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Encyclopedia > Krak des Chevaliers

Coordinates: 34°45′25″N, 36°17′40″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Crac des Chevaliers and
Qal’at Salah El-Din
*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Krak des Chevaliers
State Party Flag of Syria Syria
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv
Reference 1229
Region Arab States
Inscription History
Inscription 2006  (30th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Krak des Chevaliers, also transliterated Crac des Chevaliers, is a Crusader fortress in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval military architectures in the world. In Arabic, the fortress is called Qal'at al-Ḥiṣn (Arabic: قلعة الحصن), the word Krak coming from the Syriac karak, meaning fortress. It is located 65 km west of the city of Homs, close to the border of Lebanon, and is administratively part of the Homs Governorate. The Citadel of Salah Ed-Din (once known as Saone, also known as Saladdin Castle) is a castle in Syria. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Arab world. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... “Arabic” redirects here. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Homs (Arabic: , transliteration: ) is a western city in Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. ... Location of the Homs Governorate Homs Governorate (Arabic: مُحافظة حمص) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria. ...


Krak des Chevaliers was the headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller during the Crusades. It was expanded between 1150 and 1250 and eventually housed a garrison of 2,000. The inner curtain wall is up to 100 feet thick at the base on the south side,[1] with seven guard towers 30 feet in diameter.[2] Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080... This article is about the medieval crusades. ...


King Edward I of England, while on the Ninth Crusade in 1272, saw the fortress and used it as an example for his own castles in England and Wales. The fortress was described as “perhaps the best preserved and most wholly admirable castle in the world” by T.E. Lawrence.[2][3] This fortress was made a World Heritage Site, along with Qal’at Salah El-Din, in 2006[4] and is owned by the Syrian government. The fortress is one of the few sites where Crusader art (in the form of frescoes) has been preserved. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... Thomas Edward Lawrence (August 16, 1888 – May 19, 1935), also known as Lawrence of Arabia, and (apparently, among his Arab allies) Aurens or El Aurens, became famous for his role as a British liaison officer during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Citadel of Salah Ed-Din (once known as Saone, also known as Saladdin Castle) is a castle in Syria. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Location

The castle is located east of Tripoli, Lebanon in the Homs Gap, atop a 650-meter-high hill along the only route from Antioch to Beirut and the Mediterranean Sea. It is one of many fortresses that were part of a defensive network along the border of the old Crusader states. The fortress controlled the road to the Mediterranean, and from this base, the Hospitallers could exert some influence over Lake Homs to the east to control the fishing industry and watch for Muslim armies gathering in Syria. For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... Homs (also Himş, Arabic, حمص, population 700,000) is an ancient city in Syria, dating back to 2300 B.C.. In Roman times it was known as Emesa. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Crusader states, c. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


Ancient history

The Middle East was always a meeting place for many different civilizations, notably the Babylonians, Egyptians, Hittites, Hebrews, Romans, Persians, Byzantines, Arabs, Kurds, Ottomans, Seljuk Turks, and Franks. Such a vast array of different cultures led to the creation of the unique architecture preserved in the Krak des Chevaliers. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ...


Many conflicts were fought out between different nations in the general area surrounding the Crac, including the famous Battle of Kadesh. The Romans, and then the Byzantine Empire following the East-West Schism, constructed many different fortresses of Hellenic design to resist Persian military pressure in that area, which led to the architectural design used by the Islamic armies after their conquest of the area from 634 to 639. . This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or of a poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... Hellenic may refer to: the Hellenic Republic (the modern Greek state) the Hellenes, itself a term for either ancient or modern Greeks anything related to Greece in general or Ancient Greece in particular. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ...


Islamic conquest

Under the rule of the Umayyad dynasty, builders took advantage of the previous Byzantine structures and their barrage and aqueduct of the Orontes River to turn them into magnificient palaces with gardens in the middle of the desert. Construction continued under the new rule of the Abbasid empire in 750, although it steadily declined under army control, as the primarily Turkish forces did not make as much use of the fortifications. The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Orontes and the norias of Hama The Orontes or ‘Asi is a river of Lebanon and Syria. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM...


Crusades

Gothic cloister by the fortress yard
Gothic cloister by the fortress yard

The original fortress at the location had been built in 1031 for the emir of Aleppo. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1365x2048, 320 KB) en: Gothic cloister by the fortress yard fr: Dans la cours du Krak des Chevaliers une voûte gothique (Photo prise en aout 1980) de: gothisches Kloster innerhalb der Krak des Chevaliers es: Claustro gótico junto al... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1365x2048, 320 KB) en: Gothic cloister by the fortress yard fr: Dans la cours du Krak des Chevaliers une voûte gothique (Photo prise en aout 1980) de: gothisches Kloster innerhalb der Krak des Chevaliers es: Claustro gótico junto al... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: , ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ...


