action the navy was involved in was the invasion of Norway, where it suffered quite heavy losses, including the heavy cruiser Blücher sunk by Oscarsborg Fortress in the Oslofjord and ten destroyers lost in the Battle of Narvik. The Kriegsmarine did however sink a number of British ships, including the aircraft carrier HMS Glorious. Image File history File links Norway Campaign, 1940 German warships in a Norwegian port, probably Trondheim, in June 1940. ... Image File history File links Norway Campaign, 1940 German warships in a Norwegian port, probably Trondheim, in June 1940. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... County Sør-Trøndelag District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2005) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The term heavy cruiser is used to refer to large cruisers, a form of warship. ... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... The German heavy cruiser Blücher ¹ was the German Kriegsmarines newest ship at the outbreak of World War II. The Blücher is most notable for being sunk on April 9, 1940, less than three years after her launch, on the first day of the invasion of Norway (Operation... Oscarsborg festning is a coastal fortress in the Oslofjord, close to the small city of Drøbak. ... The Oslofjord (Oslofjorden) is a bay in the south-east of Norway, stretching from Færder in the south to Oslo at the head. ... The Battles of Narvik were naval battles between the Royal Navy (Britain) and the Kriegsmarine (Germany) that occurred in April 1940 (during the Second World War). ... HMS Glorious was a warship of the Royal Navy. ...


The losses in the Norwegian campaign meant that only a handful of heavy ships were ready for action for the planned, but never executed, invasion of Britain (Operation Sealion) in the summer of 1940. After the fall of France and the conquest of Norway, the German submarine fleet was brought much closer to the British shipping lanes in the Atlantic. At first, the British merchant convoys lacked radar equipped escorts; as such, the submarines were very hard to detect during their nighttime surface attacks. This year was for these reasons one of the most successful, as measured in terms of merchant shipping sunk compared to submarines lost. German battle cruisers in a Norwegian port in June 1940 The Norwegian Campaign led to the first direct confrontation between the military forces of the Allies — United Kingdom and France against Nazi Germany in World War II. The primary reason for Germany seeking the occupation of Norway was Germanys... Operation Sealion (Unternehmen (Undertaking) Seelöwe in German) was a World War II German plan to invade the United Kingdom. ... Combatants France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand (French) Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) H.G. Winkelman (Dutch) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H.R.H. Umberto di... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ...


Italy entered the war in June 1940, and the Battle of the Mediterranean began: from September 1941 to May 1944 some 62 German submarines were transferred there, sneaking past the British naval base at Gibraltar. The Mediterranean submarines sunk 24 major Allied warships (including 12 destroyers, 4 cruisers, 2 aircraft carriers and 1 battleship) and 94 merchant ships (449,206 tons of shipping). None of the Mediterranean submarines made it back to their home bases as they were all either sunk in battle or scuttled by their crews at the end of the war[1]. Combatants Allied Nations Axis Powers The Naval Battle of the Mediterranean was waged during World War II, to attack and keep open the respective supply lines of Allied and Axis armies, and to destroy the opposing sides ability to wage war at sea. ...

Hitler and Captain Ernst Lindemann inspecting crew of battleship Bismarck in 1941.
Hitler and Captain Ernst Lindemann inspecting crew of battleship Bismarck in 1941.

In 1941 one of the four modern German battleships, the Bismarck sunk HMS Hood while breaking out into the Atlantic for commerce raiding. However, the Bismarck was in turn hunted down by much superior forces and scuttled after receiving crippling damage from a torpedo plane. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x603, 114 KB)Photo made by Nazi photographers ca. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x603, 114 KB)Photo made by Nazi photographers ca. ... Ernst Lindemann was the captain of the German battleship the Bismarck. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ... This article refers to the 1918 battlecruiser. ...


Throughout the war the Kriegsmarine was responsible for coastal artillery protecting major ports and important coastal areas and also anti-aircraft batteries protecting major ports. [2]. 19th century coastal artillery guns preserved in Suomenlinna fortress in Helsinki Coastal artillery is the branch of armed forces concerned with operating mobile anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications. ...


The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent German declaration of war against the USA in December 1941 led to another phase of the Battle of the Atlantic. A large number of Allied merchant ships were sunk by submarines off the American coast as the Americans had had little time to prepare for submarine warfare (Second happy time). Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Husband Kimmel (USN), Walter Short (USA) Chuichi Nagumo (IJN), Mitsuo Fuchida (IJNAS), Shigekazu Shimazaki (IJNAS) Strength 8 battleships, 8 cruisers, 29 destroyers, 9 submarines, ~50 other ships, ~390 planes 6 aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 2 battleships, 2 heavy cruisers, 1 light cruiser, 8... The second happy time was a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping along the east coast of North America. ...