During the First Crusade in 1099, it was captured by Raymond IV of Toulouse, but then abandoned when the Crusaders continued their march towards Jerusalem. It was reoccupied again by Tancred, Prince of Galilee, in 1110. In 1144, it was given by Raymond II, count of Tripoli, to the Hospitallers, contemporaries of the Knights Templar. Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of destroying the peaceful Islamic civilizations and confirming the barbaric nature of European society. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Tancred (1072 - 1112) was a leader of the First Crusade, and later became regent of the Principality of Antioch and Prince of Galilee. ... Events December 4 - First Crusade: The Crusaders conquer Sidon. ... Raymond II of Tripoli (c. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ...


The Hospitallers rebuilt it and expanded it into the largest Crusader fortress in the Holy Land, adding an outer wall three meters thick with seven guard towers eight to ten meters thick, to create a concentric castle. The Grand Master of the Hospitallers lived in one of the towers, and the fortress may have held about 50-60 Hospitallers plus up to 2,000 other foot soldiers. In the 12th century, the fortress had a moat covered by a drawbridge, leading to postern gates. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Krak des Chevaliers: a concentric castle A concentric castle (or multiple castle) is a castle within a castle, with two or more concentric rings of curtain walls and no central keep. ... Drawbridge at the fort of Ponta da Bandeira; Lagos, Portugal A drawbridge is a type of movable bridge typically associated with the entrance of a castle, but the term is often used to describe all different types of movable bridges, like bascule bridges and lift bridges. ... Postern, Manila. ...


Between the inner and outer gates was a courtyard, leading to the inner buildings, which were rebuilt by the Hospitallers in a Gothic style. These buildings included a meeting hall, a chapel, a 120-meter-long storage facility, and two vaulted, stone stables which could have held up to a thousand horses. Other storage facilities were dug into the cliff below the fortress, and it is estimated that the Hospitallers could have withstood a siege for five years. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Interior of San Zanipolo, Venice, photo Giovanni dallOrto. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ...


In 1163, the fortress was unsuccessfully besieged by Nur ad-Din, after which the Hospitallers became an essentially independent force on the Tripolitanian frontier. By 1170, the Hospitallers' modifications were complete. In the late 12th and early 13th century numerous earthquakes caused some damage and required further rebuilding. al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ...


Another failed siege was made by Saladin in 1188, during which the castellan was captured and taken by Saladin's men to the castle gates where he was told to order the gates opened. He reportedly spoke a dual message, first telling his men in Arabic, the language of his captors, to surrender the castle, but then in French telling them to hold the castle to the last man. Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: , Turkish: ) (c. ... Saladin unsuccessfully besieges the Hospitaller fortress of Krak des Chevaliers in modern Syria. ... A castellan was the governor or caretaker of a castle or keep. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: , Turkish: ) (c. ...


In 1217, during the Fifth Crusade, the Hungarian king Andrew II strengthened the outer walls and financed the guarding troops. Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt. ... Andrew II of Hungary with queen Gertrude von Andechs-Meranien Andrew II (Hungarian: András or Endre, Slovak: Ondrej, Croatian: ) (c. ...


In 1271, the fortress was recaptured by Baibars on April 8, after he had tricked the Hospitallers into believing the count of Tripoli had instructed them to surrender. Baibars refortified it and used it as a base against Tripoli. He also converted the Hospitaller chapel to a mosque. al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


The Mameluks later used it to attack Acre in 1291. An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ...

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Krak des Chevaliers

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Notes

  1. ^ http://travel.howstuffworks.com/krak-des-chevaliers-landmark.htm
  2. ^ a b Knights Templar: Lost Worlds, July 10, 2006 video documentary on The History Channel.
  3. ^ http://www.sacred-destinations.com/syria/krak-des-chevaliers.htm
  4. ^ UNESCO list

  Results from FactBites:
 
Freefire Zone Forums - Krak des Chevaliers (1492 words)
Krak des Chevaliers-Craig of the Knights-a fortress of astonishing strength, with towering defenses and walls dozens of feet deep thick-yielded at last in 1271...to a humble pigeon.
The castle was built by the Crusaders on a spur in the Syrian Dessert for the strategic purpose of guarding the road between the Muslim city of Homs and the Christian city of Tripoli at the eastern end of the Mediterranean.
Krak was the last defense in his way to total domination of what had been the Crusaders' kingdom.
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