The vast American ship building capabilities and naval forces were however now brought into the war and soon more than offset any losses inflicted by the German submariners. In 1942, the submarine warfare continued on all fronts, and when German forces in the Soviet Union reached the Black Sea, a few submarines were eventually transferred there. NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The Battle of the Barents Sea was an attempt by a German naval force to attack an Allied Arctic convoy. However, the advantage was not pressed home and they returned to base. There were serious implications: this failure infuriated Hitler, who nearly enforced a decision to scrap the surface fleet. Instead, resources were diverted to the U-boats, and the surface fleet became a lesser threat. The Battle of the Barents Sea took place on December 31, 1942 between British ships escorting convoy JW 51B to Kola Inlet in the USSR, and German surface raiders. ... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United States and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. ...

Battleship Tirpitz in Norway, 1944
Battleship Tirpitz in Norway, 1944

After 1943 when the Scharnhorst had been sunk in the Battle of North Cape, most of the German surface ships were pent up in or close to their ports as a fleet in being, for fear of losing them in action and to tie up British naval forces. The largest ship of these ships, the battleship Tirpitz, was stationed in Norway as a threat to Allied shipping and also as a defense against a potential Allied invasion. When she was sunk by British bombers in late 1944 (Operation Catechism), several British capital ships could be moved to the Pacific. Image File history File links Tirpitz_altafjord. ... Image File history File links Tirpitz_altafjord. ... Scharnhorst was a 31,500 tonne Gneisenau class battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine, named after the Prussian general and army reformer Gerhard von Scharnhorst and to commemorate the World War I armored cruiser SMS Scharnhorst. ... Combatants Germany United Kingdom Commanders Erich Bey† Bruce Fraser Strength 1 battleship 5 destroyers 1 battleship 4 cruisers 8 destroyers Casualties 1 battleship sunk 1 battleship lightly damaged 1 heavy cruiser lightly damaged 1 light cruiser lightly damaged 1 destroyer lightly damaged In the World War II naval Battle of... In naval warfare, a fleet in being is a naval force that extends a controlling influence without ever leaving port. ... Tirpitz was the second Bismarck class battleship of the German Kriegsmarine, sistership of Bismarck. ...


From late 1944 until the end of the war, the surface fleet of Kriegsmarine was heavily engaged in providing artillery support to the retreating German land forces along the Baltic coast and in ferrying civilian refugees to the western parts of Germany (Lübeck, Hamburg) in large rescue operations. Large parts of the population of eastern Germany fled the approaching Red Army out of fear for Soviet retaliation and mass rapes and killings. The Kriegsmarine evacuated large numbers of civilians in the evacuation of East Prussia and Danzig in January 1945. It was during this activity that the catastrophic sinking of several large passenger ships occurred: the Wilhelm Gustloff and the Goya was sunk by Soviet submarines, while the SS Cap Arcona was sunk by British bombers, each sinking claiming thousands of civilian lives. The Kriegsmarine also provided important assistance in the evacuation of the fleeing German civilians of Pomerania and Stettin in March and April 1945. In the last stage of the war, the Kiegsmarine also organized a number of divisions of infantry from its personnel (submarine crews and so on). [3] Lübeck ( pronunc. ... Hamburg from above Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... Historical Eastern Germany or Former German Eastern Territories are terms which can be used to describe collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder–Neisse line which were parts of Germany after its unification in 1871 and were internationally recognised as such at the time. ... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ... The Evacuation of East Prussia refers to the events that took place in East Prussia, especially the evacuation of German population from that area as well as from other Prussian lands in 1944 and 1945. ... GdaÅ„sk ( ; IPA: ), also known by its German name Danzig ( ) and several other names, is the sixth-largest city in Poland and is Polands principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Wilhelm Gustloff slides into the water during launch ceremonies. ... The Goya was a German refugee ship which was originally built as the freighter Akers in Oslo in 1940 with a length of 131 m and width of 17 m. ... Memorial of Cap Arcona victims, Neustadt in Holstein. ... Duchy of Pomerania, ruled by the slavic dynasty of Griffits (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greifen), was a semi-independent principality in the 17th century. ... Motto: none Voivodship West Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Szczecina Mayor Marian Jurczyk Area 301,3 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 413 600 1372/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1243 Latitude Longitude 14°34E 53°26N Area code +48 91 Car plates ZS Twin towns Berlin-Kreuzberg... March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ...


During 1943 and 1944, due to Allied anti-submarine tactics and better equipment the U-boat fleet started to suffer heavy losses. Radar, longer range air cover, improved tactics and new weapons all contributed. German technical developments, such as the schnorkel, attempted to counter these. New U-boat types, the Elektroboote, were in development and, had these become operational in sufficient numbers, the Allied advantage would have been eroded. Anti-submarine warfare (ASW or in older forms A/S) is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft or other submarines to find, track and then damage or destroy enemy submarines. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ... Swimmers snorkel A snorkel is a tube about a 30 cm / 12 inches long, usually J-shaped, fitted with a reasonably comfortable mouthpiece, and constructed of rubber or plastic. ...


Between 1943 and 1945 a group of U-boats (the "Monsun boats" or Monsun Gruppe) operated in the Indian Ocean from Japanese bases in occupied Indonesia. As the Allied merchant convoys had not yet been organized in those waters, the initial sinkings were plentiful. This situation was soon remedied, however [4]. During the later war years, U-boats were also used as a means of exchanging vital war supplies with Japan.


Epilogue

After the war, the German surface ships that remained afloat (only two large warships were operational) were divided among the victors. Some (like the unfinished aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin) were used for target practice, while others (mostly destroyers and torpedo boats) were put into the service of Allied navies that lacked surface ships after the war. The British, French and Soviet navies received the destroyers, and some torpedo boats went to the Danish and Norwegian navies. The destroyers were all retired by the end of the 1950s, but some of the torpedo boats were returned to the new West German navy in the 1960s.


In 1956, with West Germany's accession to NATO, a new navy was established and was referred to as the Bundesmarine (Federal Navy). Some Kriegsmarine commanders like Erich Topp and Otto Kretschmer went on to serve in the Bundesmarine. In East Germany the Volksmarine (People's Navy) was established some time after the war. With the reunification of Germany in 1990, it was decided to simply use the name Deutsche Marine (German Navy). 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Erich Topp (b. ... GDR redirects here. ... The German Navy has had several names depending on the political structure of Germany at the time: Deutsche Marine (German Navy) (1848)-(1852) Norddeutsche Bundesmarine (Northern German Federal Navy) (1866-1871) Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) (1872-1918) Vorläufige Reichsmarine (1919-1921) Reichsmarine (State Navy) (1921-1935) Kriegsmarine (War Navy... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern Air...


Major Kriegsmarine Wartime Operations

The battleship Bismarck
  • Nordseetour (1940) — first Atlantic operation of Admiral Hipper
  • Weserübung ("Weser Exercise") (1940) — invasion of Denmark and Norway
  • Juno (1940) — operation to disrupt Allied supplies to Norway
  • Wikinger (1940) — foray by destroyers into the North Sea
  • Berlin (1941) — Atlantic cruise of Scharnhorst and Gneisenau
  • Rheinübung ("Exercise Rhine") (1941) — breakout by Bismarck and Prinz Eugen
  • Doppelschlag ("Double blow") (1942) — anti-shipping operation off Novaya Zemlya by Admiral Scheer and Admiral Hipper
  • Sportpalast (1942) — aborted operation (including Tirpitz) to attack Arctic convoys
  • Rösselsprung ("Knights Move") (1942) — operation (including Tirpitz) to attack Arctic convoy PQ-17
  • Wunderland (1942) — anti-shipping operation in Kara Sea by Admiral Scheer
  • Drumbeat ("Paukenschlag" ("Beat of the Kettle Drum")); "Second Happy Time") (1942) — U-boat campaign off the United States east coast
  • Regenbogen ("Rainbow") (1942) — failed attack on Arctic convoy JW-51B, by Admiral Hipper and Lützow
  • Cerberus (1942) — movement of capital ships from Brest to home ports in Germany (Channel Dash)
  • Ostfront (1943) — final operation of Scharnhorst, to intercept convoy JW-55B
  • Domino (1943) — second aborted Arctic sortie by Scharnhorst, Prinz Eugen and destroyers
  • Zitronella (1943) — raid upon Allied-occupied Spitzbergen (Svalbard)
  • Deadlight (1945) — postwar scuttling of U-boats

This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... This was the first Atlantic sortie of the German heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper during December, 1940. ... Combatants Germany Denmark Norway Operation Weserübung was the German codename for Nazi Germanys assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. ... Operation Juno was a German naval offensive late in the Norwegian Campaign. ... Operation Wikinger was a sortie into the North Sea by the 1st Destroyer Flotilla of the Kriegsmarine, in February 1940. ... Operation Berlin was the commerce raid performed by German warships KM Scharnhorst and KM Gneisenau between January and March, 1941. ... In World War II, Operation Rheinübung (Rhine Exercise) was the sortie by the Bismarck and Prinz Eugen, which left Gdynia, Poland on 12 May 1941. ... Novaya Zemlya (Russian: , lit. ... Operation Sportpalast was the action by Tirpitz and its escorting destroyers against Arctic convoys PQ-12 and QP-8. ... The second happy time was a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping along the east coast of North America. ... During World War II, there were two German operations called Regenbogen (Rainbow): an unsuccessful attack on the Arctic convoy JW-51B, by heavy cruisers Admiral Hipper and Lutzow, known as the Battle of the Barents Sea an order from Admiral Karl Dönitz to scuttle Kriegsmarine warships at the end... Operation Cerberus (German: Zerberus after Cerberus the three-headed dog of Greek mythology who guards the gate to Hades) was the name given to the break-out during World War II of the Kriegsmarines ships Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Prinz Eugen and a number of smaller ships from Brest to their... Operation Zitronella, also known as Operation Sizilien, was the German raid and temporary occupation of Spitzbergen in September, 1943. ... Operation Deadlight was the code name for the scuttling of U-boats surrendered to the Allies after the defeat of Germany near the end of World War II. Of the 154 U-boats surrendered, 121 were scuttled in deep water off Lisahally, Northern Ireland or Loch Ryan, Scotland in late...

Ships

By the start of World War II, much of the Kriegsmarine were modern ships: fast, well-armed and well-armoured. This had been achieved by concealment but also by deliberately flouting World War I peace terms and those of various naval treaties. Although a major re-armament of the navy (Plan Z) was planned, and initially begun, the start of the war in 1939 meant that the vast amounts of material required for the project were diverted to other areas. A number of captured ships from occupied countries were added to the German fleet as the war progressed. Plan Z was the name given to the planned re-equipment and expansion of the Kriegsmarine from 1935 onwards. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ...


Some ship types do not fit clearly into the commonly used ship classifications. Where there is argument, this has been noted.


Surface ships

The main combat ships (not U-boats) of the Kriegsmarine: This is a list of ships of the German navies. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


Aircraft carrier

Construction of the Graf Zeppelin was started in 1936 with an unnamed sister ship started two years later in 1938, but neither ships were completed. In 1942 conversion of three German passenger ships and two unfinished cruisers, the captured French light cruiser De Grasse and the German heavy cruiser Seydlitz to auxiliary carriers was begun, but by 1943 all the conversion work was halted for lack of materials and the deteriorating military situation. [5] Four aircraft carriers, (front-to-back) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, supercarrier USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences. ... Graf Zeppelin was an aircraft carrier of the Kriegsmarine, named like the famous airship in honour of Graf (Count) Ferdinand von Zeppelin. ... The Flugzeugträger B (Flugzeugträger is German for aircraft carrier) was the sister ship of the Kriegsmarines only launched aircraft carrier, the Graf Zeppelin. ... The De Grasse was an anti-aircraft cruiser of the French Navy. ... Seydlitz was a heavy cruiser, third in the Hipper class, but before her completion was selected to be converted into a small aircraft carrier. ...


Battleships

Bismarck and Tirpitz This article is about a battleship as a type of warship. ... The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ... Tirpitz was the second Bismarck class battleship of the German Kriegsmarine, sistership of Bismarck. ...


Battlecruisers

Scharnhorst and Gneisenau. The classification of these ships is problematic. The "battlecruiser" designation is largely a British and Royal Naval usage (arguing that 11" armament would not be adequate) while the Germans in particular describe them as "battleships" or "Schlachtschiff". HMS Invincible, one of Britains first battlecruisers Battlecruisers were large warships of the early 20th century. ... Scharnhorst was a 31,500 tonne Gneisenau class battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine, named after the Prussian general and army reformer Gerhard von Scharnhorst and to commemorate the World War I armored cruiser SMS Scharnhorst. ... Gneisenau was a 31,100 ton Scharnhorst class battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine. ...


Pre-dreadnought battleships

The World War I era Pre-dreadnought battleships Schlesien and Schleswig-Holstein were used mainly as training ships, although they also participated in several military operations. Hessen was converted into a radio-guided target ship in 1930. USS Massachusetts, a pre-dreadnought battleship launched in 1893 The term pre-dreadnought refers to the last type of battleship before the British Royal Navys HMS Dreadnought (1906). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Schlesien was a German battleship that fought in World War I and World War II. Categories: Naval ship stubs | Battleships | German naval ships ... Schleswig-Holstein, a German battleship, started World War II by firing at the Polish base at Westerplatte on 1 September 1939. ...


Pocket battleships (Panzerschiff)

Deutschland / Lützow, Admiral Scheer, and Admiral Graf Spee. Modern commentators favour classifying these as "heavy cruisers" and indeed the Kriegsmarine itself reclassified these ships as such (Schwere Kreuzer) in 1940. [6] Pocket battleship is an English language term for a class of warships built by German Reichsmarine in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. ... The Deutschland (later re-named Lützow), was the lead ship of a heavy cruiser class that served in the German Kriegsmarine before and during World War II. The ship was originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff) by Germany, and referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ... Admiral Scheer was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser (often termed a pocket battleship) which served with the Kriegsmarine of Nazi Germany during World War II. The vessel was named after Admiral Reinhard Scheer. ... Admiral Graf Spee was a Deutschland class heavy cruiser which served with the Kriegsmarine of Germany during World War II. Originally classified as an armored ship (Panzerschiff), she was later reclassified as a heavy cruiser, and was referred to as a pocket battleship by the British. ...


Heavy cruisers

Destroyer Z1 Leberecht Maas.
Destroyer Z1 Leberecht Maas.

Admiral Hipper, Blücher, and Prinz Eugen A heavy cruiser is a type of large warship which originated with the British Hawkins class during World War I. They entered service after the war. ... Image File history File links Maas-1. ... Image File history File links Maas-1. ... The German heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper fought as part of the German Kriegsmarine during World War II. She was named after Admiral Ritter von Hipper, commander of the German battlecruiser squadron during the Battle of Jutland in 1916 and later commander-in-chief of the German High Seas Fleet. ... The German heavy cruiser Blücher ¹ was the German Kriegsmarines newest ship at the outbreak of World War II. The Blücher is most notable for being sunk on April 9, 1940, less than three years after her launch, on the first day of the invasion of Norway (Operation... The German cruiser Prinz Eugen (pron. ...


Light cruisers

Emden, Königsberg, Karlsruhe, Köln, Leipzig and Nürnberg A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ... This article refers to the third German cruiser to bear the name Emden. ... Königsberg was a light cruiser of the K class in the German Reichsmarine and Kriegsmarine. ... Karlsruhe was a light cruiser of the German K class in World War II, the other ships in class being Königsberg and Köln. ... Köln was a German light cruiser prior to and during World War II, one of three K-Class cruisers named after cities starting with the letter K. This ship was named after the city of Köln (Cologne). ... The German light cruiser Leipzig was the lead ship of her class (Nürnberg was her improved sister ship). ... The Nürnberg, was a German light cruiser of the Leipzig class named after the city of Nuremberg. ...

"Raubtier" class torpedo boats
"Raubtier" class torpedo boats

Image File history File links Wolf-1. ... Image File history File links Wolf-1. ...

Auxiliary cruisers

During the war, nine merchant ships were converted into auxiliary cruisers and used as commerce raiders, particularly in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships taken over for conversion into a vessel armed with cruiser-size guns, and employed either for convoy protection against true cruisers, or for commerce-raiding missions, where its appearance was used to trick merchant ships into approaching. ... Auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships taken over for conversion into a vessel armed with cruiser-size guns, and employed either for convoy protection against true cruisers, or for commerce-raiding missions, where its appearance was used to trick merchant ships into approaching. ... Commerce raiding or guerre de course is a naval strategy of attacking an opponents commercial shipping rather than contending for control of the seas with its naval forces. ...


Destroyers

Although the German destroyer (Zerstörer) fleet was modern and the ships were larger than conventional destroyers of other navies, they had problems. Early classes were unstable, wet in heavy weather, suffered from engine problems and had short range. Some problems were solved with the evolution of later designs, but further developments were curtailed by the war and, ultimately, by Germany's defeat. In the first year of World War II, they were used mainly to sow offensive minefields in shipping lanes close to the British coast. At the outbreak of World War II, the German Navy, the Kriegsmarine had 21 destroyers (German: Zerstörer) available. ...


Torpedo boats

See German torpedoboats of World War II A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... German torpedoboats varied hugely. ...


These vessels evolved through the 1930s from small vessels, relying almost entirely on torpedoes, to what were effectively small destroyers with mines, torpedoes and guns. Two classes of fleet torpedo boats were planned, but not built, in the 1940s.


Miscellaneous

Minelayers, Minesweepers, Gunboats, E-boats and Watchboats. A minelayer is a naval ship used for deploying sea mines. ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... A gunboat is literally a boat carrying one or more guns. ... E-boat is the British and American name for the German Schnellboot (S-boot), a small, fast torpedo boat a little larger than the American PT boat and the British MTB. Specification Length - 34. ...


Submarines (U-boat)

At the outbreak of war, the Kriegsmarine had a relatively small fleet of submarines - 57. This was increased, particularly after Hitler lost patience with the large surface ships. It is arguable that, had more resources been put more into U-boats earlier, then Britain would not have been able to defend its convoys quickly enough to avoid defeat. In fact after a year of war, production of new ships had only kept up with losses. U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ...


The principal types were the Type IX, a long range type used in the western and southern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; and the Type VII, the most numerous type, used principally in the north Atlantic. Type X was a small class of mine-layers and Type XIV was a specialised type used to support distant U-boat operations - the "Milchkuh" (Milkcow). The Type IX U-boat was designed by Germany in 1935 and 1936 as a large ocean-going submarine for sustained operations far from the home support facilities. ... Type VII U-boats were the workhorses of the German World War II U-boot-waffe that was based on a E-2 type, developed by Deschimag company for the Soviet Navy (produced in USSR as IX series). ... Type X (XB) U-boats were a special type of German submarine (U-boat). ... -1...


Types XXI and XXIII, the "Elektroboot", would have negated much of the Allied anti-submarine tactics and technology, but they were never deployed in sufficient numbers. Post-war, they became the prototypes for modern submarines, in particular, the Soviet W-class. Type XXI U-boat U 3008, postwar photo Type XXI U-boats, also known as the Elektroboote, were the first submarines designed to operate entirely submerged, rather than as surface ships that could submerge as a temporary means to escape detection or launch an attack. ... German Type XXIII submarines were designed to operate in the shallows of the North Sea, Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea where larger Type XXI Elektro boats were at risk in World War II. They were so small they could carry only two torpedoes, which had to be loaded externally. ...


During World War II, about 60% of all U-boats commissioned were lost in action; 28,000 of the 40,000 U-boat crewmen were killed during the war and 8,000 were captured. The remaining U-boats were either surrendered to the Allies or scuttled by their own crews at the end of the war.

Top 10 U-Boat Aces in World War II
266,629 tons (44 ships sunk)     Otto Kretschmer
225,712 tons (43 ships) Wolfgang Luth
193,684 tons (34 ships) Erich Topp
186,064 tons (29 ships) Karl-Friedrich Merten
171,164 tons (34 ships) Victor Schütze
171,122 tons (26 ships) Herbert Schultze
167,601 tons (28 ships) Georg Lassen
166,596 tons (22 ships) Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock
162,333 tons (30 ships) Heinrich Liebe
160,939 tons (28 ships), plus the British battleship Royal Oak inside Scapa Flow Günther Prien

Wolfgang Lüth One of Nazi-Germanys greatest U-Boat aces, Wolfgang Lüth was the youngest German ever appointed Captain, and the youngest to ever command the German Naval Academy. ... Erich Topp (b. ... Karl-Friedrich Merten Karl-Friedrich Merten was born in Posen on the 15th August 1905. ... Victor Schütze Victor Schütze was a U-boat ace, sinking a total of 35 allied ships during the Second World War. ... Herbert Schultze Born July 24th, 1909 in the town of Kiel, Herbert Schultze was commander of the U-48. ... Georg Lassen Georg Lassen was a Watchkeeping Officer on U-29 at the outbreak of World War II, later the skipper of the U-60, and winner of the Iron Cross. ... Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock, the Das Boot captain Heinrich Lehmann-Willenbrock (December 11th, 1911 – April 18th, 1986) was a German naval officer, and a submarine commander during WWII. He was among the top ten Aces of the Deep during the Second Battle of the Atlantic against the Allies, in terms of... Heinrich Liebe Fregattenkapitän Heinrich Liebe, born Jan. ... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, sunk early in World War II. She was laid down at Devonport on 15 January 1914 and launched on 17 November of that year. ... Aerial Photo of Scapa Flow Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray, South Ronaldsay and Hoy. ... Prien, Hitler and Ernst Schmidt Korvettenkapitän Günther Prien (January 16, 1908 - March 7, 1941) was one of the ten outstanding U-boat aces of the first part of the Second World War, and the first U-boat commander to win the Knights Cross. ...

Captured ships

The military campaigns in Europe yielded a number of captured vessels, many of which were under construction. Nations represented included Soviet Union, Norway, the Netherlands, France, Italy (after the armistice), Yugoslavia and Greece. Few of the incomplete ships were actually commissioned; they were abandoned, wrecked or broken up.


Capital ships sunk by the Kriegsmarine

Battleships
Ship Date Description
HMS Royal Oak (UK) October 14, 1939 torpedoed at anchor by submarine U-47
HMS Hood (UK) May 24, 1941 sunk by the battleship Bismarck
HMS Barham (UK) November 25, 1941 torpedoed by submarine U-331

source: [7] The capital ships of a navy are its important warships; the ones with the heaviest firepower and armor. ... HMS Royal Oak was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, sunk early in World War II. She was laid down at Devonport on 15 January 1914 and launched on 17 November of that year. ... This article refers to the 1918 battlecruiser. ... The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ... HMS Barham was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship of the Royal Navy named after Admiral Charles Middleton, 1st Baron Barham, built at the John Brown shipyards in Clydebank, and launched in 1914. ...

Carriers
Ship Date Description
HMS Courageous (UK) September 17, 1939 torpedoed by submarine U-29
HMS Glorious (UK) June 8, 1940 sunk by battlecruisers Gneisenau and Scharnhorst
HMS Ark Royal (UK) November 14, 1941 torpedoed by submarine U-81
HMS Audacity (UK) December 21, 1941 torpedoed by submarine U-751
HMS Eagle (UK) August 11, 1942 torpedoed by submarine U-73
HMS Avenger (UK) November 15, 1942 torpedoed by submarine U-155
USS Block Island (US) May 29, 1944 torpedoed by submarine U-549

source: [8] HMS Courageous was a warship of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Glorious was a warship of the Royal Navy. ... Gneisenau was a 31,100 ton Scharnhorst class battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine. ... Scharnhorst was a 31,500 tonne Gneisenau class battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine, named after the Prussian general and army reformer Gerhard von Scharnhorst and to commemorate the World War I armored cruiser SMS Scharnhorst. ... HMS Ark Royal (91), was the third ship of the Royal Navy to carry the name and the second to be an aircraft carrier. ... Originally a German Banana boat named Hanover and captured by the Royal Navy during 1939/40, HMS Audacity was the very first escort carrier. ... HMS Eagle was an aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy sunk during World War II. The Eagle was laid down at the Armstrong yards at Newcastle-on-Tyne on February 20, 1913. ... HMS Avenger (D 14) was an escort aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy during World War II. Avenger was one of four motorships laid down under Maritime Commission contract (Hull Sun-59), by the Sun Shipbuilding and Drydock Company at Chester, Pennsylvania, and launched on 27 November 1940. ... The second USS Block Island (CVE-21) (previously AVG-21 then later ACV-21) was launched 6 June 1942 by Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corp. ...


Comparative Ranks (during WWII)

Kriegsmarine US Navy/Royal Navy
Großadmiral Fleet Admiral/Admiral of the Fleet
Generaladmiral Admiral
Admiral Vice Admiral
Vizeadmiral Rear Admiral (Upper Half)
Konteradmiral Rear Admiral (Lower Half)
Kommodore Commodore
Kapitän zur See Captain
Fregattenkapitän Commander
Korvettenkapitän Lieutenant Commander
Kapitänleutnant Lieutenant
Oberleutnant zur See Lieutenant (Jg.); Sub-Lieutenant
Leutnant zur See Ensign/ --
Oberfähnrich zur See Midshipman (Senior)
Fähnrich zur See Cadet/Midshipman (Junior)

The rank of Grand Admiral has also appeared in science fiction literature, most notable the Star Wars Expanded Universe where the rank is held by Grand Admiral Thrawn. ... A Fleet Admiral in the United States Navy is an Admiral considered the equivalent of the United States Armys General of the Army. ... Admiral of the Fleet is a supreme naval position that has existed in historical navies and still exists in several modern-day navies. ... In the German Kriegsmarine, of the Second World War, General Admiral was a rank considered senior to a full Admiral, but junior to a Grand Admiral. ... Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. ... Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... Vice Admiral is a naval rank of three star level, equivalent to Lieutenant General in seniority. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and is most directly associated with the British Royal Navy. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... The military rank of commodore is used in some navies for officers who command more than one ship, but are not senior enough to be made admirals. ... Commodore is a military rank used in some navies for officers whose position exceeds that of a Captain, but is less than that of a Flag Officer. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Captain is a nautical term, an organizational title, and a rank in various uniformed organizations. ... The following table shows comparative officer ranks of the principle Allied and Central powers during World War I. For modern ranks refer to Comparative military ranks. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... Korvettenkapitän (corvette captain) is a rank in the German Navy that is equivalent to a Lieutenant Commander in the U.S. Navy or Royal Navy. ... In the Royal Navy, United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, a lieutenant commander (lieutenant-commander or Lt Cdr in the RN) is a commissioned officer superior to a lieutenant and inferior to a commander. ... Kapitänleutnant is the third lowest officers rank in the German Navy. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... Oberleutnant is a rank of the German military which dates from the early 19th century. ... A Lieutenant, Junior Grade, is a division officer in the United States Navy. ... A Lieutenant, Junior Grade, is a division officer in the United States Navy. ... Ensign is a junior rank of commissioned officer in the militaries of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. ... A midshipman is a subordinate officer, or alternatively a commissioned officer of the lowest rank, in the navies of several English-speaking countries. ... Fähnrich (officer candidate) is a German and Austrian military rank in armed forces which has no direct comparison in the English speaking world (though the French Army has a similar position called an Aspirant). ... A cadet is a future officer in the military. ... A midshipman is a subordinate officer, or alternatively a commissioned officer of the lowest rank, in the navies of several English-speaking countries. ...

Uniforms

Many different types of uniforms were worn by the Kriegsmarine, here is a list of the main ones:

German English
Dienstanzug Service Suit
kleiner Dienstanzug Small Service Suit
Ausgehanzug Suit for Walking Out
Sportanzug Sports Suit
Tropen-und Sommeranzug Tropical and Summer Suit
große Uniform Parade Uniform
kleiner Gesellschaftsanzug Small Party Suit
großer Gesellschaftsanzug Parade Party Suit

References

    See also

    Alwin-Broder Albrecht (? - 1945?), was a German military officer. ... Erich Raeder. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of ships of the German navies. ...

    External links


    2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini era. ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

     v  d  e 
    German naval ship classes of World War II
    Battleships Battlecruisers
    Bismarck Gneisenau
    pre-dreadnought battleships Aircraft carrier
    Deutschland Graf Zeppelin
    Light cruisers Heavy cruisers
    Emden | K | Leipzig Deutschland | Admiral Hipper
    Destroyers
    Type: 1934 | 1934A | 1936 | 1936A / 1936A (Mob) / Narvik | 1936B
    Torpedo boats
    Type: 1923 (Raubvogel) | 1924 {Raubtier) | 1935 | 1937 | 1939 (Elbing)
    U-boats (submarines)
    Type: I | II | VII | IX | X | XIV | XXI | XXII | XXIII
    Other
    Auxiliary cruisers

      Results from FactBites:
     
    History (314 words)
    In the years before the war, the Kriegsmarine believed that any military confrontation in the near future would not be against Great Britain again, Poland and France were seen as possible enemies and the naval construction was directed to with this possible enemies in mind.
    In the early years, the Kriegsmarine archived some remarkable results, like the invasion of Norway and the destruction of several major British ships, but this lucky time ended with the sinking of the battleship Bismarck in May 1941.
    At the end of the war, only two of the major Kriegsmarine ships were still operational, all other were sunk, either during their operations or destroyed during the last months and weeks of the war in their bases.
    the kriegsmarine (844 words)
    One of the most famous German posters of the war, the recruitment advertisement for the newly-formed Kriegsmarine.
    On 21 May 1935, the Reichsmarine was renamed the Kriegsmarine, with research and development cranked up to new levels.
    The British ambivalence towards German rearmament was confirmed not long afterwards when the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 18 June 1935 was signed, with Britain "allowing" Germany to re-equip its Navy, albeit up to a strength thirty-five percent of that of the Royal Navy, at the time the most powerful seaborne force in the world.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

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